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    25 February 2007, Volume 22 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Study on Method of Monitoring Rice Planting Area Based on MODIS Data
    ZHANG Chun-gui, LIN Jing, WU Zhen-hai, PAN Wei-hua
    2007, 22 (1):  1-8.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (76KB) ( )   Save
    Remote sensing technology which is wide-viewed,speediness,low expenses and accurate compared with traditional investigation way is an ideal method for estimation of rice planting area.This paper,taking Fuzhou region which possesses characteristics of a typical hilly area as a demonstration,obtains the rice potential planting area by using land use map,digital elevation data and altitude data firstly,with the help of GIS,and then estimates the leaf area index(LAI)of rice potential planting area by using MODIS remote sensing data. The results of the analysis of the LAI variational curves of three different ground types,i.e.,town,forest and rice field,in Fuzhou district in 2005 indicated that the LAI variational curve of town is no-peak-value model,the LAI variational curve of forest is single-peak-value model,and the LAI variational curve of rice field is double-peak-value model.The characteristics of LAI sequence of the three different ground types are different apparently.This paper analyses the interannual characteristic change of LAI of rice potential planting area in Fuzhou region by using MODIS data during 2001-2005,and the result shows that the LAI based on MODIS data can reflect sensitively the information of rice growth,at the same time,can reflect the pattern that the early and late rice have been planted in Fuzhou region.The course of rice can be judged by using the whole LAI variational curve of rice,and the course of rice that is judged by LAI variational curve in Fuzhou region during 2001-2005 is very close to the data of observation. The estimation model of rice planting area has been established after the best MODIS images have been pciked in the rice growth season,and the subtract images that can reflect the most relative change of LAI in rice potential planting area have been counted.Research result shows that:the relative estimate error of the early and late rice planting area in hilly area using MODIS data is less than 13%,the average value of relative estimate error of the early rice planting area is 9.5%,the average value of relative estimate error of the late rice planting area is 4.1%,and the estimate precision of late rice is better than the early rice.
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    Quantitive Appraisal of Biomass Energy and Its Geographical Distribution in China
    LIU Gang, SHEN Lei
    2007, 22 (1):  9-19.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (982KB) ( )   Save
    By using the existed statistics data,this paper estimated the quantity of biomass energy and analyzed its distribution pattern in China.Conclusions are as follows:(1)Biomass energy is very rich in China,and its geographical distribution and quantity depends mainly on the the relationship between ecological zones and the climate conditions.The total quantity of each biomass resource goes as follows:crop residues7.28×108t,distributed mainly in Henan,Shandong, Heilongjiang,Jilin and Sichuan provincesXdung39.26×108t,distributed mainly in Henan,Shandong, Sichuan,Hebei and Hunan provincesXforest and wood biomass 21.75×108t,distributed mainly in T ibet,Sichuan,Yunnan,Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia provincesXcity rubbish1.55×108t,distributed mainly in Guangdong,Shandong,Heilongjiang,Hubei and Jiangsu provincesXwastewater482.4×108t, distributed mainly in Guangdong,Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Shandong and Henan provinces.(2)The potential quantity of all the biomass energy in China in 2004 is 35.11×108tce,and the acquirable quantity is 4.6×108tce with the top five provinces of Sichuan,Heilongjiang,Yunan,Tibet and Inner Mongolia.The respective proportion of crop residues,firwood and dung in the acquirable quantity is 38.9%,36.0% and 22.14%,respectively.(3)Biomass energy distribution varies from province to province in China.If computed by the rural population,the biomass energy density varies from the biggest 14.17tce per capita in Tibet Autonomous Region to the smallest 0.15tce per capita in Zhejiang province.And the relation between biomass energy proportion and primary energy proportion of each province in China shows great potential to explore biomass energy especially in the region where there is a shortage of primary energy.
