Table of Content

    20 October 2010, Volume 25 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Utilization and Management
    Spatio-temporal Analysis of Population and Residential Land Change in Rural China
    LI Yu-rui, LIU Yan-sui, LONG Hua-lou
    2010, 25 (10):  1629-1638.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3135KB) ( )   Save
    A better understanding of the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving mechanism of population and residential land change in rural China under rapid urbanization and industrialization is the important premise for constituting feasible policy and strategy promoting the farmland protection and new countryside construction. This paper systematically analyzes the overall trend, regional patterns and coupling types of China’s rural population and residential land change, using rural demographics from China Statistics Bureau and land-use data from the Department of Land and Resources of each province. The results showed that: since economic reform and open-door policy adopted in 1978, resident population in rural areas and agricultural household registration population have entered the transitional period of rapid decrease in 1996 and 2001, respectively. However, rural residential land continues to expand significantly. The benign pattern of the co-evolution of population and residential land in rural areas has not appeared, and the land utilization tends to be extensive, especially in northern and eastern coastal provinces. The root cause for rural residential land use plight is the dual-track institutional system which has long existed between urban and rural areas. Under the relatively common institutional background of migration and land management, combined differences in natural and geographical conditions, levels of economic development, history and social culture and other factors resulted in the dynamic patterns of population and residential land change in rural China. Based on improving the control system of rural land use, propelling the comprehensive consolidation of rural settlements scientifically according to local conditions is an integrated approach to coordinate the numeric change of population and residential land in rural areas, protect farmland, add quota of construction land and promote the new countryside construction. Breaking the urban-rural dual-track structure and coordinating urban-rural development are necessary guarantees of realizing above objectives.
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    The Establishment of the Aboveground and Underground Space Rights in China—A Case Study of the West Zone of Zhongguancun
    SHI Ping-ping, ZHANG Jun-lian, YANG Yan-min
    2010, 25 (10):  1639-1648.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4348KB) ( )   Save
    At present, three-dimensional land use has become a new model in city spatial expansion. Firstly, combining theory with practice,this paper describes the utilization of the aboveground and underground space in the West Zone of Zhongguancun, which is a classic example of three-dimensional land use in China. Then, it analyses the current situation occurred with the absence of relevant laws in establishing the aboveground and underground land rights in this zone. Starting with the representation, it gives the reasons of matter link by link and explains the crux of the matter is that the defects exiting in the system of establishing the aboveground and underground land rights in China, including rights system, obtainment of right, cadastral management and registration system. Finally, aiming at the defects proposed in this paper, it puts forward the corresponding policy proposals,including to create partitioned right to use construction land for completing the aboveground and underground land rights system, to add ownership allocation in all aspects of space utilization, to formulate cadastration standard in space scope, and to improve the existing registration system and connect the old and new regulations. The aim for figuring out those measures above-mentioned is to complete the system of the aboveground and underground land rights system and improve the level of land intensive utilization.
