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    25 March 2008, Volume 23 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    The Resource-Environmental Base:A Start Point for China's Man-Land Relationship
    ZHANG Lei
    2008, 23 (2):  177-184.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (666KB) ( )   Save
    As the top of ecological chain on the earth, our human society,nowadays,has already been in the process of modernization. Even though, no one could be living on the earth without a fully supply of natural materials and an entirely protection of environment. In fact,material supply and environmental protection are still the first needs for human society today. No matter how advanced a country is, the status of natural resource-environment is still the key preconditions for its survival,and any instability of the resource-environmental base caused whether by natural or by man himself could stop civilizations evolve. That is why inquiring a coordinated relationship between natural resource-environment and human society has become the principal target for the sustainable development of all nations.China,as one of the largest developing countries in the world, proves again the fact itself that the precondition and stability of the national resource-environmental base are the decisive factors for the changing pattern of spatial organization in human social activities of the country. It is well known that East China by south had acted as a central place of the national civilization for a long time, and has becoming even more important for the whole country nowadays since the implementation of the "Open Door Policy" in the late 1970s. Such a development of East China by south,according to the analysis of the man-Land Relationship Model in this paper,is proved to stand by better conditions of local resource and environment. It is, therefore, to fully understand this phenomenon of man-land relationship based upon the natural resource-environment could benefit a lot for a sustainable development of China in future.
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    Discussion on the Pattern of the Sea Area Usage Dynamic Monitoring System in China
    FU Yuan-bin, ZHAO Jian-hua, WANG Quan-ming, JIA Kai, MIAO Feng-min
    2008, 23 (2):  185-193.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (654KB) ( )   Save
    The sea area is an essential basic resource of China just the same as the land, furthermore, the sea area is also of great significance to the economy, environment, national defence and so on. Because of the lack of virtual monitoring of the sea area usage in the past, the sea area managers could not accurately know the trends of the sea area usage, so it was very difficult for them to make reasonable management decisions, this problem has resulted in lots of natural disasters relating to marine resources and environment. Taking the speciality analyse of the sea area usage as basis and the correlative monitoring pattern as reference, this paper discussed the pattern of the sea area usage monitoring system in China in both aspects of technology and operation. For the first time, the primary conceptual framework of the dynamic sea area usage monitoring system was formed in China.
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    Determinants of Sustainable Common Pool Resource Use at Micro Level
    TAN Shu-hao, WANG Ji-min, TU Qin, QU Fu-tian
    2008, 23 (2):  194-203.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (287KB) ( )   Save
    Grassland is worldwide common pool resource. Existing studies on grassland degradation focuses in particular on technical solutions, with little attention to the institutional and policy driving factors of herders' behavior and the resulting in environmental effects. This may explain why the degraded grassland area is still expanding at a rate of about 2 million ha per year, despite the huge efforts made by the Chinese government at different levels to control grassland degradation. By analyzing data from 231 households from 17 counties of 6 provinces in western China and field survey information around Qinghai Lake collected in 2006 and 2007, this paper gives some interesting insights into how the institutional, policy and market factors drive the main and basic decision-makers on rangeland management in western China, and what the resulting environmental consequences are from the herders' activity choices under the prevailing rangeland property rights. Based on the main findings, policy implications can be suggested: when managing rangelands towards degradation alleviation, government's support on financing fencing, shed construction and forbidden grazing are very needed by the micro decision-makers. Policies that can help herders to be more likely involved in off-farm employment and to increase their income are desirable. In addition, to reduce the population pressure on rangelands is undoubtedly an effective way of alleviating degradation.
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    Study on Cropping Structure Optimization in Region Short of Water—A Case Study of North China
    GAO Ming-jie, LUO Qi-you
    2008, 23 (2):  204-210.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (281KB) ( )   Save
    In the regions short of water, the adjustment of cropping structure is also an important measure to save water in agriculture besides water-saving irrigation techniques and cultivation techniques. Considering the harmonious development of economy, society and ecology, the thesis established a multi-objective fuzzy optimization model for regional water-saving cropping structure which conquers the limitation that economic benefit is regarded but social and ecological benefits are ignored in the previous studies. The multi-objective fuzzy optimization model is applied in the study for water-saving cropping structure adjustment in North China where the water scarcity is very serious. The result of calculation presents an optimized schedule of water-saving cropping structure in 2010 and 2030. The planting proportion of crops with high water consumption is reduced and that of low water consumption was increased in the schedule, and water use efficiency is improved gradually.
