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Table of Content

    25 December 2007, Volume 22 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    The Decomposition of Energy Consumption Growth in China:Based on Input-output Model
    LIANG Jin-she, ZHENG Wei, CAI Jian-ming
    2007, 22 (6):  853-864.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (775KB) ( )   Save
    China is facing a huge energy consumption growth in its rapid industrialization and urbanization process.So it is important to identify energy consumption links for good policy-making.The paper uses input-output table to decompose the energy consumption growth in China from 1990 to 2002.The energy consumption growth is decomposed into three parts:technological effect,intermediate demand effect and final demand effect.The result indicates that the technological effect is the key factor for energy consumption decrease,and it is more obvious in 1997-2002 than in 1990-1995.The differences of the technological advancement on the aspect of energy consumption among industries are obviously reflected in the intermediate demand effect.The intermediate demand effect is negative correlated with technological effect.So it seems necessary to put technological advancement into effect in every industry,especially industries which are sensitive to the adjustment of intermediate demand.Industries that consume much energy or increase demand quickly should strengthen technological advancement.Final demand effect has close relationship with international trade structure,so it is necessary to consider value added and energy consumption per product simultaneously.
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    Research on the Bioremediation of Oil Sludge
    BAO Mu-tai, WANG Bing, LI Xi-ming, GUO Sheng-xue
    2007, 22 (6):  865-871.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (198KB) ( )   Save
    The component of oil sludge is very complex;it is a problem for oil fields to dispose because oil sludge is a mixture of hydrocarbon,sediment,heavy metal and water which do harm to natural environment and our health.Nowadays,the methods to dispose it mainly include:physical and chemical method,bioremediation and overall utilization.Owing to it's superiority of low costs of energy and fund cost to other methods,bioremediation has become one of the processing methods with great development potential.This article is mainly about the damage of oil sludge,how to dispose it,the characteristics of all kinds of methods,the affecting factor,mainly,the four kinds of bioremediation with their status quo in research and application.
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    Application of Scale Transformation based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to Water Right Allocation in Ningxia Irrigated Area
    LI Gang-jun, LI Juan, LI Huai-en, JIANG Feng, MA Su-wen
    2007, 22 (6):  872-879.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (316KB) ( )   Save
    With the development of Yellow River irrigation in Ningxia,it is imperative to build a new pattern of water right allocation.In terms of the principles of efficiency,equity and sustainability,index system of initial allocation of water right is presented and hierarchical structure model is developed in this paper.Then with the scale transformation method,the anticlastic "1-9 scale" is transformed to complementary "0.1-0.9 nine scales",which constitutes fuzzy complementary judgment matrix associated with the index system and the matrix is fuzzily and hierarchically analyzed.Furthermore,this paper introduces Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process(FAHP)into initial allocation of water right.Finally,the developed method is applied to water right allocation in Ningxia irrigated area and satisfactory results are obtained.
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    Research Status,Questions and Strategies of Rare Medicinal Plant Rhodiola L.
    WANG Qiang, RUAN Xiao, LI He-di, WANG Guo-jun
    2007, 22 (6):  880-889.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (354KB) ( )   Save
    Rhodiola L.which contains more than 90 species grows quite widespread all over the mountainous areas of northern hemisphere,of which 73 species are found in China.The roots of Rhodiola L.,one of the important traditional Chinese herbal medicines,possess the effects of anti-viral,anti-tumor,anti-aging,anti-oxygen deficiency,anti-fatigue,anti-radiation and other pharmacological properties.This paper sums up the update results of chemical composition and pharmacological properties of this plant,analyses the problems in the process of utilization,and discusses the strategies to solve the problems. Over 30 species of Rhodiola L.have been researched and pre-tested.There are 9 kinds and more than 60 new chemical compounds being separated and identified from them.Three problems should be solved in the process of utilization of these plant resources.The first one is the conflict between the scale exploitation and protection of ecological environment;the second is the endangered state of the plant resulted from the characteristics of reproductive ecology and human disturbance;the last is lack of the germ plasm resources evaluation system of the plant and of environmental synthesized mechanism of major pharmacological composition.Meanwhile,according to these questions,the authors think that it should build the germ plasm resources stocks of Rhodiola L.at national level,to screen and evaluate the value of different Rhodiola L.species using the core quality characteristic indicators,to research the law of producing and accumulating of the major secondary metabolites in culture,and to create the technological criterion of scale exploitation.