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    Effect Analysis of Land Consolidation of Rural Habitat in Suburbs of Metropolis: Comparative Study on Typical Cases
    GU Xiao-kun, LU Xin-hai, CHEN Bai-ming
    2010, 25 (10):  1649-1657.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (391KB) ( )   Save
    Because of the cultivated land loss due to rapid urbanization process and arable land deficiency, the Chinese government has paid much more attention to the recultivation of rural habitat. Various forms of land consolidation projects of rural habitat have been carried out in China since 2000, which not only affect the land resources allocation for urban and rural area, more important is to create new rural settlements. How to evaluate comprehensively and scientifically the effect will be an important theoretical issue.Metropolis suburb is one of the typical regions in carrying out land consolidation of rural habitat, which is characterized by the combination of saving and optimizing the construction land as well as promoting urbanization. Taking the projects of Jinnan District in Tianjin City, Shuangliu County in Chengdu and Jinshan District in Shanghai as typical cases, the paper analyzes the impact of land consolidation on rural habitat. The data come from the planning and planning implementation, statistics from village committee and sample survey of households classified from 2006 to 2007.The most significant impact on farmers of rural residential land consolidation is to improve the living conditions and living environment, and on government is to optimal use of land resources and to promote rural development. Based on the analysis of effect mechanism above, the paper sets up an effect evaluation indexes system for land consolidation of rural habitat in metropolis suburbs, including 15 indexes to evaluate the impact on farmer’s living and produce, land resource use and economic benefits. Empirical results show that: 1) Comprehensive evaluation order is the project of Jinshan, Jinnan and Shuangliu. 2) The three cases have similar effect on farmer’s lifestyle. Land consolidation of rural habitat in metropolis suburbs can better the farmer’s living conditions; however, the additional living cost will increase their burden. Impact on employment, income, and the impact on social security is not universal. 3)The three cases proved that land consolidation in rural habitat is an important way to increase cultivated land area and use construction land resource more intensively. The rural construction land can be saved by 58%-82%, the rural construction land per capita can be saved by 31%-84%, and the rate of new arable land is generally more than 30%. 4) The sustainability of the project is open to question because of higher risk of government investment; there is a big regional difference in farmer’s relocation compensation standards and the cost for new house; farmer in Jinshan and Jinnan districts have better ability to move their house.In general, the level of regional economic and social development in metropolis suburbs are fit for land consolidation of rural habitat, however, its effect is affected mainly by the relative size of government’s financial ability and farmer’s income level. The right loss of farmer’s residence land is also an important impact factor, and Shuangliu’s project has the less loss than the other two cases. However, it is difficult to quantify the loss.
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    Study on Desalinization Efficiency of the Raised-land and Sea Ice Water Irrigation in Coastal Barren-Saline Region
    ZHANG Hua, WANG Jing-ai, XU Pin-hong, LEI Yong-deng, LI Rui, GAO Ting
    2010, 25 (10):  1658-1665.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1461KB) ( )   Save
    With the national concern for grain security, coastal salt wasteland of the improvement and utilization attracted attention again. Experiment shows: the comprehensive land use pattern of raised-land and shallow pond significantly reduced salt in coastal saline-alkali land. Desalinization efficiency is up to 47% on raised-land where was the silty saline-alkali land before in Huanghua city of Hebei Province. During the growing stage of oil-sunflower on raised-land, two times of sea ice water irrigations make the difference in soil desalinization efficiency. Taking sea ice water irrigation in July as a case, per square meter 0-120cm soil layers drained 2.70 kg of salt, compared with the salt wasteland the soil layer drained 6.15 kg of salt, and compared to no irrigation of raised land the soil layer drained 3.76 kg of salt. Generally, the raised land PT was significantly higher than the sea ice water irrigation PTW. Therefore, the raised land using in the coastal saline areas with drought saline field can control salt of micro plant area, with the sea ice water irrigation to protect the crop water requirement, it can build a safety environment for agricultural cultivation. This study offered the reference for coastal saline-alkali land and wasteland improvement, raised land-shallow pond utilization, construction of ecological agriculture and the safety irrigation of sea ice water.
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    Study on Water Consumption of Spring Naked Barley Land and Suitable Irrigation System in Tibet
    YIN Zhi-fang, OUYANG Hua, ZHANG Xian-zhou
    2010, 25 (10):  1666-1675.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1051KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the crop growth and soil water content observed experiments in Lhasa Plateau Ecosystem Research Station, this paper used SHAW model to investigate the characteristics of water consumption and soil water deep percolation and deep soil water recharge of spring naked barley land. Then, the paper also discussed the prospective of the suitable irrigation scheduling according to the comparison of water consumption and water deep percolation and deep soil water recharge under sufficient irrigation and nonsufficient irrigation. Major results are reported as follows:1) Total water consumption of spring naked barley is estimated to be 450 mm. Hereinto, tillering to shooting, shooting to tasseling and tasseling to grain filling are the dominating water consumed stages, the water consumption of which accounts for 72%. So,it is important to ensure water supply in this stage.2) In the dominating water consumed stages, precipitation only covers 58% of the water requirement of spring naked barley, so, supplying irrigation is necessary. But, the existing irrigation scheduling enhances soil water evaporation and causes huge deep percolation.3) If the amount of 50 mm water is irrigated in the planting-emerging and shooting-tasseling stages respectively and 60 mm in the tasseling-grain filling stage, the total irrigation amount reduces 125 mm, deep percolation will reduce 81% (131 mm) and deep soil water recharge will increase 55% (44 mm). The prospective less irrigation would reduce deep percolation greatly and promote water recharge from deeper soil layer. Therefore, the prospective less irrigation should be extended.
