Table of Content

    15 May 2007, Volume 22 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Limited Water Level Adjustment and Risk Management of Reservoir s Based on Flood Resour ce Utilization
    2007, 22 (3):  329-340.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (147KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the concept of “flood resource utilization”and influencing factors of adjusting the limited level of reservoirs during the flood season, an indices-evaluating system and estimating method about risk and performance related to the adjustment of limited level was set up, and the risk management countermeasure of the water level adjustment was discussed.Taking Wuqiangxi reservoir as an example, this study comprehensively evaluated the risk and performance brought by adjusting the limited level and the application the fuzzy-optimum-seeking method to adjust the limited level.According to the comprehensive analysis, it is feasible to raise the current limited level of 98.00m to 100.00m in the flood season.Under the condition of the low flood control risk,some 1.85 ×108m3 of flood probably excreted can be utilized efficiently, but this project must be carried out only at strengthening the risk management of real-time dispatching. Obviously, it is important to heighten the limited level and reserve more flood to realize the flood resource utilization.
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    Review on the Resear ches of Land Use Change at Farm Household Level
    ZHONG Tai-yang, HUANG Xian-jin
    2007, 22 (3):  341-352.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (89KB) ( )   Save
    This paper gives a comprehensive description of the researches of land use change at farm household level from the four aspects of investigation respect,research content,study method and data collecting means, and summarizes the features of the researches on land use change at farm household level.The main features are: ( 1)Most of the researches give notices on the land use change of hot regions, particularly on the tropical-forest area. ( 2) Lots of the researches attribute the land use changes on the pressure of subsistence to the population growth and the agriculture expansion which is also related with the population growth. ( 3) The attention of researches is being converted from land use type change to both land use conversion and land use intensity change. ( 4)More and more methods are applied by the researches of land use change at farm household level and integrated methods are appreciated by more and more studies. ( 5) The impacts of the decision-making behaviors of land users or managers on land use change are emphasized by most researches. ( 6) The social survey using questionnaires becomes a main toolof data collecting,but more and more investigations combine the social survey using questionnaires and the techniques of “3S” to get the data on land use change and its driving forces at farm household level, and devote to connecting the social survey data and the remote sensing data. Although much progress has been made in theory and practice of land use change research at farm household level, and some important results have been obtained, there still have certain problems in previous researches.These problems go as follows:the results of land use change study at farm household level can not be easily applied to other microeconomic agents, the results in one region should be much carefully applied to any other regions, the relation and interaction between different hierarchical data have been neglected, the acquiring cost of data which contains economic data and its corresponding space information is still an obstacle for the land use change research at agricultural household level, and the relation between spacial characteristics of farm household’s behaviors and the land use change’s spatial distribution has not been adequately emphasized.Furthermore, some suggestions of further studies on land use change at agricultural household level are put forward in this paper.These suggestions include applying multiple-level research angle, using game theory to analyze the land use change determined by the interaction of different agents, applying multilevel analysis in empirical study, emphasizing the impact of spacial characteristics of farm household’s behaviors on land use change and its spatial distribution, improving data acquisition means, building continuous survey system comp-rising of given farm households and so on.