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    The Research on the Dried Layer and the Moisture Restoration of the Soils in the Planted Forests in Xi'an Area
    ZHAO Jing-bo, WANG Chang-yan, YUE Ying-li, DU Juan
    2007, 22 (6):  890-895.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (196KB) ( )   Save
    For making sure the dried layers of the soils and the moisture restoration after the high flow year in Xi'an area,using drying method the research has been carried out on the moisture content of the soils in the planted forests such as poplar,chinese parasol and chinar.The results indicate that the moisture content of the soils in the poplar,chinese parasol and chinar forestlands at a depth ranging from 1.5 to 4 m are separately 9.3%,9.0%,9.7% and 9.1% before extreme precipitation in the high flow year in Xi'an area.They are all lower than 12%,indicating that the dried soil layer exists under the condition of normal precipitation in Xi'an area.The dried layers develop widely with a thickness of about 2.5m.The soil moisture content from 0 to 6 m in the four planted forests has restored well after extreme precipitation in high flow year and the dried layer from 1.5 to 4 m have disappeared completely.Through about one year infiltration,the depth of the moisture restoration may reach to about 6m.After two years of extreme precipitation,the soil dried layers in the four planted forests still do not appear.According to the consumption of the soil moisture after high flow year,it is preliminarily determined that the dried layers in the planted forests will appear again after three or four years of high flow in Xi'an area on the basis that there is normal precipitation after the high flow year.In Xi'an area the soil dried layers in the four planted forests develop weakly.The weakly-developed dried layers do not affect the normal growth of the planted forest and the four planted forests such as poplar,chinese parasol and chinar grow well in Xi'an area,indicating that in Xi'an area or in other areas of the Loess Plateau with similar precipitation to Xi'an area planting arbor forests is feasible.
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    Study on Tourism Water Supply and Demand System Safety and Dynamic Control in Huangshan Mountain
    WANG Qun, ZHANG Jin-he, YANG Xing-zhu
    2007, 22 (6):  896-906.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (391KB) ( )   Save
    Mountain spot is the important resource carrier of tourism development in China.Due to unique landforms,difficult projective water supply and increasing beds and tourists,the contradiction between water supply and demand is very obvious,which is one of the key factors restricting tourism sustainable development.The representation is Huangshan Mountain.By the method of typical years analysis,this paper lucubrates the contradictions between water supply and demand of each month in subareas of Huangshan scenic spots,and concludes:(1)Generally,water supply is not enough in Huangshan scenic spots.The situation of water scarcity is obvious.Furthermore,the contradictions exist in time,space,plentiful and scarce rainfall periods,etc.(2)The paper forecasts mid-and long-term water supply and demand,and builds dynamic control model of water supply and demand.If typical scarce year is encountered in mid-and long-term periods,first,we should maintain water supply in high mountain,and then start projects to regulate water properly and timely.The important way to improve water supply is to regulate water by means of reservoirs or diversion and withdrawl projects in Huangshan scenic spots.(3)By exerting subjective motility and firstly regulating reservoirs in subareas,the present problem of water supply can be solved.Then,by pumping water to the mountain from Wuliqiao reservoir,the mid-term problem can be solved.By building Diaoqiao reservoir and connecting all water supply systems,the long-term water supply and demand can be balanced.(4)In future,environmental protection will become one of the main methods to solve the contradiction of water demand and supply,such as reducing standards of water demand,improving level of wastewater disposing,adopting wastewater reuse technique and introducing efficient water equipment and so on.