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    Resources Safety
    Study on Sandstorm Climatic Regionalization in Eastern Part of Northwest China
    ZHENG Guang-fen, FENG Jian-min, ZHAO Guang-ping, ZHOU Yong, YAO Zong-guo, CHEN Nan, DING Yong-hong
    2010, 25 (10):  1676-1688.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2371KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, we used data of the days and duration time of sandstorms and 98 weather stations of eastern part of Northwest China together with the methods such as EOF, REOF, t-test, Mann-Kendall and wavelet analysis to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution and evolution law and the cyclical characteristics of each climate area on the days and duration time of sandstorms. The result indicated: the sandstorm days were more in the north and less in the south of the eastern part of Northwest China. Being influenced by macro-scale weather system, the main manifestation of the sandstorm days was abnormal in the entire area, but there was regional difference. The sandstorm days in eastern part of Northwest China could be divided into four climate areas. They were Hexi Corridor-Alashan area, Ordos-Ulan Buh area, Qaidam-Chaka cold area and Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Loess Plateau area. The number of sandstorm days in eastern part of Northwest China was reducing in recent a 40 years. There was a 4-year cycle in all climate areas. The jump of sandstorm days took place in the mid to the late of 1980s. The source area of the jump of sandstorm days was in desert areas and their correlative areas, and the jump spread from these areas to the remaining areas. There were different distribution characteristics between duration time and sandstorm days . The longest (shortest) duration time of sandstorm was not in the areas where the sandstorm days were the most (least). The duration time has different change characteristic in different climate areas. The difference existed in the time of jump between duration time and sandstorm days. The jump of duration time of sandstorm did not take place in the Hexi Corridor-Alashan area and Ordos-Ulan Buh area where the sandstorm days were more. And the change rate of duration time of sandstorm increased after the mid 1980s. There was the tendency of the duration time of sandstorm changing longer after the 1990s.
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    The Effects of Grain for Green Project on the County-level Food Security in the Loess Plateau Hilly Region —A Case Study in Mizhi, Qingjian, Zizhou and Wupu Counties of Shaanxi Province
    CHENG Liu-san, WU Pu-te, ZHAO Xi-ning
    2010, 25 (10):  1689-1697.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (501KB) ( )   Save
    Since 1999, the government of China has carried out an awfully ambitious conservation program for "win-win" objective of environment refinement and poverty reduction becoming self-sustainable. The program was famous Grain for Green Project, for which the government of China spent more than 4300 billion yuan and 27 million hm2 of slope cultivated land was converted to forest and more than 100 million farmers took part in the program from 1999 to 2008. So we adopted the revised model of land use pressure index to the assessment of Grain for Green Project on the county-level food security from 1999 to 2008 based on case study in Mizhi, Qingjian, Zizhou and Wupu counties. Supposed food subsidies to compensation loss of farmers conversed of cropland to forest land in the form of grain for framers conversed of forest land to cropland, the results indicates that the effects of Grain for Green Project on Mizhi and Zizhou counties, which have a population density of 150-180 people per km2 and implementation conversion of 1.44-1.58 ten thousand hm2 of cropland to forest land,are obvious; but that of Qingjian County with a population density of 110-120 people per km2 and implementation conversion of 0.4 ten thousand hm2 of cropland to forest land and Wupu County with a population density of 170-190 people per km2 and implementation conversion of 0.4 ten thousand hm2 of cropland to forest land, are little influenced. In a word, the effects on food safety for counties with different population density and different conversion scale are different in the Loess Plateau hilly region. The government will choose the results to establish long-term, stable and effective food compensation mechanism, in order to consolidate gains of Grain for Green Project in the future.