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    Effect of Different Vegetation Restoration Models on Soil Microbial Biomass in Eroded Hilly Loess Plateau
    XUE Sha, LIU Guo-bin, DAI Quan-hou, DANG Xiao-hu, ZHOU Ping
    2007, 22 (1):  20-27.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (216KB) ( )   Save
    Vegetations recovery is a key measure to improve eco-environments in the Chinese Loess Plateau.In order to find the effect of soil microbial biomass under different vegetation restoration in this region,six long trial sites located in Zhifanggou Catchment were studied.The results showed that soil microbial biomass,microbial respiration and physiochemical properties increased apparently.After 30 years of de-farming and vegetation recovery,soil microbial biomass C,N,P(SMBC,SMBN,SMBP)and microbial respiration,respectively,increased by 109.01%-144.22%,34.17%-117.09%,31.79%-79.94% and 26.78%-87.59% as compared to the farmland.However metabolic quotient declined dramatically with a percentage decrease of 57.45%-77.49%.Different types of vegetation restoration are differentin improving soil properties.In general,mixed stands of P.tabulaeformis-Amorpha fruticosa and R.pseudoacacia-A.fruticosa had the most remarkable effect,followed by Robinia pseudoacacia and Caragana korshinkii,while fallow land and Pinus tabulaeformis was the smallest.Construction of mixed forest is more effective than that of pure forest in restoring vegetations on the eroded hilly Loess Plateau.The significant relationships were observed between SMBC,SMBP,microbial respiration and physiochemical properties of soil.We think that microbial biomass can be used as indicators of soil quality.
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    Principles and Application of Using Entropy-weight-based Multiple-destination Travel Cost Method to Evaluate the Tourism Value of Recreation Resources:A case study of Wuyishan
    XU Li-zhong, ZHANG Jiang-shan, WANG Fei-feng, Li Guo-ye
    2007, 22 (1):  28-36.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (63KB) ( )   Save
    Travel cost method(TCM) is one of the most practical and effective methods to evaluate the tourism value of recreation resources,and widely existing multiple-destination problem is one of its most difficult and hot issues.Travel cost distribution model and portfolio of site model have been set up now,and the former has become the first choice for its operated more simply and understood easier,such as travel scenic distribution,ticket cost distribution,stayed-overnights distribution,and so on.Among all these ways,how to decrease the subjective in cost distribution turns out to be the point to the question. An entropy-weight-based multiple-destination travel cost method is put forward in this thesis,which takes into consideration comprehensively the tourist consumption,recreation resources element value and recreation resources impact.Tourist consume index includes tourist's stayed-days,stayed-overnights,ticket cost and other soft cost in some scenic;recreation resources element value index consists of its recreational use value,scientific culture value and its precious and rare degree;its famous degree and period suited for travel constitute recreation resources impact index. A case study of the application of entropy-weight-based multiple-destination travel cost method is demonstrated.The evaluation of the Wuyishan tourism value of recreation resources show that:the native tourism benefits of Wuyishan recreation resources in 2002 was 22.301×108 yuan,including consumer cost of 15.407×108 yuan(1 452 yuan per person)and consumer surplus of 6.894×108 yuan(650 yuan per person).The study result which is reasonable compared with the up-to-date review of outdoor and indoor recreation shows that the entropy-weight-based multiple-destination travel cost method is feasible.
