Table of Content

    20 December 2010, Volume 25 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Analysis of Spatial Distribution and Gravity Centers Curve Dynamic Cultivated Land Changes in China
    GUAN Xing-liang, FANG Chuang-lin, LU Sha-sha
    2010, 25 (12):  1997-2006.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (732KB) ( )   Save
    As industrialization and urbanization accelerates, the contradiction between limited cultivated land resources and the expansion of construction land and ecological land is becoming increasingly acute. By Lawrence curve, models of gravity center and level classification division and other spatial analysis technique, this essay conducts an in-depth study of the spatial distribution pattern of the total cultivated land changes in China based on the national land use data between the 1980s and 2000. The main conclusions are as follows: Firstly, the total cultivated land increased 28374 km2 during the past ten years, with an increase of 25328 km2 in dryland, accounting for 89.26%, and 3046 km2 in paddy, accounting for 10.74%. Secondly, China’s cultivated land was mainly distributed in Heilongjiang, Sichuan, Inner Mongolia, Henan, Shandong and other northern and central provinces. The total cultivated land had reduced in 19 provinces including Jiangsu, Guangdong, Hebei, Shandong and Zhejiang, etc. While the rest of 13 provinces such as Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Xinjiang, etc saw an increase in the total cultivated land. Thirdly, we found that 88% of the nation’s cultivated land was distributed in the southeast of Hu Huanyong’s line, occupying 40% of land area by measurement of cultivated land indices. The spatial distribution pattern of China’s cultivated land could be appropriately classified as high degree of sparse areas, low degree of sparse areas, general transition zone, low concentrated areas and high concentrated areas. Fourthly, the types of China’s cultivated land changes could be considered as such seven major types: high growth areas, moderate growth areas, low-growth areas, general transition area, low degree reduction area, moderate degree reduction area and high degree reduction area guided by cultivated land changes index and gravity centers curve of cultivated land changes. This paper aims to reveal the spatial distribution pattern and changes of China’s cultivated land by applying the spatial analysis methods. It puts forwards that spatial distribution and division of the level of cultivated land changes with consideration of quality of cultivated land should be further explored.
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    A Case Study of the Effects of Wetland Restoration Policy with an Artificial Society Model
    PAN Li-hu, HUANG He-qing, JIANG Lu-guang, ZHEN Lin
    2010, 25 (12):  2007-2017.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (833KB) ( )   Save
    The analytical approach based on the willingness of compensators and acceptors provides an efficient tool for studying eco-compensation mechanism. By using an artificial society model of land use change, this study takes into account of the roles of a governmental agent and enterprise agents, as well as several factors such as flood risk, ecosystem conservation and labor transfer policy. Taking a township in the Poyang Lake region of Jiangxi Province as a typical case where wetland restoration policy has been implemented since 1998, this study performs a detailed simulation of the decision-making process of farmers, enterprises and government agents under different social, economic and policy conditions. Some useful emerged phenomena and patterns can be found from micro to macro levels in the evolutionary process of the artificial society model. It is demonstrated that if the government gives farmers a certain amount of economic compensation, the farmers will voluntarily restore their farmland into wetland. The costs of compensation and the time for finishing the task of wetland restoration are different under different conditions, and the mechanism of enterprises’ participation is beneficial for both the government and farmers. Furthermore, it is shown that developing local economy and enterprises and promoting shifting agricultural labor force to non-agricultural industries all are positive mechanisms for effectively implementing the policy of wetland restoration. Finally, it is demonstrated that artificial society model provides an effective approach for understanding the complex microscopic interactions between compensators and acceptors in the process of wetland restoration.
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    An Analysis on the Variation of Farmland Quality Using an Integrated Index Approach in Hubei Province
    CHEN Zhao, Lü Chang-he
    2010, 25 (12):  2018-2029.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (516KB) ( )   Save
    An integrated indices system for the evaluation of farmland quality was built based on the definition of farmland quality connotation. Using this method, the dynamic change of farmland quality between 1995 and 2005 in Hubei Province was analyzed. The research results indicated that the comprehensive quality of farmland in Hubei Province shows an increasing trend although it varied from year to year. The components of the comprehensive farmland quality, i.e., the background quality, economic quality and ecological quality varied differently. The farmland background quality performed a slow and gentle change from 1995 to 2005 with a small annual variation; the economic quality increased markedly from 1995 to 1999, and then showed a downward trend after 1999; the ecological quality showed a steady downward trend with the decreasing rate reduced in recent years; and the comprehensive quality kept a stable increasing trend before 1999,and then decreased from then on. The leading factors that induced the farmland comprehensive quality change are economical quality and ecological quality, due to changes related to different socio-economic and resource environment management during the different phase of development in Hubei Province. In contrast, the background quality had little effect on the change of comprehensive farmland quality. The method developed in this study can comprehensively reflect characteristics and process of farmland quality changes.