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    Resources Ecology
    Study on Quantitative Method of Spatial and Temporal Dynamic Monitoring of Vegetation Cover in Hulun Buir Grassland
    ZHANG Feng, WANG Qiao, LI Ying
    2010, 25 (10):  1698-1708.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4012KB) ( )   Save
    Monitoring and assessment for vegetation cover is the foundation for evaluating protection measures, environmental management and global changes. Having taken Hulun Buir grassland for example, we used SPOT_VGT NDVI data from 1998-2008 to reflect the spatial and temporal characteristics of vegetation and its dynamic changes by analyzing average annual NDVI, annual maximum and minimum NDVI(MAX, MIN), the annual relative range RREL, and the date of maximum and minimum NDVI(DMAX, DMIN). The results showed that the relationship of different regions’ vegetation cover in the study area is as follows: main woodland region>grassland-arable land-forest transition>main farmland region>main grassland region, the study area vegetation cover was weakening, the best period vegetation cover was advancing during these years, vegetation cover of grassland-arable land-forest transition and main farmland region had less seasonal changes, vegetation cover trend to be stable, whereas, the main grassland area’s DMIN pushed back and had more seasonal changes in vegetation cover, its ecological environment becomes less stable.
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    A Study on Carbon Biogeochemical Cycles in Inner Mongolia Steppe, China
    GENG Yuan-bo, LUO Guang-qiang, LI Ming-feng
    2010, 25 (10):  1709-1717.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (404KB) ( )   Save
    Carbon cycles of two steppes in Xilin River Basin were studied using biogeochemical cycle compartment theory. The major results include: 1) For the soil-palnt-atmosphere system of fenced Leymus chinensis steppe, the net carbon fixed by the plant compartment was 165.50 gC·m-2 during the growing season, the net emission from soil compartment was 174.36 gC·m-2,so the net carbon fixed by the system was -8.86 gC·m-2. In general, the input and output of carbon were nearly equivalent. The plant compartment was approximately balanced, too. 2) For the soil-plant-atmosphere system of fenced Stipa grandis steppe, the plant compartment fixed 130.04 gC·m-2 during the growing season, the net carbon emission from soil compartment was 128.28 gC·m-2, therefore the net carbon fixed by the system was 1.76 gC·m-2. The carbon input into plant compartment far exceeded the carbon output in wet year and it would become balanced in drought year. 3) The turnover of carbon element in Leymus chinensis steppe is larger than Stipa grandis steppe, which is caused by the more suitable geographical conditions. Water content is the main affecting factor of carbon cycles in Inner Mongolia steppe.
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    Correlation Analysis of Yield Components and Agro-meteorology of Early Rice
    LUO Li-hua, CHEN Gui-hua, HU Ying, HUANG Huang, XIAO Ying-hui
    2010, 25 (10):  1718-1726.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (502KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this study is to reveal the effects of the main meteorological factors on the yield components of the early rice in Hunan Province. The correlation analysis between meteorological factors and rice yield components were conducted, with the data from 2003-2009 at 7 rice growth areas in Hunan Province. The main results are as follows: the tiller number was positively correlated to the daily average temperature (DAT), daily maximum temperature (DMAT), hours of sunshine (HS) during the 23rd-27th days after rice transplanting, and negatively correlated to the relative humidity (RH) during the same stage. The DAT, DMAT, daily minimum temperature (DMIT) and HS during the 33rd to 41st days after rice transplanting were positively correlated to the productive tiller percentage of early rice. The DAT averaged from the 9th-1st days, DMAT averaged from the 9th-4th days and HS averaged from the 10th-5th before initial heading were positively correlated to the grain number per panicle (GNPP), whereas the RH during this period was negatively correlated to the GNPP. The DAT and DMIT averaged from the 14th-9th days were positively correlated to the seed setting percentage (SSP), contrarily, the DMAT average from the 9th-5th days and the HS from the 9th-5th days before initial heading were negatively correlated to the SSP. The 1000-grain-weight was positively correlated to both of the RH average from the 25th-20th days before initial heading and the HS from the 14th-20th days after initial heading, and it was negatively correlated to the DAT of the 25th-20th days before initial heading and the DMIT of the 17th-22nd days after initial heading.