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    Eco-gate Flood Model of Tarim River Basin and Its Application——A Case Study of Canmulik
    HUANG Yue, CHEN Xi, QIAN Jing, WANG Wei-sheng, BAO An-ming
    2007, 22 (1):  37-43.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (511KB) ( )   Save
    Because of the exploitation and utilization of water resources,water resources consumption in the river basin has changed mainly from natural ecosystem to artificial oasis ecosystem.The control of human being on the water resources has become more and more important,and the effect of gates,weirs and dams become more significant.Eco-gate flood is a special path in Tarim River basin to control water resource and recover natural vegetation,and the running rules of eco-gates base on water distribution and transportation states in the area.This research chose Canmulik Eco-gate as an example and simulated the processes of water overflow within the field.Data of several aspects was used in the simulation,such as topographical data,land surface attribute data,meteorological data and hydrological data.Then,we calculated quantitative relations of flood volume;flood time and flood area by doing statistical analysis on the results of simulations.The model not only created a method to calculate and analyze the effect of ecological flood,but also simulated flow directions and spatial distribution of the water that poured from the eco-gate,and the results of flood simulation accord with observed data very well.In addition,the equations which reveal the rules of flood process and water distribution in the ecological zone of Canmulik have been calculated for giving some pivotal laws of eco-gate running,and can be used in making of water distribution plans.Combining hydrological methods with GIS is a new path to simulate the flood process in small scale,provide some basic knowledge to water resource management of the basin,and is also a new attempt to solve the conflict of society,economy and water resources.But the calibration of the model needs further researches.We are going to combine the observational data of flood processes with the results of RS image interpretation,and make the model more veracity.
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    Analysis on the Potential of the Available Agriculture Water Resources in Manas River Valley,Xinjiang
    LI Yu-yi, ZHANG Hai-lin, ZHANG Feng-hua, CHEN Fu, LAI Xian-qi
    2007, 22 (1):  44-50.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (54KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis of hydrological data,planting structure and water-saving technology development in Manas River Valley in Xinjiang,the potential of the available agricultu-ral water resources in the future was quantitatively estimated by considering surface water-saving and groundwater exploitation potential.It was considered that the main approach about increasing agricultural water resource was to reduce the waste of surface water in this region according to actual situation of water resources use.The results also showed that the ultimate utilization volume of agricultural water resources in the future can reach 10.75×108m3.The potential of the available agricultural water resources would reach 2.13×108m3 in 2010,of which groundwater and surface water exploitation potential was equivalent to 0.40×108m3 and 1.73×108m3 respectively,which accounted for 18.8% and 81.2% of the total agricultural water resources potential.In 2010~2030,the potential of the available agricultural water resources would equal to 5.33×108m3,which was composed of 1.12×108m3 of groundwater exploitation volume and 4.21×108m3 of surface water-saving,which accounted for 21.0% and 79.0% of the total water-saving potential respectively.This study conclusion can be applied to agriculture water resources exploitation and water-saving planning,which is also very important to realize the rational allocation of water resources and the sustainable development of economy.
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    An Integrated Analysis of Hydrological Changes in Shijiazhuang Region Due to Socio-economic Development in the Past 70 Years
    SHEN Yan-jun, SONG Xian-fang, XIAO Jie-ying, CHEN Jian-yao, TANG Chang-yuan
    2007, 22 (1):  51-61.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (365KB) ( )   Save
    Urbanization and associated economic development of China have experienced a speedy increase in last decades.Consequently,the local and surrounding areas of large cities in North China are facing to the problem of water scarcity.The current research investigates the development of water resources in Shijiazhuang area during the last 70 years and the associated change of hydrological cycle through historical data analysis,field survey,and groundwater quality and isotopic analysis.This investigation shows the local groundwater of Shijiazhuang mainly accepts vertical recharge through river channels and the lateral recharge from the aquifers in mountainous areas.Urbanization,industrialization,and development of agriculture have largely altered the natural hydrological cycle in the past 70 years,especially the recharge and discharge structure of groundwater system,which could be balanced and self-regulated formerly.Continuous dry-up of rivers in the study area cuts off the major vertical recharge source of groundwater.Meanwhile,the extensive exploitation of groundwater due to municipal,industrial,and agricultural use makes the urban area sifting to a groundwater discharge region from the formerly recharge region.Moreover,the chemical composition of groundwater and its spatial distribution illustrate the change of water quality and regional hydrological environments as well as the drop of groundwater table.