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    Resear ch on Gr adation Evaluation of Cultivated Land Conservation in Suzhou City
    SU Wei-zhong1, YANG Gui-shan1, GU Chao-lin2
    2007, 22 (3):  353-360.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (104KB) ( )   Save
    Under the background of globalization and informatization of the world economy, the rapid economic growth and process of urbanization in Suzhou city in future will aggravate the conservation pressure on cultivated land.It is time to consider and redefine the connotation of current cultivated land conservation concept. ( 1)Based on domestic and foreign related researches and the framework of PSR( Pressure-State-Response)model, this paper proposes the gradation evaluation indicator system of cultivated land conservation in Suzhou city among which the Pressure indicator is the environment pressure of cultivated land, and the State indicator is the soil quality and land fragmentation, and the Response indicator is per unit area yield of grain.( 2) Individual indicator evaluation results show that the environment pressure of cultivated land caused by rapid population and economic growth, urban sprawl and freeway networks infrastructure construction is very outstanding; the soil quality of cultivated land is very good, and the land is fertile; the fragmentation is evident because of the division of urban, transport land, lakes, rivers and highland terrain; the unit production ( 6683kg/ha) is higher than that of Jiangsu Province ( 5954kg/ha) and the whole country ( 4399kg/ha) .( 3) The correlative analysis of these individual indicators show that the correlative coefficient is very small, and the various relationships between indicators are performed according to different regional characteristics, and accordingly their weights are difficult to be defined.Based on the research result of correlative analysis of indicators, the paper adopts the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis method for the general gradation evaluation of cultivated land conservation.The results show that the ratio of the area of the 4 ranks is 33.6 ∶32.4 ∶26.7 ∶7.3.The cultivated land of rank S1 is located in the rural areas outside urbanization region and lake areas where four indicators are very good.The cultivated land of rank S2 is located in the Yanjiang plains and the urbanized marginal areas where the soil quality is good, and the level of food production is high.The cultivated land of rank S3 is scattered in the urbanized marginal area and lake-hilly areas where four indicators are common. The cultivated land of rank S4 is scattered in the areas around big cities and lakes hilly areas. ( 4) Then on the basis of regional characteristics and indicators relationships of each cultivated land conservation rank, the gradation system of the 4 ranks is subdivided into 9 ranks, and some conservation measures about cultivated land for each rank are also pointed out.
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    Analysis on the Development and Evolution of Tidal Flats and R eclamation of Land Resource along Shore of Shanghai City
    LI Jiu-fa, DAI Zhi-jun, YING Ming, WU Rong-rong, FU Gui, XU Hai-gen
    2007, 22 (3):  361-370.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (267KB) ( )   Save
    There was about 62% land resource of Shanghai developed as a result of the deposi-ti on of sediment from the Yangtze River in the past 2 000 years.Especially in the latest 50 years, some efficient methods included Inning-Siltation Promotion-Inning, had been adopted to block up the sediment and to create land.These reclamated land resource amounting to 1.01×105hm2 had the land area enlarged by 15.8% in Shanghai.Obviously, it was important that the reclamation of land could alleviate shortage of land resource for the development of Shanghai, and promote industrial and agricultural development and capital construction.Based on the data of the tidal flat elevation data obgained by GIS and the long term field survey of hydrology and sediment, it was found that the abundant sediment from the Yangtze River and its adjacent areas, the hydrologic regimes around the Yangtze River estuary were advantageous to create new land resource.Many projects, which included crop cultivation works, waterway closure works, siltation promotion project on low tidal flats, piling up sediment from shallow seabed to the inner region of the dam, damming under water, etc., had been successfully adopted around the shore of Shanghai.Different methods should be used at the corresponding phase in order to take a great advantage of the sediment supplied by the Yangtze River for promoting siltation.For example, some Inning Projects such as crop cultivation works and river branch closure works were developed at the middle and high tidal flats, which could accelerate the siltation of tidal flats and the increment of land resource.However, the projects of damming works and piling up sediment from shallow seabed to the inner region of the dam were done at the low tidal flats, which resulted in the expansion of the land resources and exposure of shallow sea topography.It was proved over the past 50 years that situations between reclaimed areas of land and changes of the areas of wetland and tidal flats could keep sustainable development.