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    Studies on the Effects of Climatic Warming-drying Trend and Land Use Change on the Runoff in the Jinghe River Basin
    QIU Guo-yu, YIN Jing, XIONG Yu-jiu, ZHAO Shao-hua, WANG Pei, WU Xiu-qin, ZENG Shuang
    2008, 23 (2):  211-218.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (571KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis of nearly thirty years meteorological and hydrological data (1970-2002) and remote sensing data of the 1980s and the 1990s, SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) developed by USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was adopted to study the change of the eco-hydrological characteristics in the Jinghe River Basin under the conditions of climatic warming-drying trend and aggravated human activities. After model validation and field verification, our results showed that the model SWAT could precisely predict the eco-hydrological processes in the Jinghe River Basin. Results showed that from the 1980s to the 1990s the mean annual precipitation decreased, especially in July, August and September. Affected by climate warming-drying trend and land-use change, the mean annual runoff reduced 8.92 m3s-1. By respectively fixing the climatic factors and the land-use factors in the Jinghe River Basin, and putting the simulated scenarios into the SWAT model, the effects of climate change and land-use change on the mean annual runoff in the Jinghe River Basin were obtained. From the 1980s to the 1990s, the climatic warming-drying alone could reduce the mean annual runoff by 28.08 m3s-1, which is about 314.80% of the actual runoff reduction. Meanwhile, the land-use change alone could increase the mean annual runoff by 26.57 m3s-1, which is about 297.87% of the actual runoff change from the 1980s to the 1990s. Both the climate and land use changes significantly affect the runoff in the Jinghe River Basin.
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    A Study on Effects of Soil and Water Conservation Measurements on Sloping Land in Guizhou
    ZHU Qing, WANG Zhao-qian, YIN Di-xin
    2008, 23 (2):  219-229.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (210KB) ( )   Save
    After eight-year study on effects of soil and water conservation measurements which were alley cropping,cross channel and cross planting on sloping land in Guizhou,the results showed soil erosion on the bared sloping farmland was very serious.The runoff reached 4044.4 m3/ha·a and the soil loss reached 172.4t/ha·a on it.The topsoil (15cm) will be eroded and the productivity of soil will be lost after 12 years in case of such erosion.Cross channel measurement on sloping land could reduce runoff by 702.6m3/ha·a and soil loss by 19.2t/ha·a compared with cross planting measurement,but the crop yield and income were low since the cross channel occupied much more area of land.Alley cropping measurement could reduce runoff by 345.3 m3/ha·a and soil loss by 21.0t/ha·a in comparison with cross planting measurement.Although parts of land were occupied by alley crops,the crop yield did not reduce.Soil pH,soil texture and nutrition contained in top soil were enhanced and the soil erosion rate was further lower than soil weathering rate under alley cropping measurement.Combined with land cultivation, the sloping land could be terraced at a speed of 17.5cm per year and slow down the sloping at a speed of 1.1°.The sloping land to be terraced and to be cultivated sustainably can be achieved under the alley cropping measurement finally.
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    Analysis of Ecological Sustainability in China Based on the Ecological Footprint Method
    CHEN Cheng-zhong, LIN Zhen-shan, LIANG Ren-jun
    2008, 23 (2):  230-236.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (629KB) ( )   Save
    The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a valid method for measuring sustainable development through ecological impact. It has gained much attention in academic, policy-oriented and popular literature since its introduction in the mid-1990s. However, only few studies have addressed the problem of EF in the realm of long time series prediction with nonlinear dynamic model. The fluctuant cycles of China's per capita ecological footprint and biocapacity from 1961 to 2005 are decomposed and picked-up based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method in this paper. Nonlinear dynamic prediction models are presented with the cycles, and per capita EF and BC in China are predicted from 2006 to 2015. This research could be meaningful for predicting regional sustainable development status; at the same time, we hope it would provide new access to effective methodology in predicting and interpreting the EF in long time series.Over last 44 years, the obvious undulation cycles of per capita EF growth in China are 4.3 years, 14.3 years and 17 years. Per capita BC growth in China is 3.5 years, 8.8 years, 17.7 years and 44 years. Per capita EF would decrease from 1.636gha in 2005 to 1.366gha in 2015 and per capita BC in China would increase from 0.925gha in 2005 to 1.108gha in 2015 if their average annual change rates are constant. Per capita ED in China would be 0.258gha in 2015. Therefore, China could denote sustainability at the global level with the growth of economic development, technology advancement, and standard of living enhancement.