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    Climatic Change of Mu Us Sandy Land and Its Influence on Vegetation Coverage
    WANG Li-xin, LIU Hua-min, YANG Jie, LIANG Cun-zhu, WANG Wei, ZHANG Ji-en
    2010, 25 (12):  2030-2039.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (583KB) ( )   Save
    Temperature and each component of water resources in Mu Us Sandy Land were analyzed based on the precipitation and temperature data from 1961 to 2007. Combining of TM images and CBERS images, from climate change and community water balance point of view, the change of vegetation cover and its cause in Mu Us Sandy Land for nearly 20 years are analyzed. The results show that: Over the past 50 years, the trend of warming in Sandy Land is significantly changing with the rate of 0.33 ℃/10 a. The regional variation range of mean annual temperature is 0.16-0.50 ℃/10 a. The warming degree in southeast is stronger than that of in northwest. The various components of water resource in spatial and temporal distribution are uneven: P and Δw are more and E is strong in northwest while which are opposite in southeast. A decreasing trend of P,E and Δw has emerged which roughly experienced three changing stages. For nearly 20 years the changes of vegetation cover and climate in Mu Us Sandy Land are closely linked. In order to adapt to the climate change the construction of artificial vegetation must take into account the issue of sustainability.
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    Resources Safety
    Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Energy Resource and Economic Growth in Provinces of China —Based on "Resource Curse" Hypothesis
    ZHANG Xin, NIU Shu-wen, DING Yong-xia, ZHAO Chun-sheng, SUN Hong-jie
    2010, 25 (12):  2040-2051.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1840KB) ( )   Save
    There are great regional differences in the distribution of energy resource and economic development level in China. We selected two explanatory variables including primary energy output and external dependence degree of energy as the resource abundance index, and established the panel regression model based on the data of 30 provinces (not including Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan due to no data) from 1997 to 2007. Then we analyzed the relation between energy resource and economic growth in recent ten years, and demonstrated whether the "resource curse" hypothesis is applicable in China. The results showed that energy resources bring about the negative effect on economic growth, namely, the existence of the "resource curse" phenomenon. However, the absolute value of regression coefficient is very small, that means there is unobvious "resource curse" effect. Moreover, the negative effect decreases over time, indicating this phenomenon has being faded out. Specially, some provinces with abundant energy such as Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Shandong Province, have cracked the "resource curse", whose economy increases rapidly. It implicated that the "resource curse" effect could be avoided, only if foundation for development and institutional arrangements are improved effectively by policy and technique measures in regions with abundant energy resource.
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    Potential Risks of Soil Erosion in the Yellow River Basin and Its Transformation
    LI Xiu-xia, NI Jin-ren, YANG Qin, LI TIAN-hong
    2010, 25 (12):  2052-2059.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (516KB) ( )   Save
    In the previous studies, based on the division of minimum polygons of river basins, a rapid assessment of soil erosion approach is proposed, and it performs well in the Yellow River Basin. On the basis of the soil erosion assessment results in the Yellow River Basin, the soil erosion vulnerability is analyzed. The factor of "life span of soil available for erosion" is taken to characterize the potential hazard, and the soil erosion potential risk is analyzed based on the potential hazard and vulnerability. Through comparing the soil erosion potential risk with soil erosion intensity, it indicates that taking both of them into accounts will be helpful to make more reasonable decisions in soil and water conservation and ecological protection. In the end, the transformation relationship between the soil erosion risk in the Middle Yellow River and the flood risk in the Lower Yellow River. The transformation effects of sediment disasters in the basin should be paid more attention.