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    Allocation of Newly-added Quota of Regional Construction Land Based on Pr incipal Components Analysis and AHP-GEM Model —A Case Study of J iangsu Province
    YIN Shao-mei1, 2, JIN Xiao-bin1, ZHOU Yin-kang1, ZHAO Yao-yang1, LI Ji-jun2
    2007, 22 (3):  371-379.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (101KB) ( )   Save
    The newly added quota of construction land is very vital to the regional economic development.With the rapid growth of economy,the contradiction between construction land supply and demands has become further sharpened due to the scarcity of land resources. Therefore rational allocation of construction land is becoming more and more urgent. In order to allocate the newly added regional construction land rationally and scientifically, taking Jiangsu as an example,this paper first selects 13 factors as original indexes.Then principal components analysis method is applied to integrate these factors into three indexes,which are population resource, economic society,and urban development. Based on these indexes, the study applies AHP-GEM model to allocate the newly increased quota of construction land in Jiangsu Province.Result shows that the proportions of the allocation could be divided into four levels.In all of the three first level cities,Suzhou has the maximum allocated proportion (18.80%), followed by Wuxi and Nanjing with the percentages of 16.78 and 11.20 respectively.The second level consists of Nantong (7.93%) and Changzhou (7.81%).At the third level,Yangzhou, Zhenjiang, Yancheng,Taizhou and Xuzhou are allocated 6.03%,5.91%,5.51%,5.33%,and 5.00% respectively. Finally,Huaian,Lianyungang and Suqian belong to the forth level with the percentages of 3.65, 3.03 and 3.01 respectively. At the end of this paper,conclusions and suggestions for the newly added construction land allocation are presented.(1) The result basically reflects the increased construction land demand in a region.(2)AHP-GEMmodel combines the advantages of both AHP method and GEM method. Hence,it is more objective to allocate the newly added construction land quota using AHP-GEM model.(3)Choosing an appropriate index is important to apply this model.This index should better be a forecast value.(4)With minor modifications, this model can be adopted to allocate the newly added construction land at all levels, such as state, provincial,and county levels etc.
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    Ecological Secur ity Evaluation of Regional Agr icultur e Sustainable Development: A Case Study on Fujian Province
    YAO Cheng-sheng, ZHU He-jian
    2007, 22 (3):  380-388.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (113KB) ( )   Save
    Agriculture ecological security is the foundation of regional ecological security, and is the basis of sustainable development.Based on the existing study on the ecological security in and out of China, the evaluation indexes of ecological security of agriculture sustainable development in Fujian province was carried out.According to the evaluation indexes, Fujian province was taken as a case study and its ecological security situation of agriculture sustainable development from 1981 to 2004 was assessed quantitatively.The result shows: the security index of agriculture production environment decreased from 0.573 in 1981 to 0.424 in 1996, a decreased of 26% and an annual average decrease ratio of 1.63%; then it increased from 0.424 in 1996 to 0.476 in 2004.The security index of agricultural resources decreased unsteadily from 0.623 in 1981 to 0.350 in 2004, a decrease of 43.82% and an annual average decrease ratio of 1.83%; but during the period of 1998 to 2004, it decreased sharply from 0.517 to 0.350, an annual average decrease ratio of 4.76% which was 2.6 times of the average decrease ratio of the 24 years.While to variation of rural development index, it can be divided into two stages:the first stage was from 1981 to 1998, during this period the index increased from 0.285 to 0.629, an increase of 120.7% and an annual average increase ratio of 6.71%; and the second stage was from 1998 to 2004, and the index was in a steady situation.The variation of the ecological security index of regional agriculture sustainable development (CESIRASD) can be divided into three stages:the first stage was from 1981 to 1986, during this period the index decreased from 0.482 to 0.446; the second stage was from 1986 to 1998, the index increased from 0.446 to 0.529; and the third stage was from 1998 to 2004, and the index decreased from 0.529 to 0.472.Taking 2003 as an example, the main obstacles of ecological security of regional agriculture sustainable development was diagnosed.The result shows that the main threats came from the two aspects:the agricultural resources security and agriculture production environment security.The limiting contributions of agriculture resource security, agriculture producing environment security and rural social development were 45.32%, 33.92% and 20.76% respectively.Finally, in order to improve the ecological security level of agriculture sustainable development in Fujian province, some advices were put forward, such as intensifying protection of the cultivated land, improving the multiplecropping index and the production of the grain, reducting resources input per unit area, developing advanced agricultural production technology and construction of eco-agriculture, etc.