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    Zonation of Vegetation on Depositional Area of Blowout in Hulun Buir Gassland
    ZHANG Ping, HASI Eerdun, WANG Shuai, ZHANG Su-hong
    2008, 23 (2):  237-244.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (407KB) ( )   Save
    Three types of modern blowouts including simple blowout,compound blowout on level grassland and simple blowout on stabilized dune are identified in sandy grassland of Hulun Buir.We investigate the morphology and vegetation distribution of sand deposit of blowouts and the results indicate that the distribution of plant species has a characteristic of zonation and species vary with the morphology and scales of sand deposit.The projected configuration of sand deposit of individual blowout on level grassland is tongue-shaped.From the edge of blowout to primary grassland there are three regular crescent-shaped plant zonations that were sequentially dominated by the species of Agriophyllum pungens,Agropyron cristatum and Thymus mongolicu with sand transport direction.The depositional area of combined blowout are dismembered by the dune with slip-face,bare tongue-shaped sandy zonation,crescent-shaped plant zonation of Calamagrostis epigejos following wind and stripped zonation dominated by Agropyron cristatum which are distributed in the two-sides of the two zonations on level grassland.On stabilized dune the bare depositional area of blowout that is tongued-shaped passes through the zonations of Rosa davurica and Caragana microphylla that grew on dune before the appearance of blowout and extends to primary grassland.The leeward of bare depositional area is occupied by crescent-shaped zonation of Calamagrostis epigejos.Analyzing the factor of vegetation zonation,we found there is a cubic equation correlation between Shannon-Wiener index and burial depth of sand,which suggests that the depth of deposition may be the major factor in zonation.These results demonstrate that the vegetation zonation is induced by sand-wind activity on sandy grassland.With the expanse of temporal and spatial scales of sand deposit of blowout,the primary grassland vegetation will degrade to sand vegetation in converse succession.
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    Response of the Plateau Lakes to Changes of Climate and Frozen Earth Environment in the Headwaters of the Yellow River since the 21st Century
    LI Lin, WU Su-xia, ZHU Xi-de, CHANG Guo-gang, LI Feng-xia
    2008, 23 (2):  245-253.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (693KB) ( )   Save
    Using the data of remote sensing of lakes from EOS-MODIS satellite and climate,frozen earth by monitoring from 2001 to 2006 in the headwaters of the Yellow River, this study analyzed the dynamic change of the high and chill lakes in the concerned region since the 21st century, described the developing background of the climate and frozen earth since the observation with apparatus, and then revealed the response to changes of the climate and frozen earth environment in terms of the area and the number of the lakes. The results indicated: the latest fluctuation coming from the headwaters of the Yellow River was an unanimous indication of the increase in area and quantity, which was more remarkable in the earlier flood period than in the later, and the change of the lakes in quantity was most obvious; the large background appeared in the last 52 years, including the increase in temperature, precipitation and evaporation, but the chief climatic characteristic was warm and moist since 2001,at the same time, the evaporation had been lessened apparently, and the thickness of the frozen earth had been decreased and the frozen time shortened due to the warmer climate; the lakes expanded and the number increased, at this time, the precipitation increased, evaporation decreased and the frozen earth deteriorated, which reinforced the melting of groundwater, all of these were the direct result of the changes of climate and frozen earth environment.