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    Analysis on the Driving and Constraint Factors of Crop Straw Gasification and Commercialization Development
    CHEN Bai-ming, CHEN An-ning, ZHANG Zheng-feng, DU Hong-liang,
    2007, 22 (1):  62-69.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (229KB) ( )   Save
    Nowadays,the production of crop straw is about 0.79 billion tons every year in China,among them about 0.32-0.4 billion tons can be used as energy by combusting them directly while the rest are thrown away to the field or set on fire directly.To popularize the technology of crop straw gasification could not only decrease the local atmospheric pollution due to setting them on fire optionally and their influence on the flying-off and landing of the plane,but also have great effects on changing the villages'visages and constructing socialistic new rural areas.The analyses show,during the course of resource's commercial development of crop straw gasification,both of the prominent driving forces and the restriction factors exist at the same time.Concretely,there are three main driving forces:the farmers' needs on the high-grade energies(e.g.crop straw fuel gas)are the base to develop the resource of crop straw gasification commercially;to be favorable to fathering the pollution and protecting the environment,to alleviate the supply pressure of the commercial energy nationally,so to lay the economic and social groundwork for future commercialization;and in the first stage,to value high and promote the commercial development of the resource of crop straw gasification by the government is a driving force and opportunity.At the same time,there are two restriction factors:as the price of crop straw fuel gas is on the low side and the huff is almost impossible,the quantity of farmers to use the fuel gas is not in the great scale,the utility of fuel gas is limited,the initial investment to set up the crop straw gasification station is relatively costly,all of them make the economic benefit is not so seductive;the limitation of the activity not controlled by the market is uncovered when the government supports it,the technology of crop straw gasification is still not mature and applied very much,and standardization system to check and accept the equipments and construction process of crop straw gasification is scarce furthermore.
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    Scale Effect Analysis of Driving Forces of Land-use Patterns in Longhai City of Fujian Province
    QIU Bing-wen
    2007, 22 (1):  70-78.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (143KB) ( )   Save
    Land use patterns are governed by a broad variety of potential driving forces and constraint which act over a large range of scales.It has been recognized that the types and effects of land use drivers may vary with spatial scale and multi-scale investigation of land use patterns which is essential for fully understanding of its complexity.The main purpose of this paper was to perform a multi-scale analysis of land use patterns of Longhai City in Fujian province by means of statistical analysis on the basis of bio-geophysical,socio-economic and infrastructural conditions.Twenty-three variables were selected as the candidate land use drivers and 9 main land use types were considered.Land use data was derived from the 1∶10000 survey map,terrain data from the 1∶50000 DEM,accessibility data,i.e.distance to the nearest rural road,is derived from 1∶10000 distribution map of rural road,river,residential area,etc.But socio-economic data such as population census data was collected based on the administration areas.As a result,the spatial distribution of population data on cells was conducted based on the analysis of the relationship between population density and its influencing factors.The basic spatial organization in the analysis was a 100×100m geographical grid.Through aggregations of these cells,a total of 20 artificial aggregation levels were obtained.The independent of 9 main land use types,namely paddy field,dry land,garden plot,woodland,town land,agricultural residential area,industrial land,water body and unused land,were constructed at multiple scales respectively. The results showed that:(1)Land use models varied with aggregation level,indicating spatial scale effects.Independent variables explained more of the variance for the explanation of land use type at higher aggregation levels.Relationships obtained at a certain scale of analysis may not be directly applied at other scales.The variables included in the models and their relative importance also varied between land use types,different studying year of 1996 and 2000,respectively.(2)The distribution of paddy field was mainly restricted by slope,distance to the nearest rural road or city,aspect,agricultural population density whose influences increase with scale,elevation and distance to the nearest cover river whose influences occurs only in the medium or small aggregation levels.For garden plot,elevation,distance to the nearest coast or fresh water sea-route is the highest ranking variables and their contributions increase with aggregation levels.Slope,distance to the nearest town or line-river or city are the second ranking variables.For woodland,slope and distance to city or town are the most leading variables at almost all aggregation levels.Important variable also includes elevation at lower aggregation levels.Variables of distance to the nearest highroad or low road or residential areas contribute to the models to a certain extent and their contributions increase with aggregation levels.Industrial land is mainly related with distance to the nearest fresh water sea-route,total population density,distance to the nearest coast or road,slope and distance to the nearest city whose influence all increases with aggregation levels.Most land use types in Longhai City were restricted by topographic factors while topography changes little along with time.It is argued that these types of analyses can support the quantitative multi-scale understanding of land use,needed for the spatially explicit land use change models.