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    Study of Temporal and Spatial Variation of Urban Heat Island Based on Landsat TM in Central City and Binhai New Area of Tianjin
    CHENG Chen, CAI Zhe, YAN Wei, LI Hong-yuan, MENG Wei-qing, HAO Cui, MO Xun-qiang
    2010, 25 (10):  1727-1737.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2187KB) ( )   Save
    This paper studies UHI(Urban Heat Island) spatial and temporal changes in central city and Binhai New Area in Tianjin with Landsat TM/ETM+. Thermal band data from TM/ETM+ has higher spatial and temporal revolution. As a result, it can be used in UHI studies of small research areas, such as city. Several methods can be used to retrieve from TM/ETM+, such as light temperature, single-channel algorithm and mono-window algorithm. This paper retrieved land surface light temperature (LSLT) of Tianjin from Landsat TM thermal band data from four dates in 1987, 1998, 2004 and 2008. In order to avoid errors resulting from different seasons, absolute LSLT is transferred to comparative LSLT by means of normalizing. And then the comparative LSLT was classified into distribution maps. The proportion of temperature class is also calculated and plotted. The result of analysis of maps and plots shows that UHI mainly occurred in central city, Binhai New Area, and areas along the roads between two areas. From 1987 to 2008, UHI is also becoming larger and harder. The effect of UHI in central city is aggravated and then decreased. The effect of UHI in Binhai New Area started from scrath, from less to more, and experienced obvious changes. Especially effect of UHI in Dagang District started from scrath, from less to more and then kept constant. The distribution map of 1987 shows that there are two abnormal high temperature areas in Dagang Reservoir and southwest of Tianjin. The reason for the former abnormal area is precipitation deficit in the period between spring and summer. The reason for the latter is the naked land due to harvest of wheat and low content of chlorophyll in mature crops. Since 1998, there has been a strip of high temperature area, which was caused by extending built-up areas along the roads between central city and Binhai New Area. Finally, one of the reasons for UHI temporal changes in both central city and Binhai New Area is built-up area increasing.
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    Resources Evaluation
    The Temporal-spatial Distribution and Evaluation of Potential Solar Energy Resources in Northwest China
    ZHOU Yang, WU Wen-xiang, HU Ying, LIU Guang-xu
    2010, 25 (10):  1738-1749.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2872KB) ( )   Save
    Development and utilization of solar energy play a vital role in reducing the fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for human being. Solar energy, which is considered as one of the most significant renewable energy resources in the future, plays a vital role in mitigating global warming. Therefore, it is extremely necessary to figure out the spatial and temporal distribution of solar energy resources in certain regions, as well as its stability so as to better develop and utilize such renewable resources. Based on daily data of solar sunshine and solar total radiation from 27 metrological stations from 1958 to 2008 and 163 radiation stations from 1961 to 2008 such as Xi’ning, Lanzhou, Xi’an, etc., our study analyzes the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variations of solar energy resources of Northwest China for the past about 50 years through completely regularized spline methods. The results indicate that the characteristics of the inter-annual and seasonal changes of solar energy resources are almost the same. According to the sunshine hours and solar total radiation, central Qinghai Province is regarded as the most abundant solar energy region, while the regions, such as southern and southwestern Shaanxi Province, belong to the unavailable region of this kind of resources. Over the past 50 years, the annual total radiation of Northwest China has decreased clearly, and the annual sunshine hours have dropped off slowly. Among 163 metrological stations, the days which the daily sunshine hours were greater than 6 hours of a month during the past 10 years added up to 45-327, of which 15 sites are more than 300 days. Solar energy resources of the southern Shaanxi Province and Urumqi are most unstable, where the K value (the index of stability of solar energy resources) is 12.21, while the border area, including the northern Qinghai Province, and the interactive zone of Qinghai, Gansu and Xinjiang, belongs to the most stable area, where the K value is 1.27. Our study suggests that the stability of the solar energy resources is consistent well with the distribution size of resource potential, that the most stable area always has the largest amount of total radiation and the longest sunshine duration.