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    Analysis of the Situation of Grassland Degradation and It's Mechanism of the Alpine Pastoral Area in Northwestern Tibet
    BIAN Duo, LI Chun, YANG Xiu-hai, BIAN Ba-ciren, LI Lin
    2008, 23 (2):  254-262.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (566KB) ( )   Save
    Lying between 80.33°-94.93°E and 28.76°-36.49°N, the alpine pastoral area of northwestern Tibet is known as the ridge of the roof of world with a mean elevation of 4500 m. As an alpine pastoral area, the animal husbandry faces the dual pressures of both gaining the yield and protecting the pasture. The environmental condition of this area has significant effect on the main rivers, climate and eco-environment of Tibet and the whole country, even on the globe for its rigorous natural condition and fragile ecosystem.This study selected vegetation cover as the main evaluation index, and analyzed the present situation of grassland degradation and it’s mechanism of the alpine pastoral area in northwestern Tibet, based on the remote sensing data such as NDVI data derived from NOAA/AVHRR with a spatial resolution of 1 km of 1992-2005 and from MODIS with a spatial resolution of 0.5 km of 2002-2005 respectively in this area, in combination with investigation data of the actual condition of grassland resources completed according to the background material of the end of the 1980’s. The grassland degradation processes and their response to climate change during 1971-2005 were discussed and analyzed systematically in the study using meteorological data.The results show that grassland coverage rank degree presents normal distribution with ground vegetation being sparse as a whole in this region. According to the present degenerated situation, the total degenerated grassland area is 14.19×104km2 , occupying 39.64% of the region’s total natural pasture area. Of which light degenerated area is most extensive, being 65.96%, moderate and heavy degenerated areas are 25.20% and 8.84% respectively of the total degenerated grassland area.From the analysis, we can conclude that the direct factors related to grassland degeneration in the study area are climate change for the annual temperature increasing with cess precipitation in recent years in Naqu county. The indirect factors are over-grazing and human activities. For example, the overload rate reaches 59.18% as a result of domestic animal’s massive increase, thus bringing increasing pressure on part of pasture, and causing grassland degeneration and more and more serious desertification phenomenon. In addition, population increase and frequent human activities also bring serious damage to the grassland.
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    Estimation of Heihe Basin Net Primary Productivity Using the CASA Model
    CHEN Zheng-hua, MA Qing-yuan, WANG Jian, QI Yuan, LI Jing, HUANG Chun-lin, MA Ming-guo, YANG Guo-jing
    2008, 23 (2):  263-273.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1040KB) ( )   Save
    The terrestrial ecosystem is the supporting system for the biosphere as well as for human being’s survival and development. The research of net primary productivity will help in understanding the amount of carbon fixed by terrestrial vegetation and its influencing factors. The purpose of this paper was to find out the NPP spatial and temporal dynamic distribution in the Heihe Basin during 1998 to 2002, and analyze vegetation’s feedback on climatic conditions. The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) was selected to calculate NPP. The SPOT/VEGETATION, land use/land cover, meteorologic data and soil attribute were collected. The results validate the CASA’s applicability in inland watershed scale. The 5 years NPP variation in the Heihe Basin was monitored by the model. The upper, middle and lower reaches of the Heihe Basin contributed ~50%,~30% and ~20% to the total NPP of the basin respectively. From 1998 to 2000 the NPP decreased and then increased from 2000 to 2002. The NPP in the upper reaches of the basin was mainly controlled by heat because the vegetation seldom faced the problem of moisture shortage, and the NPP increased when temperature increased. The NPP in the middle reaches of the basin also had good relationship with heat. The reason was that the cropland plants could get adequate water supply when necessary because there were many reservoirs set up for irrigation system and factories. The NPP variation in the lower reaches of the basin was larger than upper and middle, and had weak relationship with meteorologic factors. The vegetation endured drought throughout the year and high temperature in summer. It seldom obtained water supply, even from the oasis along the river because of water interception by the middle reaches reservoirs. Desert plants mainly lived on groundwater to survive in case of drought.