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    Water Environmental Health Risk Assessment of the Second Songhua River
    SU Wei, LIU Jing-shuang, WANG Yang
    2007, 22 (1):  79-85.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (182KB) ( )   Save
    This paper assesses the environmental health risk through drinking water based on the model for water environmental health risk analysis and the monitoring data from 1995 to 2004.The results show that the greatest health risks for individual person per year is caused by Cr(VI);the health risk of carcinogens is much higher than the health risk of non-carcinogens;the health risk in the sections which is higher than the standard value recommended by ICRP has decreased from 1995 to 2004,but the health risk in six sections is still higher than the standard value in 2004 which caused by the high concentrations of Cr(VI)and As.So the effective way of decreasing the health risk is to control and dispose the wastewater containing Cr(VI)and As discharging into the Second Songhua River.
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    Probe into the Landscape Pattern of Freshwater Wetland Communities—A Case Study in the Honghe National Nature Reserve in Sanjiang Plain,China
    ZHOU De-min, GONG Hui-li, HU Jin-ming, ZHAO Kui-yi
    2007, 22 (1):  86-96.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (552KB) ( )   Save
    It is very significant to study both landscape pattern and its structure of plant communities in vast wild freshwater wetlands in China which are few in number.Such a research promotes both protection and restoration of wetlands which are threatened by intensive human activities.By interpreting Multi-temporal TM images,we generate wetland classification information in the HNNR(Honghe National Nature Reserve)in Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China.Furthermore,both landscape pattern and its structure are analyzed at three levels of plant community,vegetation type and landscape with support of GIS technology.Our investigation demonstrates that meadow and shrub have been the basic landscape in the study area,while mire and meadow alike take the core position at vegetation type level as well as Ass.Calamagrostis angustifolia-sundry herbs as dominant plant communities.Our research indicates the spatial pattern of wetland landscape in HNNR as follows:meadow and shrubs are distributed in the wide place of the low gradient riverbank,mire exists in the riverway or low-lying depressions as narrow riparian landscape corridor,while island forests are distributed in the higher areas separately.Our research result also shows that 10% of typical mires area have lost during the last 7 years in the study area,indicating an obvious trend of degradation of mire wetlands,which attributed mainly to the irrigation activities of human beings on farms around HNNR.So the present management unit needs to be reformed into watershed objective constitution for efficient protection of natural resources as an urgent measurement in case of further degeneration.