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    Livestock Car rying Capacity and Balance Between Car rying Capacity of Gr assland with Added For age and Actual Livestock in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    QIAN Shuan1, MAO Liu-xi1, HOU Ying-yu1, FU Yang2, ZHANG Hai-zhen2, DU Jun3
    2007, 22 (3):  389-397.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (203KB) ( )   Save
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    Water Cycle in Taihang Mt. and Its Recharg to Groundwater in Nor th China Plain
    SONG Xian-fang1, LI Fa-dong2, 3, LIU Chang-ming1, TANG Chang-yuan1, 2,
    2007, 22 (3):  398-408.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (125KB) ( )   Save
    Researches on water cycle in Taihang Mt. is vital not only to mountainous areas but also to groundwater recharge in adjacent piedmont.As one of the essential recharge sources for North China Plain (NCP) , a few results on status of water cycle and groundwater recharge into NCP have been reported, and the associated mechanisms have not been revealed clearly.Here, the mechanism and recharge processes of water in Taihang Mt. to NCP, with a case study in Niujiazhuang Catchment and the nested Shimen Catchment within it which is located at the middle of Taihang Mt., were presented.The results, from April to November 2004 for example, indicate the amount of lateral recharge from mountainous area to the adjacent piedmont was 1.53×106m3 with recharge ratio ( calculated by total recharge /total precipitation) of 0.242 in the order of upper reaches References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Analysis of Haihe River Basin Hydrometeorological Spatio-tempor al Var iability Based on GIS and Information Differ ence Measur e
    XIA Jun1, OU Chun-ping1, 2, G. H. HUANG3, WANG Zhong-gen1
    2007, 22 (3):  409-414.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (184KB) ( )   Save
    The spatio-temporal variability analysis of hydrometeorological factors are crucial for further understanding hydrological process and hydrological /meteorological modelling.Traditional temporal variability was quantitatively described using Coefficient of Variation based on statistics.In this paper, we combined information entropy theory with GIS spatial analysis technology to analyze the spatio-temporal variability of annual precipitation, evaporation and air temperature.A new spatio-temporal variability analysis method which is based on the differential information entropy relatively estimates is also presented.This study was conducted using 31 gauge stations precipitation, evaporation and air temperature data of Haihe river basin during the period from 1960 to 2001.The results intuitionisticly expressed the hydrologic and meteorological spatio-temporal variability rule of Haihe river basin, which lays solid foundation for further understanding the changes of water cycle of the study area.It is concluded that the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation and evaporation of the Haihe River Basin is relatively great and the spatio-temporal variability of temperature is relative small.
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    A Study of Groundwater Cycle in Yongding River Basin by Using δD, δ18O and Hydrochemical Data
    YU Jing-jie1, SONG Xian-fang1, LIU Xiang-chao2, YANG Cong1, TANG Chang-yuan1,3,
    2007, 22 (3):  415-423.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (106KB) ( )   Save
    By using environmental isotopes and hydrochemical components as tracers in surveying water circulation, this paper revealed the groundwater circulation characteristics in the Yongding River Basin.By field surveying and groundwater sampling in the shallow and deep aquifers, the hydrochemistry and hydrogen and oxygen isotope components were measured.Then the spatial distribution rule and evolvement tendency of δD and δ18O and hydrochemical components of the groundwater in the deep and low aquifers were analyzed for revealing the groundwater cycle characteristics in the Yongding River Basin.The results indicated that the main recharge source of the groundwater in the piedmont region is precipitation, and evaporation process of different degrees has undergone after groundwater recharge from rainfall in the basin. Feeble evaporation process has occurred in the mountain region and intene evaporation process in the plain region, especially intense evaporation-concentration process for the groundwater in the shallow aquifer in the plain region.The hydrochemical characteristics of the groundwater manifested that the mineralization degree of the groundwater ascends gradually from the mountain region and the piedmont plain to the seashore plain, and from the shallow aquifer to the deep aquifer.Evident inter-aquifer recharge phenomena exist between the shallow groundwater and the deep aquifer under the plain.While the phenomenon of seawater encroaching to the aquifer does not exist.