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    Study of Regional Eco-environmental Quality Monitoring Based on 3S Techniques
    ZHAN Chun-gui, LI Ji-ying
    2010, 25 (12):  2060-2071.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (623KB) ( )   Save
    In this study, all of the EOS-Terra/Aqua-MODIS data, topographical data and meteorological data throughout Minjiang River Basin, Jiulongjiang River Basin and Jinjiang River Basin in Fujian Province, were processed using geographical information system and remote sensing software,in order to analyze the spatial distribution and dynamic changing trends of the eco-environmental quality. The eco-environmental quality monitoring models based on remotely sensed data and ground observations in the three major river basins above mentioned were implemented. Research results indicated that: in the populous, well-developed, flat terrain and facilitated traffic regions eco-environmental quality was bad, while in sparsely populated, undeveloped regions eco-environmental quality was good. Among the three river basins, the eco-environmental quality in Jiulongjiang River Basin is the best, while the Jinjiang River Basin is the worst. Due to the implementation of some environmental protection measures, the eco-environmental quality of the three river basins have been improved in the recent decade. The analysis of the monitoring results of eco-environmental quality at regional level can provide meaningful grounds for the formulation of the eco-environmental regulations and policies.
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    Analysis of Cultivated Land Utilization Intensity and Potential in the Farming-Pastoral Fragile Ecological Area of Northern Tongliao
    QI Yue-pu, CUI Yong-qing, LI Xin-wang, WANG Shu-tao, SUN Jing-lu, GENG Zhi-Kuo
    2010, 25 (12):  2072-2080.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1770KB) ( )   Save
    The cultivated land in farming-pastoral fragile ecological area has high sensitivity characteristics, its use of intensity and potential for regional analysis can provide important support for sustainable land use. On the basis of agricultural land classification and gradation results, four counties in northern Tongliao were selected to analyses cultivated land utilization intensity and potential in fragile ecological area of farming-pastoral zone in North China. The results indicate: 1) The productivity is lower in the north and northeast of the study area. The highest productivity area is the belt region which runs through the northeast to the southwest of Kailu County and distributed in the West Liaohe River of Horqin District. 2) The various production levels in the West Liaohe Plain are higher than that of the Daxinganling hilly region, indicating that light, temperature, water, soil and other natural factors have a major influence on the productivity. The differences of achievable productivity between different counties are less than the theoretical productivity, indicating the fundamental for productivity growth is utilization and management. 3) Theoretical utilization intensity decreased from southwest to northeast, and the theoretical utilization potential decreased from east to west; the achievable utilization intensity decreased from south to north, and the achievable utilization potential can be realized from west to east. 4) The central and southeastern parts are the major grain-producing areas. We should put more emphasis on the promotion of agricultural technology and focus on resolving the land use extensive and illegal occupation of arable land issues. But in the north hilly region, we must pay more attention to protect ecology, and the area which is unsuitable for farming must be returning to forests and pasture.
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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Soil Infiltration Capacity in Water Conservation Forest of Larix gmelini in Lianhua Lake Reservoir Area
    DUAN Wen-biao, YAN Yong-qiang, ZHAO Yu-sen
    2010, 25 (12):  2081-2090.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (668KB) ( )   Save
    Water conservation forest of Larix gmelini in Lianhua Lake reservoir area was regarded as research objects. Soil infiltration model firstly was fitted by the rate of soil infiltration speed, and spatial distribution characteristics of the parameters of infiltration model were analyzed by geostatistical method secondly. The results showed: Philip infiltration model has better analog calculation effects on mathematical simulation of soil infiltration than other models. Soil suction rate and steady infiltration rate obtained by fitting both show lognormal distribution and have strong spatial dependence. The proportion of the former is 0.867, and that of the latter is 0.759. The effective range of the former is 29.13 m, and that of the latter is 6.16 m. The fractal dimension of the former is 1.786, and that of the latter is 1.970. Both semivariogram nuggets are small, and the discontinuous variation on small scale isn’t obvious. There is a high significantly positive correlation between the spatial distribution pattern of soil suction rate and that of steady infiltration rate, and the correlation coefficient R is 0.48 within spatial autocorrelation range. By comparison between two parameters, soil suction rate has large spatial correlation range and simple spatial distribution;but steady infiltration rate has unconspicuous homogeneous character, complex spatial distribution and high degree of fragmentation.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Spatial Diversity of Humidification and Its Impact on Ecosystem Venerability in China during the Last 30 Years
    ZHAO Zhi-ping, LIU Ji-yuan, SHAO Quan-qin
    2010, 25 (12):  2091-2100.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2648KB) ( )   Save
    In this study we calculated potential evapotranspiration and moisture index status and trends of China territory using daily observation data from 756 meteorological stations of China during the last 30 years. Then we divided the vulnerability tendency grades of China territory according to the impact of humidification variation on ecosystems in different climatic zones, and applied this vulnerability tendency grades to cropland, woodland and grassland ecosystems. The results showed that during the last 30 years the average annual potential evapotranspiration was 754 mm; the average moisture index was -5.6; the average rate of moist index change was -4.4/10 a, reflecting a whole downward trend of humidification of China territory. Caused by humidification variation in the last 30 years, the ecosystem vulnerability increase areas concentrated in the southwestern part of Northeast China, North China, eastern part of Northwest China and western,northern and eastern part of Tibet Plateau, which occupied approximately 43.7% of China territory. The main appearances of ecosystem vulnerability tendency were slight, small and moderate increase. Totally, humidification variation had negative effects on cropland, woodland and grassland ecosystem vulnerability tendency in China. Grassland ecosystem had the largest vulnerability increase area, 63.2% of the total grassland area. And the next was cropland ecosystem, 31.6% of the total cropland area. Woodland ecosystem vulnerability was minimally affected, 17.7% of the total forestland area.