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    Response of Liupan Mountain Ecological Tourism’Trails to Human Trampling Disturbance
    XI Jian-chao, HU Chuan-dong, WU Guo-zhu, WU Pu, GE Quan-sheng, CHENG Sheng-kui
    2008, 23 (2):  274-284.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (583KB) ( )   Save
    From the angles of the response of ecosystem and tourist perceptions,the response of Liupan mountain ecological tourism attraction trails to human being tourism trampling disturbance was studied.This study was conducted to investigate the patterns and extent of trampling impacts along the main tourism trails.In addition to vegetation change represented by cover reduction (CR) and floristic dissimilarity (FD),leftover reduction(LD),increase of soil hardness (SHI) and Index of Land Cover Impact (ILCI),the Limits of Acceptable Change(LAC) was also added as indicator for tourist impact.The results show that trampling disturbance mainly were limited in 1 to 3 miles along the trail;the composite ecosystem in Xiao Nanchuan with arbor,bosk and grass got most serious disturbance.Using ILCI and LAC Index the responses of the three typical ecosystems were assessed.The ILCI values of the investigating sections along the 1-meter trail impact is seriousy disturbed,then 2-3 meters, and beyond 3 meters,it is seldomly disturbed.Based on Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) questionnaires filled out by visitors,the standard of acceptable change in ground coverage was found to be 55.7 % of the coverage reduction from the trail.from this standard,the investigating areas along the 1-meter trail far exceed the LAC.The impac variables are correlated to the gradient,border area gradient and width of the trail.The Index of Land Cover Impact (ILCI) could be an useful index to evaluate the tourism disturbance.The results also indicate that the current tourism disturbance has had some negative effect on the tourist experience and ecosystem.Some suggestions for management were offered to minimize the trampling impacts of this trail.Improving the development environment,strengthening the planning of tourism attraction,and establishing the forest system and tourism information system would offer important guidance to the promotion of sustainable development of Liupan Mountain.
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    Land Use/Cover Change in the Qinghai Lake Watershed
    LI Xiao-yan, XU He-ye, MA Yu-jun, WANG Jian-hua, SUN Yong-liang
    2008, 23 (2):  285-296.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (768KB) ( )   Save
    In the recent years, Qinghai Lake has experienced severe declines in water level and its watershed is in an advanced state of ecological degradation, which resulted from both natural (climatic) and anthropogenic factors. However, information concerning human activities (e.g., land use/cover change) is scarce, therefore, it is necessary to know land use change and its effects on ecological degradation in the lake watershed. This would help us to have a better understanding of the effect of human activity on the processes of land degradation in the past and may enable the improvement of future planning strategies.Based on the multi-temporal remotely sensed data in 1977,1987,2000 and 2004, this study analyzed the land use change characteristics in the Qinghai Lake watershed from 1977 to 2004 and investigated the spatial difference of land use structures between different counties, by the using of transition matrix of land use types and land use dynamic degree. Then land use intensity in the Qinghai Lake watershed was calculated and compared with other typical regions in China. The conclusions of the study can be drawn as follows: (1) Land use change was characterized by constant land decrease for ecological function and land increase for production as well as degraded land from 1977 to 2004, for instance, the water body area decreased 292.70 km2 in the last 30 years. (2) The increase of farmland and sand derived respectively from occupying the grassland and transferring from the lake sand due to the decline of water level in the Qinghai Lake, the sand area increased 103.22km2because of the decline of water level from 1977 to 2004. (3) The changing rate of farmland area,residential area,sand area and forest area has been slowed down since 1977 while the water area decreased obviously from 2000 to 2004 (0.71%)and the grassland area changed slowly all the year round. On the whole watershed, the changing rate of all the land use types had the characteristics of interannual variation. (4) The differences of land use structures between four counties were obvious with most of the sand distributed in Haiyan (more than 70%),at the same time, Gangcha and Gonghe had 90% of forest and more than 95% of farmland of the whole watershed, moreover, changes of land use structures were various between these four counties. (5)The variation of land use intensity in the Qinghai Lake watershed was insignificant from 1977 to 2004 while the average value of integrated index is 186.47. The comparison of land use intensity between the Qinghai Lake watershed and other typical regions showed that human activity had little effect on the land use/cover change in this study region, so the related researches on regional environmental and ecological problems should pay more attention to the driving process of natural factors.