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    Intensity Change in Cultivated Land Use in China and Its Policy Implications
    ZHU Hui-yi, LI Xiu-bin, XIN Liang-jie
    2007, 22 (6):  907-915.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (316KB) ( )   Save
    The area of cultivated land in China decreased from 35×104ha/yr(1980-1996) to 98×104ha/yr(1997-2005),resulted from rapid economic development following the 1978 reforms.In response to the growing demand of society for grain products,intensification has become the overwhelming choice in cultivated land use.But this choice came into conflict with farmers' pursuance in recent years,as the grain production is declining in importance for farmers with market economic improvement.Has the cultivated land use been intensive or extensive in the conflict between social interests and individual interest.How to release the conflict if extensive trend exists. The intensity changes in cultivated land use were discussed firstly on country scale.Increase of multi-cropping index(MCI) during 1952-2005 implied the intensification in cultivated land use in this period.But the sown area of grain decreased from 113787000hm2 in 1998 to 99410000ha in 2003 and 104278000ha in 2005.Meanwhile,the grain yield per unit-sown area had a reduction from 4502kg/ha in 1998 to 4332kg/ha in 2003,and then went up to 4642kg/ha in 2005.The downward trend of grain sown area and grain yield per sown-unit area during 1998-2003,revealed input reduction of cultivated land,expense and labor in grain production.The rise in 2004-2005 can be ascribed to the implement of new agriculture policy.Those facts mean that lower incentive for raising cultivated land use intensity already threatens grain production in China. On regional scale,the intensity in cultivated land use varied across provinces.MCI decreased in regional disparity in Beijing,Shanghai,Tianjin,Zhejiang,Fujian,Jiangxi,Hubei and Guangdong during 1996-2003.Furthermore,these provinces reduced their grain sown area synchronously.Other provinces that reduced their grain sown area included Hebei,Shanxi,Inner Mongolia,Liaoning,Jiangsu,Shangdong,Henan,Hunan,Guangxi,Hainan,Sichuan,Shaanxi,Gansu,Qinghai,and Xinjiang.Except for input reduction of cultivated land in grain production,input of labor and expense declined in some of the above regions till 2005. Farmer's pursuance change is at the root of the intensity change in cultivated land use.It had turned from maximizing the output of land to maximizing the income of labor force with the development of market economy.In order to achieve the goal of national food security,relevant policies and measures should be further taken to alleviate the conflict between the nation's goal and farmers' goal of maximizing their interests.These policies and measures should speed up the flow of cultivated land between farmers and encourage farmers to extend their farm scale with higher technological level.
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    Characteristics and the Maximum Intensity Estimate of Tropical Cyclones Impacting on Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant Area
    ZHOU Xiao-shan, YANG Sen, YANG Yang, CHEN Jia-yi
    2007, 22 (6):  916-923.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (423KB) ( )   Save
    The Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is located in Liaodong Bay,northern China,which is often invaded and impacted by tropical cyclones.Observations and statistics show that the tropical cyclones landing in Liaoning can't be ignored because their strength can reach to ty phoon level.The tropical cyclones impacting on Hongyanhe mostly occur in July and August.The tropical cyclone which has a route like moving to north-west after entering the Bohai Sea or north across the Shandong Peninsula landing in the Liaodong Peninsula has the strongest impact on Hongyanhe area.The maximum wind speed of tropical cyclone impacting Hongyanhe achieves 25-33m/s and the extreme velocity reaches above 40m/s in the past 56 years since 1949.Using theory of probability and gradient wind formula to design Hongyanhe nuclear power plant area,the possibly maximum intensity parameters of tropical cyclone are: the minimum pressure at 961 hPa and the maximum wind speed at 35.4m/s happening once in a century,the lowest possible pressure at 939hPa,the maximum wind speed at 42.2m/s and the extreme wind speed at 54.9m/s happening once in a millennium.