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    A Study on Effects of Ground Cover on Dynamics of Soil Moistur e and Water Balance
    LIU Shi-yu1,2, ZUO Chang-qing3, ZHU Jin-zhao1
    2007, 22 (3):  424-433.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (186KB) ( )   Save
    The effects of Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and its litter on dynamics of soil moisture and water balance were studied by using Lysimeter in the slopeland of red soil.The results indicated that surface runoff coefficient of Bahia grass’ coverage (A), Bahia grass’ mulching (B) and CK (C) was 1.35%, 2.78% and 32.74% respectively.Surface runoff of C was 24.25 times of A and 11.78 times of B.Changing laws of monthly mean soil moisture of A, B and C showed that the effects of ground cover on soil moisture were different because of seasons and that different ground cover could increase or decrease soil moisture.Their annual mean soil moisture was B (27.09%)>A(26.46%)>C(26.27%).There were obvious differences between every gradient of water balance.On condition that precipitation was 1 808.5mm in 2002, the total runoff depth of A, B and C was 1 245.24mm, 1 453.81mm and 1 383.23mm respectively; their evapotranspiration was 562.74mm, 347.91mm and 413.82mm respectively; their annual soil moisture variation was 0.52 mm, 6.78mm and 11.45mm respectively.
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    Impact of Land Policy Reform on Land Use Efficiency and Economic Benefit in China:A Per spective from Shenzhen Special Economic Zone
    YE Tao1,2, SHI Pei-jun1
    2007, 22 (3):  434-444.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (352KB) ( )   Save
    Land use efficiency and benefit are the most important indexes measuring rationality of land resources utilization.It is of great significance to the study on the impact of land policy change on land use efficiency and benefit for land policy assessment and revision.In this paper, the authors try to reveal the impacts of urban land policy reform on land use efficiency and economic benefit using quantitative approach,taking Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ),the pioneer of urban land policy reform in China as a case. First of all,land policy reform is reviewed from two aspects,which are changes in land property rights and changes in the system of land rent and land price.On one hand,the impacts of policy changes on land transaction were decomposedinto four implement variables,including prescription of land property rights,transferability of land property rights,ways of transaction in primary land market,and ways of transaction in secondary and tertiary land markets based on reviewing land policy reform.A multiplicative model is employed here to integrate their changes and calculate the value of implement variable of land policy.On the other hand,land use efficiency and economic benefit are calculated.The result indicates that their changes are approximately synchronous with the changes in land policy.Land policy,land use efficiency and economic benefit finally show significant correlations with coefficients of 0.743 and 0.879, respectively.This result also proves that land policy reform in China did bring significantly positive effects in socioeconomic development.
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    Theoretical and Empir ical Study on the Land Market and Land Use Intensity—A Case of the Development Zones in Jiangsu Province
    QU Fu-tian, WU Yu-ling
    2007, 22 (3):  445-454.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (79KB) ( )   Save
    It’s a formidable task for a long time in China that how to utilize the land resources intensively and protect farmlands.The improvement of land use intensity is an important embodiment for the optimum land allocation.Market is the basic and efficient way to allocate resource. However, different market degrees can lead to different efficiencies of resource allocation and utilization.On the basis of building a framework of different land use efficiencies under the effect of market and government in different land market development stages, the article makes an empirical study on the development zones in Jiangsu province.By factor analysis and multifactors analysis model, and on the basis of the data of economy and land use in 2004, this study measured the development of land market and the intensity of land use in different land market stage.The result of the study suggests that on the whole, the stage of land market development is rather high, while the stage is different in different development zones.For example, the degree of land market in Wujiang and Nanjing development zones is 78% and 69% , respectively.The degree of land market in Yixing, Zhangjiagang and other 13 development zones is between 50% and 65%; at the same time, the degree of land market is between 30% and 50% in 23 development zones; and as for the remaining 4 development zones, the degree is only between 15% and 3 0%.So, the stage of land market in 33.4% of the development zones is in the end of transition to re latively mature stage; while the stage of land market in 57.1% of the development zones is in the m iddle transition stage.At the same time, the intensity of land use is different in different land marke t stages.The score of the intensity index of land use in the end of transition to relatively mature sta ge is 65.49, which is higher than that of the middle of transition stage.Because the score of intensit y index of the latter is only 48.85, the former is higher than the latter.So, the paper thinks the inno vation method to improve land use intensity is to change the mechanism of land management, and l et market mechanism become the main way to allocate land resource.