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    Research on the Relationship between Water Consumption and Climate in the Cities of China
    CHEN Hui-juan, QIAN Huai-sui
    2008, 23 (2):  297-306.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (781KB) ( )   Save
    Under the background of global environmental change, the shortage of water resource has already become a problem of resource and environment which has been paid much attention in the world. Since China is a country with water resource shortage, it is significant to study the change of urban water consumption. There are many factors that influence water consumption and among them climate is very important. In this paper, the climate water consumption is separated from the total water consumption by polynomial model and the method of statistical analysis is used to explore the relationship between the climate water consumption and the climatic factors and its changes in 241 Chinese cities .The conclusions are as follows:Temperature, precipitation and humidity are the main factors that affect the climate water consumption. In winter, the regional disparities between the South and the North are significant. In spring, the regional disparities between the East and the West are significant. In most cities of China there exists a positive correlation between climate water consumption and the temperature in summer and autumn. In many cities there exists a positive correlation between climate water consumption and the winter/spring temperature.In recent years, the global temperature has increased apparently, which results in extreme weather and extreme climate environment and it is also an important factor that results in the increase of urban climate water consumption. As the urbanization of Chinese cities accelerate, the contradiction between the supply and demand of urban water is also emerging out more frequently. Since the trend of subalpine timberline becomes more obvious with the increase of latitude, the contradiction between the supply and demand of urban water in the northern Chinese cities is much outstanding. In the seasons and areas where eco-environmental water requirement is the chief one, there exists a significant negative relation between climate water consumption and precipitation. When precipitation influences climate water consumption through influencing human body, there exists a significant positive relation between climate water consumption and precipitation. Effect of humidity on urban water consumption results from the interaction of humidity and high temperature, and only in the seasons and areas where it is too dry or too wet can it work.
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    Impact of Climate Change on Crop Yields in Heilongjiang Province
    LIN Tao, XIE Yun, LIU Gang, CHEN De-liang, DUAN Xing-wu
    2008, 23 (2):  307-318.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1355KB) ( )   Save
    Climate warming was significant in recent 20 years in Heilongjiang province. Many researchers found that increase of heat was beneficial to agricultural production except for drought and meteorological disasters in this province. The existing researches neither fully considered the spatial difference nor the impact of economic factors. In order to disintegrate physical and economic factors in grain yields more reasonably and analyze their different impacts on changes of yields in Heilongjiang Province, we collected the data of agricultural production (labors input, power input, irrigation input, fertilizer input, agriculture output, grain yields, and sown area of crops)from 1986 to 2000 in 79 counties of Heilongjiang Province, based on which grain yield (Y) was divided into climatic yield (Yc) and economic yield (Yt) by the method of Cobb-Douglas Production Function. Daily temperature and precipitation of 30 weather stations were used to calculate accumulated temperature ≥10℃ and precipitation during growing season. EOF method was applied to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of grain yield, climatic impact index (Yc/Yt), accumulated temperature ≥10℃ and growing season precipitation whose relationships were also considered. The results showed that grain yields of the whole province steadily increased during the past 15 years. Fertilizer was the leading driving force of economy that influenced the economic yields. Labors and R&D Fund Input in agriculture were not as important as fertilizer input. At the same time, power and irrigation input played the relative less roles in so many economic factors. Climate warming was significant from 1986 to 2000 in Heilongjiang Province. Accumulated temperature ≥10℃ increased 21-27℃ per year, benefiting agricultural production in most parts of the province. However, no obvious precipitation trend of growing season was found, and the change of precipitation didn’t essentially affect crop yields. The climate impact index increased during 15 years with different temporal and spatial variations. From 1986 to 1993, accumulated temperature ≥10℃ increased more obviously in the northern and southwestern parts of the province than the northeastern and southeastern parts, which had greater impacts on crop yields. While the converse situation existed from 1993 to 2000. Accumulated temperature ≥10℃ increased much more obvious in the northeastern and southeastern parts than the northern and southwestern parts, so did crop yields.