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    Changes in Reference Evapotranspiration and Its Causes in Northeast China
    ZHANG Shu-jie, ZHANG Yu-shu, SUI Dong, CAI Fu, WU Jin-wen, JI Rui-peng, CHEN Peng-shi, LIU Qing-wu
    2010, 25 (10):  1750-1761.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1289KB) ( )   Save
    Reference evapotranspiration is an important component of the thermal balance and water budget during the water cycle of the earth surface; it is subjected to climate change directly. The research on reference evapotranspiration changes could help us understanding the characteristics of climate change and regional water cycle. Based on the observation data of temperature, wind, vapor pressure and sunshine hours collected from 124 weather stations from 1961 to 2007, the reference evapotranspiration in Northeast China was calculated by using Penman-Montieth model. Spatial-temporal characteristics of reference evapotranspiration and its causes in Northeast China were evaluated by space and time series analysis method. The results showed the reference evapotranspiration has continuously decreased at a rate of 4.4 mm/decade in Northeast China, but the annual mean temperature has increased at a rate of 0.38℃/decade. In the 1960s to the 1990s, the trend of reference evapotranspiration declined, and the trend of rising was significant in the 21st century. The average of spring and summer reference evapotranspiration in Northeast China decreased at a rate of -4.2 mm/10 a and-2.2 mm/10 a. There was a slight increase in reference evapotranspiration in autumn and winter at the rate of 0.3 mm/10 a and 1.6 mm/10 a in the recent 47 years. For spatial distributing characteristics of the average annual reference evapotranspiration, two-thirds of the region show decreasing trend especially in Chaoyang region of Liaoning Province, and one-third of the region show increasing trend especially in the south of Liaoning and the east of Jilin. The reference evapotranspiration was increased suddenly in spring from 1969, in summer from 1963, in autumn from 1963 and in winter from 1990. The correlation analysis of meteorological factors indicated that the most important factors which could influencing the reference evapotranspiration were sunshine duration and wind speed. Besides the meteorological factors influencing reference evapotranspiration, great concern has been given to the geographical location, land use, vegetation coverage and human activity.
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    Research of Stability and Exploitability of Water Resource in Sichuan
    WANG Ping, FAN Guang-zhou, DONG Yi-ping, HUA Wei, ZHOU Ding-wen
    2010, 25 (10):  1762-1776.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6076KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during the period 1948 to 2008, the precipitable water content of atmosphere, relative variability of water content, moisture flux and moisture flux divergency over Sichuan region are calculated, stability and exploitability of water vapor resource over the Sichuan Basin region are studied. The result indicated: the stable characteristics of water vapor content is closely related to water vapor content, water vapor content is stable in southeastern part of the high water vapor content and is unstable in the northwestern region of the relatively low water vapor content. Time series of yearly atmospheric precipitable water over the Sichuan Basin is that the change in summer is small and winter is great, eastern is small and western is great. From 1948 to 2008, the regional average yearly atmospheric precipitable water presents a tendency of up-down-up-down. Most moisture concentrates in the lower troposphere primarily from the Bay of Bengal and in the mid and upper layers, the vapor flux comes from mid-latitude westerlies as well as the tropical West Pacific Ocean. Southeast of Sichuan is the strongest water vapor convergent region in spring, fall and winter. The climatological distribution and variation of circulation and the atmospheric humidity have revealed advection and convergence of atmospheric water vapor transport over the Sichuan region, so as to instruct artificial precipitation better.
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    Study on Recharge of Precipitation Infiltration in the Upper Alluvial Plain of the Modern Yellow River Delta
    YUAN Rui-qiang, SONG Xian-fang, LIU Guan-qun
    2010, 25 (10):  1777-1785.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1587KB) ( )   Save
    In the Modern Yellow River Delta, the runoff of the Yellow River decreased year by year, as a result of increased irrigation in the upper reaches area. The recharge of precipitation infiltration became the main fresh water source of shallow aquifer in the Modern Yellow River Delta. Accurate evaluation of the recharge of precipitation infiltration is the precondition to exploit groundwater rationally. Based on data loggers installed in boreholes of typical topographic areas in the Modern Yellow River Delta, groundwater table depth was read every thirty minutes. Combined with daily rainfall of 2004, the feed coefficients of precipitation infiltration were calculated by Matlab programming and the temporal and spatial varieties were analyzed to make the main factors clear. It is concluded that: 1) groundwater table depth changed mainly within 2 m below surface; 2) the features of rains and penetrability of land surface were the most important aspects decided the value and the temporal and spatial varieties of the feed coefficients of precipitation infiltration that increase with enlarging of groundwater table depth; 3) the annual feed coefficient of precipitation infiltration was 0.186. The groundwater recharge from precipitation is up to 7.4×108 m3 accounted for 3.7% of the runoff of the Yellow River Delta in 2004.