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    Influence of Vegetation Types on Soil Organic C at Yangou Catchment in the Loess Hilly-gully Region
    MA Yu-hong, GUO Sheng-li, YANG Yu-lin, WANG Xiao-li, YANG Guang
    2007, 22 (1):  97-105.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (279KB) ( )   Save
    Reforestation plays an important role in soil conservation and soil carbon sequestration.Different vegetation types were established in a catchment due to soil loss control in the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau.Natural vegetation and replanted vegetation were selected based on typical sites of the Yangou catchment in the region.The community of vegetations selected at the site was identified.Soil organic carbon(SOC)and total soil N(TSN)under different vegetations are compared.For natural vegetations,SOC content under Liaodong oak tree(Q.liaotungensis Koidz.)was 29.5g/kg,Huangcimei(R.xanthina Lindl.)and Potentilla cryptottaeniae thorn(Sophora Davidii)varied from 11.6 to 21.3g/kg,and Iron rod wormwood(A.gmelinii Web.Ex Stechm.)(+S.bungeana Trin)varied from 8.4 to 10.6g/kg.For replanted vegetations,SOC content under pure Robinia crop(Robinia pesudoacacia.L)varied from 5.53 to 11.9g/kg and small-leaf poplar(Populus simonii)from 12.8 to 18.4g/kg.SOC content under Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp and wood of apricot for kernel were 8.7g/kg and 4.7g/kg,respectively.SOC in orchard(Malus pumila)varied from 3.4 to 3.9g/kg.When farmland converted to alfalfa(M.sativa L.),SOC content increased from3.4 to 4.2g/kg.For cropland,SOC varied from 3.3 to 4.8g/kg.Compared to arable soil,natural vegetation significantly influences surface SOC in the soil profiles,however,SOC in C horizon under natural vegetation was higher than that in arable soil.SOC distribution in arable slope land is significantly different from that under natural recovery of grasses,shrubs,woods and man-built vegetation.Soil C/N ratio increases in the order:orchard,arable land,grassland and woodland.In addition,there was a significant correlation between TSN and SOC at the catchment.
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    Establishing the Ecological Security Pattern in Rapidly Developing Regions-A Case in the AYRAP
    LI Zong-yao, YANG Gui-shan, DONG Ya-wen
    2007, 22 (1):  106-113.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (533KB) ( )   Save
    A region's ecological security pattern is the basis and guarantee of its sustainable development.In its establishment,we need to play an active role in controlling detrimental disturbance and exercising profitable disturbance,thus achieving coordination of the ecosystem and the socioeconomic system.In the rapidly developing regions,vigorous human activities bring great pressure to the ecosystem,and we need a harmonious ecological pattern,which can protect the stability of regional ecosystem and guarantee the regional sustainable development by horizontal linkage of the ecological space and the urban space.Taking the area along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province(the AYRAP)as an example,through an analysis of eco-sensitivity and ecological service importance,this article finds that the areas that need special ecological protection are the mountainous areas in the southern and western AYRAP,the mainstream of the Yangtze River and the wetland around Chao Lake.Through an analysis of the economic development potentiality,it also concludes that the regions taking priority in economic development are the urban areas of Hefei,Ma'anshan,Wuhu,Tongling,and Anqing,in the meantime,where the priority should be given to the economic development.In terms of the ecological features of the AYRAP,an ecological security pattern should be established,consisting of 3 ecological sources,7 ecological corridors and numerous ecological patches and wedges.The 3 ecological sources are the hilly land in western Anhui province,the hilly land in southern Anhui province and the lake district of central Anhui province,occupying an area of 22,000 km2,accounting for 35% of the total AYRAP.Six river(blue)ecological corridors should be constructed,consisting of major rivers and the greenbelts along them;1 road(green)ecological corridor should also be constructed,based on the greenbelts along the major roads.The 6 blue corridors are the Corridor of the Yangtze River,the Corridor of the Shuiyang River,the Corridor of the Qingyi River,the Corridor of the Qiupu River,the Corridor of the Wan River and the Corridor of the Yuxi River.The green corridor refers to the Hefei-Tongling-Huangshan Corridor.These corridors,about 50-100m in width,horizontally link the ecological sources and patches and the areas of intensive development of urban industries,forming a stabilized pattern of the ecological space and the urban space.