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    Analysis of Ecological Water Supply Benefits in the Estuary District of the Yellow River
    WANG Hong-rui, DONG Yan-yan, WANG Jun-hong, PENG Xiao-ming, HAN Lu-jie
    2007, 22 (6):  924-935.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (453KB) ( )   Save
    Watershed ecological water demand is the water quantity that the watershed ecosystem needs to maintain the health of ecosystem and to guarantee the ecological structure and ecological function.The research about watershed ecological water demand is important for the sustainable economic and social development.In the paper,ecological water demand and ecological benefits are calculated,analyzed and compared,especially the ecological benefits reduced by decreasing dry-off.Also the three themes are compared and analyzed.The results can provide some reference for making water allotment of the first phase of western line project of south-to-north water transfer.It is concluded that the integrated ecological benefits of 34.85 hundred million yuan will be brought with incoming water of 55×108m3,the integrated ecological benefits of 47.18 hundred million yuan will be brought with incoming water of 122.8×108m3,the integrated ecological benefits of 54.72 hundred million yuan will be brought with incoming water of 240×108m3.
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    Distribution Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon and Microbial Biomass Carbon on the Loess Plateau
    DANG Ya-ai, LI Shi-qing, WANG Guo-dong, SHAO Ming-an
    2007, 22 (6):  936-945.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (263KB) ( )   Save
    The soil organic carbon(SOC),soil microbial biomass carbon(Mc) and their relationship of the following soils on the Loess Plateau i.e.,Ust-Sandiic Entisols(Shenmu),Los-Orthic-Entisol(Yan'an) and Eum-Orthic Anthrosol(Yangling) were investigated to assess the impacts of location and soil depth(0-200cm) on the contents and to cumulate the first dates to comprehend the soil C on the Loess Plateau.The result showed that the contents of SOC and Mc were different under different soil types and soil depth.In the same location,the contents of SOC and Mc in the profiles decreased remarkably within 0-60cm,decreased slightly within 60-120cm and remained low and stable under 120cm.From south to north on the Loess Plateau,the contents of SOC,Mc and soil organic carbon storage decreased significantly.Within 0-200cm soil depth,the soil organic carbon storage is 102.23±30.12t/hm2,67.78±9.23t/hm2 and 27.07±4.15t/hm2 in Eum-Orthic Anthrosol,Los-Orthic-Entisol and Ust-Sandiic Entisols respectively.The soil organic carbon storage in 100-200cm of the above three types of soil were 65%,74% and 58% of carbon storage in 0-100cm respectively.Soil organic carbon storage in soil depth was important to assess the storage of organic carbon on the Loess Plateau.Mc was significantly related with SOC(P<0.01).The range of Mc/SOC ratio was 0.005-0.05.Though the use of land was closely related with the contents of SOC and soil C/N in Ust-Sandiic Entisols and Eum-Orthic Anthrosol,there was close relationship with the contents of Mc and Mc/SOC(P>0.05) in the three types of soil.The contents of Mc and Mc/SOC in grassland soil increased slightly compared with that of farmland.
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    Distribution of Soil Properties as Affected by Landforms in Small Watershed of Loessial Gully Region
    WEI Xiao-rong, SHAO Ming-an
    2007, 22 (6):  946-953.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (363KB) ( )   Save
    Landform is the most important environmental factor influencing soil properties of the Loess Plateau.The well understanding of the effects of landforms on the distribution of soil properties is an important prerequisite for the estimation of soil quality of the Loess Plateau.This study was therefore conducted in a small watershed of the loessial gully region to reveal the profile distribution of soil properties as affected by landforms.Soil samples distributed into various landforms were collected and soil properties were determined.The results showed that nitrate,available phosphorus,alk-phosphatase and invertase are highly varied properties while soil pH and catalase are lowly varied properties in the study area.Soils of plateau land and gully bottom were characterized by the lower pH and catalase activity but higher cation exchange capacity.The contents of organic matter,total nitrogen,total and available phosphorus and the activities of alk-phosphatase and invertase were decreased gradually with the increase of soil depth in profile.Besides,these properties followed the order of plateau land>terrace land>slopping land>gully bottom.Changes in soil pH at different landforms were caused by the soil-forming processes and the accumulation of nitrate in soils.The differences of soil cation exchange capacity with landforms were derived from the differences in soil formation,soil pH and organic matter.The variance of soil nutrients was led by the landuse conditions corresponded to landforms,while that of enzymatic activities was led by landform induced changes of soil organic matter.