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    Food Sources of Macrofaunal in East Chongming Salt Marsh as Traced by Stable Isotopes
    YU Jie, LIU Min, HOU Li-jun, XU Shi-yuan, OU Dong-ni, CHENG Shu-bo
    2008, 23 (2):  319-326.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (635KB) ( )   Save
    East Chongming salt marsh,located in the east of Changjiang Estuary, is a large wetland, which exhibits a variety of macrobenthos. Understanding the food sources and trophic level of macrofauna is a foundation to study the material and energy flux in the ecosystem. In this paper, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of organic matter sources and consumers were investigated in the summer of 2005 in the differents living environments of East Chongming salt marsh. It is found that the δ13C and δ15N values of surface sediments vary in different tidal levels, with δ13C from-21.3‰ to-24.2‰ and δ15N from 4.6‰ to 5.6‰. These stable isotope values suggest that sediments not only contain the extraneous materials but also are influenced by the autochthonous organic matter. Our data displays that the dominant macrophytes Scirpus mariqueter and Phragmites australis are the main allochthonous sources of sedimentary organic matter and the extraneous source is suspended particulate organic matter. The dominant macrophytes Scirpus mariqueter and Phragmites australis are C3 plants, and Spartina alterniflora is C4 plant. The stable isotopes are variable among different tissues of plants, especially of Phragmites australis, which suggests that care must be taken and the isotope value of leaves may not be used as that of the whole plant when estimating the food sources. The macrofauna shows a wide range of δ13C, with overall δ13C values between -23.6‰ and -14.7‰, which suggests significant difference of food sources. As a whole, sedimentary organic matter seems to be food base for macrofauna, while the dominant macrophytes of salt marsh appears to play a negligible trophic role. The nitrogen isotope can reflect the trophic level of macrobenthos. It is calculated that trophic level of macrofauna in East Chongming salt marsh is between 2.0 and 3.7, and thus the invertebrates are primary and secondary consumers.
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    Dynamic Monitoring of Urban Expansion in the Region around Hangzhou Bay
    SUN Shan-lei, ZHOU Suo-quan, WEI Guo-shuan, JI Zong-wei, CHEN Hong-mei
    2008, 23 (2):  327-335.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (896KB) ( )   Save
    Taking the region around Hangzhou Bay as a study area, the urban land information was extracted from TM images of 2003 and 2006 through the decision tree method together with the shape index. And the characteristics of urban expansion in cities of Hangzhou, Shaoxing and Ningbo were further discussed. The overall Kappa coefficients of urban land were all above 0.87 through precision test and proved that: it was feasible to extract the information of the urban land. The area of urban land in 2003 and 2006 was 914.04 km2 and 1286.1 km2 respectively. A net increase of the urban land in the study area within four years was 372.06km2, and the number was 192.6km2 in the major cities; the increase of urban area in Hangzhou, Shaoxing and Ningbo was 43.7 km2; and that of the others was 145.6 km2.It revealed that the small cities played a dominant role in the process of urbanization, but the bigger cities’ were relative weak. The urban land in Hangzhou and Shaoxing expanded obviously, and especially the expansion of Xiasha district in Hangzhou and Paojiang industrial park in Shaoxing were more remarkable. However, the smallest expansion occurred in Ningbo, especially in Yuyao urban district. In expansion direction, Hangzhou urban districts mainly developed toward northwest and north; while Ningbo urban district spread in all directions evenly.
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    Researches on the Multi-Grids Land Resources Data Structure
    SHAN Yu-hong, ZHU Xin-yan, DU Dao-sheng
    2008, 23 (2):  336-344.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.018
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    The traditional land-use statistics based on districts can not represent the spatial differences of land use structure entirely. At first, the paper extends the algorithm of Statistical Information Grid-Based (STING) and then puts forward a kind of multi-grids land resources data structure according to the spatial difference of the regional land use structure. It’s theory and method can be generalized as follows:Because different land use researches and applications have different data requests, the land spatial data and other natural environment/socioeconomic data should be mutually matched conveniently. So according to a certain method the land resources data space needs to be divided non-uniformly into more layers which can be called multi-grids land data structure to satisfy the distribution of data items. Namely the region with crowded data (land use structure is fine) should contain the massive small grids, but the region with sparse data (land use structure is extensive) only includes a few big grids. Through analysis the landscape multiplicity is selected as a quantitative index for building such a multi-grids land data structure and the expression of landscape multiple index is:H=-∑(Si/∑Si) ×log2(Si/∑Si) (i=1,2,…,m)where H is landscape multiple; m is the number of the type of landscape in the region; and Si is the area of one land use/cover type. RS images contain rich land use/cover information, so the land classification results using RS images can be applied to figure out the value of 'H’ index. In the paper the experiment data are TM images of Wuhan district(1998-10), with an overall precision of land use/cover classification result being 89% and KP value 0.87. Taking the entire experimental land data space as the root point the quad tree division is done. In advance a threshold named N of 'H’ should be decided (for example taking one half of the Hmax as a threshold) to judge whether a grid point continues to be divided or not. If the 'H’ value of a grid point is smaller than N, then the division stops otherwise continues. In the experiment a multi-grids structure with 16 layers and 2728 leaves was obtained. The multi-grids land resources data system provides a good data index structure for further data analysis and researches, so according to different applications it can be filled with many kinds of data and it’s structure can be changed conveniently. For example, the traditional statistics of population density is spot population density based on such a premise hypothesis that population in one administrative region is even, but in fact it is uneven because of natural/social resources’ uneven distribution. Based on the multi-grids land data structure, an experiment on simulation of surface population density in Wuhan district was made. Different saturated red colour was used to indicate the different population ranks and the simulation of population density spatial distribution in Wuhan district was obtained.The simulated population density shows that the multi-grids land data structure can integrate land use data with other socioeconomic statistics conveniently and neatly to complete some simple land data mining tasks such as the effective data computation or analysis, and can reflect the land use/cover status of one region.