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    Application of MM5/Calmet Model System in Wind Energy Resource Assessment
    ZHOU Rong-wei, HE Xiao-feng, ZHU Rong
    2010, 25 (12):  2101-2113.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (695KB) ( )   Save
    A numerical model system is built which is suitable for regional wind energy resource assessment and is composed by mesoscale meteorological model MM5, microscale module Calmet and calculation module of wind energy resource parameter. By using the model system, wind energy resource of littoral area in Jiangsu Province and Jiuquan area in Gansu Province are numerically simulated hour by hour with a fine resolution of 1 km×1 km. Littoral area in Jiangsu Province stands for Chinese littoral enrichment area of wind energy resource, and Jiuquan area in Gansu Province stands for north enrichment area in the condition of complex terrain. The model system is evaluated by comparisons between observational datum of wind mast in simulation area and simulation datum. The comparisons indicate that the wind energy resource distribution of the two areas is well simulated by the model system, and the simulation results of the annual average wind speed, the direction frequency of wind and wind power agree well with the observational datum. The comparisons between simulation results and observations of Jiuquan area in Gansu Province are better than that of littoral area in Jiangsu Province. Hence, the wind energy resource assessment under different terrain conditions is well numerically simulated by the model system. And the following results are indicated by the analysis of annual average wind speed and wind power, annual effective hour, and annual energy production: the wind energy resource of off-shore in Jiangsu Province is richer than that of on-shore, and it is richer from north to south; the wind energy resource of the central basin area in Jiuquan area is very rich as where is in the area of south-north facing high mountains.
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    Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Grassland Coverage Change in Tibetan Plateau since 1982
    DING Ming-jun, ZHANG Yi-li, LIU Lin-shan, WANG Zhao-feng
    2010, 25 (12):  2114-2122.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (822KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the remote sensing data such as NDVI data from GIMMS and SPOT VGT, the paper analyzed temporal and spatial distribution of grassland cover change from 1982 to 2009. The results showed that: 1) There was significant spatial difference in grassland coverage change. The area with grassland coverage increasing was mainly distributed in northern Tibet and southern Xinjiang; the area with grassland decreasing was mainly distributed in the headwaters of the Yangtze River, Yellow River, Lancang River, and Nujiang River, the Qaidam Basin and Gonghe Basin, Qilian Mountains and western Sichuan Province. 2) Statistics of grassland coverage inter-annual change showed that at significance test level of 90%, the rate of the area with coverage decreasing and increasing was 0.31, and the grassland coverage on Tibetan Plateau tends to be increased. 3) Analysis with ten years showed that: the grassland coverage with continuous increase was mainly distributed in northern Tibet; the grassland coverage in Ngari of Tibet decreased firstly and then increased; nevertheless, the Brahmaputra Valley increased firstly and then decreased; the area with continuous decreasing tendency was mainly distributed in Qinghai Province and western Sichuan Province; the statistics showed that most of the grassland coverage on Tibetan Plateau displayed an increasing tendency.