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    Analysis on Nutr ient Flow of Corn Production- Consumption System in China
    LI Jian-hui1, MA Lin1, WANG Ji-qing2, WANG Fang-hao2, MA Wen-qi1, ZHANG Fu-suo2
    2007, 22 (3):  455-462.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.015
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    The method that linked material flow with nutrient flow was adopted in this article in order to study nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient flows in the whole process from the fertilizer input to the consumption of corn.Nutrient flow model was firstly established in corn productionconsumption system.Taking the year 2004 for example, in which the characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in maize ( including straw) and the efficiency of resources utilization were estimated.In 2004, 5.496×106 tons of nitrogen (N) and 2.112×106 tons of phosphorus ( P2O5) were applied into corn field in the form of chemical fertilizers; and 3.429×106 tons of nitrogen (N) and 1.394×106 tons of phosphorus ( P2O5) were harvested, in which 75%(N) and 68%( P2O5) were consumed.Corn was used for making staple feed.The total amount of N and P2O5 that came into the families, including directly by plant products and industrial products, and indirectly by animal products, occupying 22.8% and 13.6%, respectively.The ratio of returning straw to the field was quite low—phosphorus was about 80%, higher than that of nitrogen, which was 47%.So the returning straw to the field was regarded as an effective measure for phosphorus utilization. Nutrient flow began with the input of resource in the corn production-consumption system, but the utilization efficiency of resources was very low.Lots of resources were consumed by corn production, while 1 ton of nutrients in corn was produced, nitrogen and phosphorus which were consumed in the form of fertilizer were equal to 5.2 tons of coal and 12.1 tons of phosphorite, respectively.Therefore, optimizing nutrient flow in the entire corn production-consumption system was vital to the improvement of efficiency of nutrient resources and minimization environmental pollution.
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    Beneficial Pr ediction and Assessment of Cloud and Air Water Resour ce Exploitation over the Qilian Mountain
    WANG Jing, WEI Yuan-ming, GUO Ni, ZHANG Kai, WANG Xiao-ping
    2007, 22 (3):  463-470.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.016
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    Qilian Mountain is famous mountain system in China and has a great many of glaciers, from which runoff is very important to the piedmont corridor area of the mountain.In addition, there is a water vapor transportation belt in this region, which brings abundant cloud and air water resources.Thus, cloud and air water resource exploiture project in the region is very meaningful and beneficial. In order to assess the synthetic benefit of cloud and air water resource exploitation, reasonable index system including 25 indexes was constructed in this paper.It involved social, economic and ecological effects.Then, choosing 11 indexes and using AHP ( analytic hierarchy process) method, each index weight was evaluated and synthetic assessment model was established clearly. In this paper, on the basis of Kang’s result about the impacts of precipitation enhancement on runoff flow from the mountain in the northwest arid region, the water resource and socioeconomic conditions after cloud and air water resource exploiation over the Qilian Mountain were predicted rationally.Finally, the synthetic benefit of cloud and air water resource exploitation over the Qilian Mountains was assessed integrally.The results showed that the social, economic and ecological benefit all would be improved remarkably after the cloud and air water resource exploitation over the Qilian Mountain.When precipitation increased by 10%, the synthetic benefit would be improved by 5.3%, and when precipitation increased by 20%, the synthetic benefit would be improved by 12.5%.
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    Evolution Tr end and Causation Analysis of the Runoff Evolution in the Yar lung Zangbo River Basin
    LIU Jian1, 2, YAO Zhi-jun1, CHEN Chuan-you1
    2007, 22 (3):  471-477.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.017
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    This paper makes use of the monthly natural runoff data from1956 to 2000, the monthly air temperature data and precipitation data from 1956 to 2004 to analyze the evolution characteristics of the runoff in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin in the later half of the 20th century and the relation between runoff evolution and climatic change.The results show that the interannual evolution of the runoff in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin is stable, but the intraannual distribution of the runoff is extremely uneven, the maximum monthly runoff accounts for 30.1%, while the minimum runoff only accounts for 2.1%, and indication of the great difference in the runoff between low water season and flood water season.The climate in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin is calefactive, and the increasing trend of the precipitation is obvious, having the same evolution periods with runoff.After elementary analysis of the decadal runoff in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin, we found that the increase of the water supply is mainly controlled by climate change, but is also affected by the changes of the earth surface conditions in the basin and maybe a representation of the long period of variation of high and low stream flow. Relevant data are required to validate and analyze this kind of periodic variations.