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    Study on Groundwater Carrying Capacity for Data-Deficiency Region
    LI Xun-gui, WEI Xia, SHEN Bing, LU Yu-dong
    2007, 22 (6):  954-962.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (230KB) ( )   Save
    It is impossible to use traditional techniques to study water resources carrying capacity in a data-deficiency region where water resources have been over loaded severely.This study takes the groundwater carrying capacity of Barun irrigated district in oasis of 2010 and 2015 in Alashan,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as an object of investigation.Based on the analyses of the limited data,with the help of a nonlinear regression analysis method,a new evaluation criterion was presented and an analytic model of groundwater carrying capacity was built according to the law of water supply and demand balance.A method of Lagrange multiplier rule was applied to solve the analytic model.Results demonstrate that the analytic model has the ability of analyzing and evaluating the groundwater carrying capacity for data-deficiency region where excessive exploitation of water resources has taken place.The results can offer new references for similar researches on water resources carrying capacity in other data-deficiency regions.
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    The Fractal Development of Spatial Distribution of Tourism Scenic Spot System——A Case Study of Sichuan Province
    YANG Guo-liang, YOU Yong, LI Hai-yan
    2007, 22 (6):  963-973.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (311KB) ( )   Save
    By borrowing Mandelbrot's fractal theory,Chen Yanguang and Liu Jisheng introduced a new method,grid dimension measures,to study urban system fractal property.Using this method,this paper carried out a case study of Sichuan province by substituting the urban sites by tourism scenic spots,and got the capacity and information fitting equation of non-scaling section in the periods of before 1980,1981-1990,1991-2000,and 1990 and 2006.On this basis,it analyzed the spatial fractal property and its varying laws in different periods,then checked it by the size-structure pattern variation of tourist flow,and finally made the following conclusions. The fractal structure is formed during gradual evolution.In Sichuan province,the capacity and information dimension of non-scaling section of tourism scenic spot system varies little in different periods,but the values increase gradually between 1-2,indicating a more and more balanced distribution of tourism scenic spots in each district.In 1980,the capacity dimension and information entropy graph was partly linear fitting,but the information dimension is bigger than capacity dimension,suggesting a non-developed fractal in this period.After 1990,the fitting line slope was between 1-2 on the ln-ln graph,with the appearance of non-scaling section,and capacity dimension bigger than information dimension,indicating the formation of a fractal structure.Gradual increase of capacity dimension and information dimension reflects the spatial distribution variation of tourism scenic spots—from cumulated to relatively balanced distribution in the province. The fractal development of spatial distribution is generally uniform with the fractal evolution of tourist flow size,but the detailed process is not simultaneous.For example,in Sichuan province,though the size structure of domestic tourist flow satisfies the Zipf laws and possesses fractal features,the spatial distribution of tourist flow size transformed from Pareto pattern before 1999 to logarithmic normal pattern in 2000-2001,then restored as Pareto pattern.The fractal evolution speed of spatial distribution pattern is more rapid than that of fractal development of tourism scenic spot system,and leads to slight difference in their evolutionary process. The fractal development of the spatial distribution of tourism scenic spots provides favorable carrier platform for the development of tourism industry,but this does not indicate that size distribution of tourist flow can undoubtedly satisfy the Zipf laws and form ideal fractal structure.The developing quality of tourism scenic spots,market guide and relative factors need to be regulated and controlled.Thus the fractal development of spatial distribution can be supported by tourist flow system and be endowed more substantive connotation.
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    Study on the Variation Law of the Annual Runoff in Hotan River
    ZHANG Xiao-wei, SHEN Bing, HUANG Ling-mei
    2007, 22 (6):  974-979.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (292KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the data of annual runoff of the Hotan River,the impact of climate changes and human activities on the variation law and its genesis were discussed by the wavelet analysis and the R/S analytical method.The result shows that the tendency of the annual runoff is decreasing with persistence to a certaian degree.The analysis of the influencing factors of the annual variation of runoff indicate that the variation of runoff in the mountain pass of the upper reaches is mainly affected by the temperature rise.The variation of runoff in the lower reaches,which afflux the Tarim River,is mainly affected by the human activities except the influence of precipitation decreasing,because of the quickening pace of human exploitation of the water and soil resources.