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    Spatial Distribution Law of Rainfall in the Lower Reaches of the Pearl River Basin
    LIU Bing-jun, CHEN Xiao-hong, ZENG Zhao-fa
    2010, 25 (12):  2123-2131.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2194KB) ( )   Save
    One of the hot issues in the field of hydrology and water resources study is the feature study of hydrological and meteorological factors influenced by human activities and constant changes of the global weather. Focusing on lower reaches of the Pearl River Basin, this paper samples the monthly rainfall of 125 rainfall observation stations ranging from 1956 to 2005 to make a quantitative study of rainfall information transfer between various rainfall observation stations with the application of transfer index of directional information. Furthermore, in combination with clustering analysis, the paper defines the relationship between various stations and also uncovers the spatial distribution law of rainfall in the lower reaches of the Pearl River Basin. The following result is revealed by the study:influenced by the geological condition and weather condition outside the basin, the rainfall of lower reaches of the Pearl River Basin shares the feature of self-similarity in the spatial scale, where there exist seven similar areas.
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    Study on Precipitation and Temperature Change in Western Henan Mountain Area
    ZHANG Yong-min, XIAO Feng-jin
    2010, 25 (12):  2132-2141.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (634KB) ( )   Save
    Climate change in the past century has already had measurable impact on ecosystems. Human populations always face the risk of damage from climate change, which is now widely recognized as the major environmental problem facing the globe. Therefore, climate change needs to be factored into current development plans. Western Henan mountain area, the study area, belongs to the east-extended end of the Qinling Mountains, which is an important boundary between sub-tropical zone and warm temperate zone in China. It consequently is one of the most susceptive areas to climate change. Based on the climatic data from national meteorological observation stations, the multi-temporal characteristics of annual precipitation and annual mean air temperature during the past 50 years in western Henan mountain area were studied using Mexican Hat wavelet analysis and traditional statistical methods in this article. The results indicated that: 1) Both annual precipitation and annual mean air temperature have complex multi-temporal scale structures. Annual precipitation has obvious periodic oscillations of 4 years and 14 years, while annual mean air temperature has obvious periodic oscillations of 8 years and 14 years. 2) Although obvious periodic oscillations of annual precipitation and annual mean air temperature in western Henan mountain area existed in the past 50 years, they can be thought being caused by randomness (i.e.a Gaussian White Noise) because their statistical significance levels of wavelet analysis results against the power spectrum of a Gaussian White Noise were very low. 3) Annual precipitation and annual mean air temperature have significant converse relationship in 4-12 temporal scales during the past 50 years. That is to say, high annual precipitation is often accompanied with low annual mean air temperature in 4-12 temporal scales, and vice versa. And it is projected that it will probably continue to be high annual mean air temperature and low annual precipitation for the coming years in western Henan mountain area. 4) It should be noted that, just as statistical analysis, wavelet analysis also belongs to experience diagnosis, and is not mechanism analysis. Consequently, mechanism of complex process in climate system should be further studied to understand and explore the future trends of climate change.
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    Resources Research Methods
    Spation-temporal Evolution Pattern and Influential Factor of Regional Total Factor Energy Efficiency in China
    LIU Li-tao, SHEN Lei
    2010, 25 (12):  2142-2153.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.015
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    The most important contributions of this paper attempt to advance the measurement of TFEE by introducing environmental impact associated with energy consumption as one of the inputs into the evaluation. We employ data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate TFEE of 30 administrative regions in China (not including Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan due to no data) for the period 1997-2007. In our DEA model, coal, crude oil, natural gas, electricity and fuel combustion emissions from industrial sector are the five inputs and real GDP is the single output. Based on spatial analysis techniques with GIS software, we investigate the spatio-temporal evolution pattern of regional TFEE. On the basis of panel data at the provincial level in the period of 1998-2007, we develop the fixed-effect model of TFEE to further explore influential factors and their underlying mechanisms. Results are as follows:1) regional TFEE of China improves constantly, while inter-provincial disparity of TFEE continues to widen and a significant divergent trend is found. 2) The spatial pattern of high-TFEE area in China evolutes from "line" of the south coast to the "surface" of the southern area. 3) The empirical analysis of fixed-effect model at national-level shows that there is significant positive correlation between technological progress, economic openness, energy consumption structure (independent variables )and TFEE(dependent variable), while there is a significant negative relationship between industrial structure, marketization level and energy resource endowments (independent variables ) and TFEE(dependent variable). 4) The empirical analysis of fixed-effect model at national-level shows that technological progress has the most positive effect on regional TFEE, and the other two main factors affecting TFEE of most regions are industrial structure and marketization level.