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    A Review on Multi-Agent System for the Simulation of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change
    CHEN Hai, LIANG Xiao-ying, GAO Hai-dong, WANG Tao
    2008, 23 (2):  345-352.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.019
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    In fine-scale and area scale, MAS/LUCC models are particularly well suited for representing complex spatial interactions under heterogeneous conditions and for modeling decentralized, autonomous decision making. Current researchers choose to use MAS/LUCC models in three topic areas: natural resource management, agricultural economics and urban simulations. At the present time, researchers focus on three aspects: the agent decision-making, the agent interaction and the model multi-scale analysis. Through reviewing on multi-agent system of simulation, four conclusions can be drawn: first, the frame of agent decision-making should be improved, especially the frame of bounded rationality decision-making. Second, the research on the agent interaction still use qualitative and conceptual method, it is necessary to explore the quantitative method to analyze interaction among agents. Third, there are three methods in multi-scale topic research. Through the transform mechanism of different scales being clear in the first method, it is difficult to explicit spatially the decision-making. The second method may explicit spatially the decision-making, but the explanation power between LUCC and decision-making is not strong. The third method may reveal the relationship between the complexities and the decision-making, which is simple to deal with the agent interaction. Finally, it is necessary to seek the methods of verification and validation upon MAS model.
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    New Progress and Its Prospects of Land Resources Sciences Research in China
    LIU Yan-sui, YANG Zi-sheng
    2008, 23 (2):  353-360.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.02.020
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    Land resources science is a new discipline taking land resources as an integrated research object. Marked progress made in comprehensive research covers the following aspects: investigation and exploitation of land resources;evaluation of land resources types and characteristics,quantity and quality;land resources consolidation and transformation;sustainable land resources use and management;land use general planning and land resources strategy;optimal land use allocation and its intensive use; and land resources security and ecological friendly land use model.Based on the analysis of the research progress in land resources sciences and reviewing the main achievements of Chinese land resources discipline in recent years, this paper discusses deeply on the tasks and prospects of land resources discipline development along with the rapid national economic and social development,predicts the developmental trend of land resources science on the basis of analyzing the developmental goal and prospect of land resources discipline.Furthermore, it puts forward that there are eight key development fields and main research directions of land resources science in China.The key research fields and directions of land resources science in the future are as follows:(1)To enhance the theoretic study of land resources discipline,especially land resource classification,driving forces and impacts of LUCC,innovation of land resources discipline system;(2)to attach importance to macro strategic study of land resource,especially the optimal strategy of land resource and sustainable use models under the guidance of sciences developmental views;(3)to promote the research and application of the new ideas,new principle,new technology and new methods of general land use planning in order to serve well for the regional decision-making of socio-economic harmonious development;(4)to study deeply the evaluation index system,technical methods of intensive land use,probe into the criterion of optimal land use and standard of regional and industrial land use;(5)to strengthen research of the principle,model and demonstration of land resource safe and ecological friendly land use in order to put forward the sciences guidance for realizing sustainable land use;(6)to study theory,method and ensuring system of the modern landscape land consolidation,and the mechanism and models to upgrade intergraded productivity of land resources;(7)to probe into the management model and policy of rural land resources,especially study the science ways for land-lost farmer employment,and food security and arable land protection based on the analysis of new condition and new question of regional development; and (8)to study and develop the land resource information system,and make the most of"3S"technology,model method and expert decision-making system to realize the informationization and systematization in the process of land resource research and management.
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