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    Application of Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm to the Evaluation of Sustainable Utilization of Regional Water Resources
    ZHAO Xiao-li, LI Zuo-yong, DING Jing
    2007, 22 (6):  980-985.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (70KB) ( )   Save
    An index model which is suitable for multi-parameter was proposed for evaluating sustainable utilization of regional water resources.The model can be optimized by the real-coded chaotic quantum-inspired genetic algorithm(RCQGA),and we used the model which has been optimized to evaluate sustainable utilization of regional water resources.Through study and comparison with other evaluation methods for the cases of 12 regions in China,the results showed the practicability and the feasibility of this model.
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    Decision on Gradually Reforesting and Regrassing Some of the Dry Land Based on ARCGIS in Sichuan Province
    YANG Cun-jian, FENG Liang, XU Yu-jian, CHENG Xi, JIA Yue-jiang
    2007, 22 (6):  986-993.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (215KB) ( )   Save
    Decision on gradually reforesting and regrassing some of the dry land based on ARCGIS in Sichuan Province is discussed here,which is very important for the ecological restoration and sustainable development in Sichuan.Five steps are included.Firstly,the database platforms for making decisions are established including land use,soil erosion,DEM,slope,eco-environmental quality,normalization vegetation index(NDVI),precipitation,temperature,vegetation subregion,soil type,administrative district,waterbody buffer and residential area buffer which are created by using ARCGIS.All data are referenced to the same projection and coordination,and interpolated as grid data with a resolution of 100 m.Secondly,the dry land from landuse database is overlain with slope database,soil erosion database,NDVI database,eco-environmental quality database,waterbody buffer data and residential buffer data.Thirdly,the expert knowledge about reforesting and regrassing some of the dry land is collected,and the models for finding a suitable place for being returned back to forestland and grassland are formulated based on ARCGIS by using the knowledge.There are 724495 and 333085 ha of dry land to be gradually converted into forestland and grassland on the basis of the models,which respectively account for 9.3% and 4.3% of the dry land.Fourthly,the suitable place is overlain with precipitation layer and temperature layer to find out the place respectively suitable for trees and grass by the model that is formulated by using the knowledge of forest distribution and ARCGIS.In the first order,there are 702362 and 22133 ha to be respectively converted into forestland and grassland,or 96.9% and 3.1% of the suitable place for firstly being returned back to forestland and grassland.In the second order,there are 331357 and 1728 ha to be respectively converted into forestland and grassland,which respectively account for 99.5% and 0.5% of the suitable place for secondly being returned back to forestland and grassland.Finally,the distributions of the place suitable for trees and the place suitable for grass in administrative district,vegetation subregion and soil type region were obtained by using the overlay and spatial statistic analysis,which are of benefit to the selection of suitable tree and grass species for reforesting and regrassing.The research shows that with this the method considerable manpower,material and financial resources can be used sparingly.The result can not only be presented in table form,but also in graphic form,which is very useful for planning,executing,and managing the program of reforesting and regrassing some of the dry land in Sichuan province.
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    Explanation of Current Land Use Condition Classification for National Standard of the People's Republic of China
    CHEN Bai-ming, ZHOU Xiao-ping
    2007, 22 (6):  994-1003.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (251KB) ( )   Save
    The new land classification system,i.e.,Current Land Use Condition Classification was issued as national standard for the first time on August 10,2007,which indicated the progress of Chinese land use research and the rise of Chinese land management level.China had several land classification systems in the past,such as current land use classification system formulated in 1984,land use classification for Chinese land use map(1:1,000,000),these two systems mainly focus on farmland.There are two other classification systems for urban land,i.e.,China's urban land classification formulated in 1993 by former National Land Management Bureau,China's urban land classification and construction land standard formulated in 1991 by the Ministry of Construction.With the acceleration of urbanization,it is time to establish uniform urban-rural administration.Therefore,the Ministry of Land and Resources modified and merged them into one uniform urban-rural national land classification system,of which the trial began on January 1,2002.Following its implementation,it is necessary to achieve perfection.That's why this national standard was issued.For the better application,this paper completely explains the new Standard.Firstly,the main content of this criterion is introduced.It includes two forms,one is Current Land Use Condition Classification and its code,the other is the comparison between Current Land Use Condition Classification and the three major types,namely,farmland,land for construction and unused land in Law of Land Administration(1998).Comparing the new standard with the latest one,this paper points out the improvement in the new one,and also points out its problems.Finally,this paper puts forward some suggestions for these problems,especially the transition of the new and the latest one,which will benefit the working-out of the detailed rules of the new standard.