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    Research on the Productive Investments and Bearing Capacity of Water Charge for Farmer Households in Guanzhong Irrigation District
    WANG Mi-xia, WANG Zhi-nong, SHANG Jun-hu, HU Xiao-tao, CAO Hong-xia
    2007, 22 (1):  114-120.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (45KB) ( )   Save
    By the continual six years(2000 to 2005) tracking of 800 fixed sampling farmers households,the questionnaire investigations in nine IDs in Guanzhong,Shaanxi were carried out.The results showed that yearly average agricultural investment was 4605.8yuan/hm2 free of agricultural taxes and 5313.0yuan/ha included taxes;the agricultural gross incomes increased from 9754.2 yuan/ha in 2000 to 17371.4 yuan/ha in 2005,an increase of 78.1% in six years;the agricultural net incomes increased from 4944.3 yuan/ha in 2000 to 11317.4 yuan/ha in 2005,with an increase rate exceeding one times in six years.The average yearly water charge in nine IDs from 2000 to 2005 was 854.9yuan/ha that accounted for 18.56% of the whole agricultural investment,also the yearly mean water charge has shown an increasing trend year after year from 2000 to 2005;the rates of water fee accounted agricultural investment,gross incomes,net incomes and the ratio of water charge per person accounted for whole net incomes per person,the cultivated area per person showed a decreasing trend year after year.Fanally,this study puts forward some opinions concerning the existing problems in agricultural production at present.
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    The Study of Agricultural Land Resource's Total Valuein Hubei Province
    CAI Yin-ying, LI Xiao-yun, ZHANG An-lu
    2007, 22 (1):  121-130.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (270KB) ( )   Save
    Agricultural land plays an important multi-dimensional role on human being.It provides not only food and fiber,but also various non-market commodities with characteristics of externalities or public goods.For example,agricultural land provides a variety of important environmental and social services including climate benefits,wildlife habitat,waste treatment,recreational opportunities,and food security.However,traditional economists` attention is mostly drawn on the market value of agricultural production.And the non-market values of agricultural land resource usually are ignored.Because most of these services are public goods,the non-market values of agricultural land preservation cannot be directly obtained from the market.So estimating the whole values of agricultural land has become a focus of the field of resource and environmental economics.The whole value of agricultural land includes two parts of market value and non-market value.The market value of agricultural land is the net return from agricultural production.The non-market value originates from the utility that arises from people's willingness to pay to preserve agricultural land resource,which has emerged as the most important non-use or passive use value associated with environmental resources.It is very important to evaluate the total value of agricultural land resource.On the one hand,it can provide a scientific basis for rural-urban land conversion decision-making,and also decrease the risk of high quality agricultural land loss.On the other hand,evaluating the value of agricultural land can reinforce and perfect in the content of agricultural land grade,providing the important function for agricultural land management.Based on random sampling,the total value of different types of agricultural land was evaluated by income approach and contingent valuation method in Hubei province.It is showed that nowadays,the total non-market value of agricultural land is 2514.88 hundred million yuan,which including cultivated land,horticultural land,forest and wetland,almost equal to 39.86% of the GDP of Hubei province in 2004.Among that,the total value of cultivated land is 11398.77 hundred million yuan,and the proportion of non-market value in cultivated land resource value is 8.27%.The total values of horticultural land and wetlands` total value are 3715.27 and 10192.81 hundred million yuan in Hubei province,and their proportion of non-market value is 13.64% and 5.48%,respectively.The total non-market value of forests is 506.35 hundred million yuan,with a non-market value of almost 6407yuan per ha.Therefore,the non-market value is an important part of agricultural land resource value.The non-market value of different ecotypes of agricultural land is inversely correlated with the abundance of local agricultural land resources.The more abundant the agricultural land resource,the lower its proportion of non-market value in whole value,and the vice versa.