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    Resources Research Methods
    Progress in Ground-Based GPS Tomographying Atmospheric Water Vapor Resource
    CAO Yu-jing, LIU Jing-miao, LIANG Hong, LI Wen-jing, CHU Yan-li
    2010, 25 (10):  1786-1796.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (463KB) ( )   Save
    Atmospheric water vapor is a kind of potential water resource. It has important strategic significance for the realization of the sustainable use of freshwater resources. Ground-based GPS atmospheric water vapor tomographic technology provides quantitative basis for the study of atmospheric water vapor resources three-dimensional distribution. The technology is also important for the rational development and utilization of water vapor resources. This paper introduces the basic principle of ground-based GPS atmospheric water vapor tomographic technology; and division of ground-based GPS tomographic network is one of the critical issues for the technology. The paper discusses the methods of dividing ground-based GPS tomographic network home and abroad. It also summarizes the three main algorithms of the technology used commonly. Finally, the paper gives the existing questions of the technology and suggestions of future development.
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    A New Perspective of Ecosystem Health and Its Application
    LI Hai-tao, GU Chen-jie, LIANG Tao, WANG Qian
    2010, 25 (10):  1797-1805.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1158KB) ( )   Save
    Ecosystem health has attracted considerable attention from different disciplines in recent years. Until now, nearly all types of ecosystems have been evaluated by the criterion of ecosystem health. However, its definition, analysis and evaluation still remain a disputed issue not only to focus on its general concept but also on operational practice. As a result, these disputations have caused confusion and limited the further research in the field of ecosystem health. In this paper, we attempt to introduce a new perspective to the concept of ecosystem health; with the aid of modern statistical methodology, such as factor analysis and normal distribution theory, we provide a conceptual approach to the assessment of ecosystem health. By using a simulated dataset, we evaluated 100 ecosystems and found 11 unhealthy ones. We develop a new way to quantitatively analyze and assess ecosystem health and our conceptual framework could be applied to various categories of ecosystems.
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    Special Forum
    Comparative Study Biomass Utilization in China and India from the Perspective of Energy Supply Security
    XU Xiang-yang
    2010, 25 (10):  1806-1812.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (533KB) ( )   Save
    As both China and India are two countries with huge population and energy consumption, how to meet the increase demand for energy with the quick increase of population and economic growth and how to provide energy security supply are urgent issues under consideration. It has important practical and reference meaning for China to analyze the biomass energy policy of India. Since 1993 when China first became the net crude oil import country, the imported amount crude oil of China was only 290×104 t in 2004, the dependency of imported crude oil was only 1.9%. In 2009, the imported amount crude oil of China was 21888.5×104 t, while the dependency of imported crude oil increased to be 52.5%. The increasing dependency for international oil market gives the big risk and challenge for Chinese energy security supply. China has made great achievements on biomass utilization during the period of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, but there still exists some problems, the main problems are unreliable raw material source, unstable operation and management cost, lack of overall planning, electricity grid connection problems in some areas and needs to improve and match for related policy and operation details. All the above problems affect the development of Chinese biomass industry development. Indian government actively supported the biomass utilization technology, including make full use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to support biomass CDM projects. The number of biomass CDM projects occupies 1/3 of total India registered CDM projects. The reason that Indian government paid so much effort to develop small scale biomass CDM project came from the consideration to diversify energy security supply and to eliminate poverty. India’s effort to develop biomass project under the perspective of diversify energy supply and to support rural sustainable development has reference meaning to China.
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