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    Stable Isotope Evidence of Vapor Sources in Summer Monsoonal Precipitation over Southern China
    LIU Jian-rong, SONG Xian-fang, YUAN Guo-fu, SUN Xiao-min, LIU Xin, HOU Shi-bin
    2007, 22 (6):  1004-1012.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.018
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    Monsoon plays an important part in the summer precipitation over southern China.Different monsoons carrys different inflow vapors into China and control the temporal and spacial distribution of precipitation.During the period of July,2005,based on the CHNIP stations,which are located in southern China,we collected monthly composite samples.The analysis of the meteorological data and the δ values of the precipitation samples indicate that the distribution characteristics of the stable isotopes of precipitation could properly portray the origin of the summer monsoonal precipitation and its vapor inflow corridors.Furthermore,we discuss the amount effect,altitude effect,temperature effect and the correlation between δ18O and the relative humidity.
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    Relationship between Redlip Croaker(Larimichthys polyactis) Spawning Stock Distribution and Water Masses Dynamics in Northern East China Sea Region
    DING Feng-yuan, LIN Long-shan, LI Jian-sheng, CHENG Jia-hua
    2007, 22 (6):  1013-1019.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (618KB) ( )   Save
    Redlip croaker(Larimichthys polyactis) is the important ocean economic fish in China,which is distributed extensively in East China Sea,Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea,particularly in northern East China Sea region.The distribution of L.polyactis may be affected by water masses.Relationships between L.polyactis spawning stock distribution and water masses dynamics in northern East China Sea region were analyzed with the data about the CPUE of L.polyactis and seawater temperature and seawater salinity in April of 2003 to 2005.The results show that the average CPUE of L.polyactis was 4.72kg/h,3.47kg/h and 1.96kg/h in April 2003 to 2005,respectively.The main distribution area of L.polyactis in April can be divided into four areas:A,the sea area of the offshore southern Yellow Sea along 32°30′-34°00′N and 123°00′-124°00′E;B,the sea area of the boundary of Yellow Sea and East China Sea along 32°00′-32°30′N and 124°30′-126°00′E;C,the sea area of the outer Yangtze along 30°30′-31°00′N and 123°30′-125°00′E;D,the sea area of the central and northern East China Sea along 30°30′-31°00′N and 125°30′-126°30′E.The optimum sea bottom temperature and salinity for L.polyactis in April were 10-14℃ and 32‰-34.3‰.The water masses in the study area include the Northern East China Sea Bottom Cold Water(EC),Yellow Sea Water Mass(Y),Yellow Sea-East China Sea Mixing Water Mass(YE),and East China Sea Mixing Water Mass(E).The force of EC was the strongest in 2003,while the weakest in 2005.The force of Y was the strongest in 2003,while the weakest in 2004.The force of YE was the strongest in 2005,while the weakest in 2003.The force of E was the strongest in 2004,while the weakest in 2003.The L.polyactis in the area C was mainly distributed in the mixed sea area of E and YE,the other three areas were distributed mainly in the mixed sea areas of EC and other water masses.It is concluded primarily that the spawning stock of L.polyactis in spring is mainly distributed in the boundaries of different water masses,especially in the boundary of EC and other water masses.
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    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES (Vol.22 2007)
    2007, 22 (6):  1020-1028.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.06.020
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