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    Canonical Correspondence Analysis of Land-use Change and Socio-economic Development in Hechi Prefecture,Guangxi Province
    KONG Xiang-li, WANG Ke-lin, CHEN Hong-song, ZHANG Ji-guang, ZHANG Ming-yang
    2007, 22 (1):  131-140.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (278KB) ( )   Save
    Taking Hechi prefecture as an example,this paper utilized the Canonical Correspondence Analysis(CCA)method to study the correlation between the change of land-use and the level of the socio-economic development in Karst areas.The result showed that the CCA method could preferably be used in the study on the socio-economic driving forces of the land-use change.The result of the CCA order exhibited clearly the temporal and spatial change of the land-use under the restriction of socio-economic development in 11 counties in Hechi prefecture.This indicated that with the increase of socio-economic gross and the dramatic growth of population,the changes of dominant land-use types had significant differences between different counties in Hechi in resent 10 years.Under the restriction of the socio-economic development,the rapid economic development in both Yizhou city and Jinchengjiang district,characterized by fast expansion of the construction land in urban and rural areas in 10 years accounted for the development of urbanization based on the solid economy.The water areas increased quickly in Dahua,Bama and Donglan counties in 10 years,embodying the important guidance of the government decision.The construction and expansion of the Yantan hydro-electric station is the main and direct reason for the increase of the water areas in the three counties.The CCA showed that it was still in the development period of developing agriculture and constructing town at the cost of destroying forest.Both the increase of socio-economic gross and the drametic growth of population were the direct driving forces and the main factors.
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    Review on the Research of Metabolism
    MA Qi-fang, HUANG Xian-jin, YU Shu-tong, CHEN Yi
    2007, 22 (1):  141-152.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (94KB) ( )   Save
    Enormous pressure on environment was given by the traditional linear living pattern.Recently,for improving the efficiency of using resources and achieving sustainable development,study on socio-economic metabolism has increasingly become the focus problem in science field.This paper discussed the international research about socio-economic metabolism in three parts.The research background of socio-economic metabolism was presented firstly.In this part,the differences among material flow,resources flow or metabolism were pointed out.Study on material flow focused on the character about material flowing process in specified region.However,it ignored the relationship among each part the process.Resources flow research emphasized efficiency of using resources by the analysis on internal alternative process.Whereas,metabolism put much attention on the material amount out and in socio-economic system,the environmental effect taken by the material.Then,the basic study on socio-economic metabolism was given.This part contained study on metabolism throughput in different levels and quantitative analysis about metabolism.The throughput was mainly divided into 3 levels,they were national,regional and familial.In the rough,there were four ways to analyse socio-economic metabolism.They were MFA(Material flow analysis),EFA(Energy flow analysis),HANPP(Human appropriation of net primary production)and ecological footprint.Thirdly,correlative researches of metabolism were pointed out,there were relations among metabolism and land use and land cover change(LUCC),environmental effect,and sustainable development.Lastly,some advices were put forward.Besides making the research ways perfectly,the main respect was to go deep into the analysis between metabolism and LUCC.Especially,study on socio-economic metabolism's driving function to LUCC should be intensified.And some researches on the feedback mechanism among policy,behavior and metabolism were urgently needed.Sensitive region in the ecosystem should be taken account of metabolism.Especially,environmental effect taken by metabolism should be intensified.Some factors related to socio-economic metabolism could be taken into account in the appraisal of sustainable development and recycling economy.
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    Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production: An Approach for Ecological Assessment of Regional Sustainable Development
    PENG Jian, WANG Yang-lin, WU Jian-sheng
    2007, 22 (1):  153-158.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (43KB) ( )   Save
    Ecological assessment of sustainable development is one of the superiority fields of international ecological economy and researches on sustainable development.The approach of human appropriation of net primary production(HANPP)can assess the ecological sustainability of human ecological-economic systems through measuring how much the net primary production is appropriated by human beings,which is a newly while important research area.In this paper,we briefly introduced the basic concept,theories of human appropriation of net primary production and its approaches to measure sustainable development.Then to sum up all the latest researches on human appropriation of net primary production,the following four prime issues can be summarized for applying HANPP on ecological assessment of regional sustainable development,that is,the uncertainty of key factors,the threshold of sustainability,the restriction in data collection,and the imports and exports of biological production.
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