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    The Distr ibution and Diver sity of Landscape Patches in Differ ent Lithology-Landform Types in Kar st Mountainous Ar eas
    SHAO Jing-an1, 2, LI Yang-bing3, WANG Shi-jie4, WEI Chao-fu1, XIE De-ti1
    2007, 22 (3):  478-485.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.018
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    Abiotic environmental spatial variations and various disturbances were main divers, which resulted in landscape heterogeneity.Spatial patterns of landscape elements were dominantly enslaved to landform characteristics and disturbances.The objective of this study was to use Landsat TM data at a spatial resolution of 30m, 1:50 000 topographic map and 1:250 000 DEM in 2000 to determine the distribution of landscape patches and the relations among the distribution of landscape patches, lithologic types and landform types basing on patch distribution and diversity index across middle-low mountains, hills, basins and valleys from southwestern Guizhou province, China.The results indicated that in the study site, shrubbery land, sparse-forest land and moderate coverage grassland were dominant landscape types.They were obvious landscape matrixes, and controlled landscape patterns and their evolvements.Moreover, there was an evident difference of landscape patches in different lithology-landform areas.Paddy, dryland, sparse-forest land and sparsely covered grasslands are distributed primarily in intermontane basins and plateau surface of homogenous limestone, limestone /clastic rock alternations and limestone interbedded with clastic rock areas, and river valley zone, which are rich in water and heat and are located at north of the study area.Forestland and shrubbery land occurred mainly in shallow and moderate dissected low mountains.Sparsely covered grassland and shrubbery land were detected mainly on low, middle and high hills, which are dissected deeply or shallowly in homogenous dolomite areas.Seen from spatial patterns and assemblages of karst rock desertification, soil erosion and forest degradation, lithology and landform played pronounced roles in controlling the processes of eco-environmental heterogeneity.
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    Heavy Metals in Plants Growing on Ni /Cu Mining Areas in Deser t,Nor thwest China and the Adaptive Pioneer Species
    LIAO Xiao-yong, CHEN Tong-bin, YAN Xiu-lan, XIE Hua, ZHAI Li-mei,
    2007, 22 (3):  486-495.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.03.019
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    The types and metal concentrations of the plant communities in Jinchang’s Ni /Cu mining areas in desert of Northwestern China were investigated.The number of plant species in different zone is in the order:strip mine ( 20 species) >around new tailing pond zone ( 13 species) >around strip mine zone ( 8 species) >around old tailing pond zone ( 6 species) >old tailing pond ( 5 species) .Thirty-two species belonging to 30 genera and 14 families were found growing on the spoil heap, including 9 dominant species:Echinops gmelini Turcz, Asterothamnus centraliasiaticus Novopokr, Crepis flexuosa ( Ledeb.) Clarke, Mulgedium tataricum ( L.) DC., Phragmites communis Trin., Stipa sp., Peganum harmala L., Nitraria sphaerocarpa Maxim., and Ceratocarpus arenarius L.The investigation showed that E. gmelini, C. flexuosa, M. tataricum, P. communis and C. densa were adaptive pioneer species, and planting Stipa sp. and C. arenarius could be used to remediate contaminated lands.The average Cu concentration in the aboveground plants was 52.9mg/kg, which was higher than the average concentrations of other metals.Ni concentrations in the aboveground plants were 5.1 ~155.6mg/kg, and the average value was 39.1mg/kg.Ni and Cu concentrations in the aboveground of C. arenarius were the highest, 155.6 and 239.0 mg/kg, respectively.The result of regressive analysis indicated that uptake and enrichment of Ni by the plants was closely associated with Cu, and Ni concentrations in the plants were enhanced with the increased Cu concentration.
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