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    Estimating Soil Erosion in the Dongjiang River Basin Based on USLE
    PAN Mei-hui, WU Yong-qiu, REN Fei-peng, DONG Yi-fan, JING Yuan
    2010, 25 (12):  2154-2164.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (555KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the Dongjiang River Basin with an area of 3.49×104 km2 was chosen as the study area .The Universal Soil Loss Equation(USLE) was use to estimate the erosion amount of the Dongjiang River Basin. The factors R, K, L, S, C and P were determined according to 1 ∶ 250000 DEM of the Dongjiang River Basin, NDVI data in January of 2009 and other basic data using remote sensing and geographic information system software. The annual average soil erosion amount is 16.2×108 t, and the mean soil erosion modulus is 18.73 t/(km2·a), and the erosion intensity is classified as slight degree erosion. The slight and moderate erosion area occupied 94.62% of the area, but merely contributed 9.94% of the total load of soil erosion in the Dongjiang River Basin, while the serious erosion area only occupied 5.38% of the study area, and contributed 90.06% of the total load of soil erosion. The impact of slope gradient and land use on soil erosion were analyzed. Results show that the spatial distribution of soil erosion is obvious in the Dongjiang River Basin. The nudation and shrub-grassland are the main land use types which suffered serious erosion. The soil erosion rate increases with the increase of slope gradient until to a certain value, after which the erosion rate decreases. The main soil erosion slope ranges from 5° to 25°. These results could offer basic information for aquatic ecological function regionalization in the Dongjiang River Basin.
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    Research of the Water Pollution Control Measures in Medium-sized Cities
    SHEN Jing, LIN Zhen-shan
    2010, 25 (12):  2165-2170.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (357KB) ( )   Save
    Water pollution is one of the major environmental problems, "water resources protection, and pollution control" is necessary to ensure sustainable development of cities. The analysis of the existing environmental data is an important task to the environmental statistics. The rough set theory is an effective method for data analysis. The attribute reduction is a useful method, which can pack data, reduce the operation and raise the efficiency. This article established the roughset model and used it in processing the data of industrial pollution emissions from 1995 to 2006 in the area of Shanghai, and in inspecting the influence in the industrial production. At the same time, the author utilized the programming of Matlab to confirm the validity of the model and obtained the useful result. The correlation analysis shows the relationship between factors and population,economy. By the analysis of the decision rule in the future environmental data processing, we should take serious measures to control the industrial withdrawal of sulphur dioxide, reduce the amount of the coal, pay great attention to protect the environment while developing economy and making the economy continue the balanced development.
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    Special Forum
    Advance in Hydrologic Process Response to Urbanization
    XU Guang-lai, XU You-peng, XU Hong-liang
    2010, 25 (12):  2171-2178.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.12.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (421KB) ( )   Save
    The change in the natural hydrologic process and the crisis of the water resource due to the human activity especially urbanization has been accelerated with the rapid economic development and population growth. The research of the hydrologic process response to the urbanization has been the focus of attention and the international frontier. This paper reviews the status of hydrological response to the urbanization process and summarizes the existing research methods and research content from precipitation, runoff, water resources and ecosystem of watershed etc. Some conclusions of this paper were drawn as follows: 1) Imperious area extension driven by rapid urban development could change the urban climate, and cities tend to be hotter than the surrounding countryside and create what is known as an urban heat island. However, whether the precipitation in cities increasing is still controversial. 2) Imperious area increase and land use/land cover change (LUCC) have great effects on the natural structure of river channel and stream network. Main parameters in artificial stream network are discussed, such as Horton’s laws and fractal theory. 3) Imperious area and land use change also influence runoff coefficient, flood peak flow and frequency. And the qualities and quantities of water resources have degraded as a result of the urbanization. 4) Cities are widely regarded as having lower biodiversity, and urbanization will reduce the biodiversity of native species. Some researches show the riparian buffer zone by the river could improve the ecological system. So, ecological water requirements have come into notice in the recent years. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the methodology from statistics analyses, hydrological model, watershed experiment and GIS/RS spatial analyses etc. Finally, some ideas in the future research are discussed. Many affecting factors need to be considered and researched further, and hydrological response to urbanization should be assessed quantitatively so as to support scientific foundations for rational allocation and sustainable development of land and water resources. It could be used as reference for research of urban hydrology.
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