Table of Content

    28 July 2008, Volume 23 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    Material Flow Analysis from and to Its Geo-environment for the National Economy in China
    YANG Jian-feng
    2008, 23 (4):  553-559.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (516KB) ( )   Save
    This paper introduced the relations between geo-environment and regional economy, and classified the material flows from and to the geo-environment for a regional economy. With the aim to provide a useful and comprehensive understanding for decision-making in geo-environmental management, this paper estimated material flow data from and to its geo-environment for the socio-economy in China from 2000 to 2005 using the method of material flow analysis. During the six years, the total material requirement of the socio-economy from the geo-environment rose up to 43957 million tons in 2005, much higher than those in the main developed countries such as USA, Germany, Japan, etc. Direct material input from the geo-environment increased to 7438 million tons in 2005, up from 4769 million tons in 2000. Material flow caused by infrastructure construction ranged 25178-28593 million tons, accounting for 59.0%-69.4% of the total material requirement, which became the greatest driving force for the geo-environmental degeneration. The huge material input exerted a greater pressure on domestic geo-environment than in any comparable period before. Although material productivity increased from 240.9yuan/t to 416.5yuan/t, the growth of the economic development in China greatly depended on the exploitation and development of its geological resources, and its sustainability was much lower than the main developed countries. The average material consumption per capita was 33.6 t in 2005, obviously much lower than those in the developed countries. The carrying capacity of domestic geo-environment determined that China can not follow the industrialization patterns which developed countries experienced and must adopt resources-saving strategies to attain a sustainable development pattern.
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    Recycling of Aquaculture Wastewater and Reusing the Resources of Redundant Algae Biomass
    HAN Shi-qun, YAN Shao-hua, FAN Cheng-xin
    2008, 23 (4):  560-567.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (413KB) ( )   Save
    This paper studies aquaculture wastewater purification, recycling and reusing the resource of redundant algae biomass of aquaculture wastewater, from which recirculating aquaculture ecosystem was adopted for several ponds, in brief, through Algae-Snails-Weever-Microbial chain to remove the surplus nutrient and organic material of aquaculture wastewater. Result showed that the average removal rate of TN, NO-3-N and NO-2-N was more than 80%, and the removal rate of total ammonia(NH+4+NH3)was the highest, up to 97.17%; the removal rate of TP and CODcr was 94.17% and 71.87%, respectively. The mean content of outlet's TN and TP and chlorophyll reached Category III lake water standard, COD value reached Type I water level, nitrogen and dissolved oxygen contents were in accordance with the requirement of the fishing industry water quality standards. The ability of the high stability of the system can control algae population structure, and make full use of water algae biomass and nutrients, so energy will be translated into higher prices or shellfish and weever to increase aquaculture efficiency, hence this system can not only save water resources but also decrease the discharge of wastewater.
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    Response of Farmers to Conversion of Cultivated Land to Wetland and Substitute Livelihood—A Case of Sanjiang Reserve
    ZHANG Chun-li, TONG Lian-jun, LIU Ji-bin
    2008, 23 (4):  568-574.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (325KB) ( )   Save
    Based on investigation on 310 households of 5 farmers located in core zone and 6 farmers of buffer zone of Sanjiang reserve of Heilongjiang in China, and analyses of response of farmers on conversion of cultivated land to wetland and substitute livelihood,we found farmers’s have different responses to conversion of cultivated land to wetland and substitute livelihood. In terms of conversion of arable land to wetland, this article presents findings of an in-depth study, that is, farmers’ response to cultivated land conversion is related to age, quantity of cultivated land and residential site. By comparison with these aspects, the result reveals that the youngsters and farmers lived in buffer zone prefer to it, but the supporting rate of those who own land between 6 and 12 ha is very low. The reasons of villagers opposing it are that they take the cultivated land as an important income source, and have no other living skills and enough money used in other industries. Other reasons agreeing with it include obtaining cash compensation, new training or new jobs opportunities, steady non-agricultural income and equivalent land replacement. As for substitute livelihood, most have no specific object, but they tend to select farming. The study indicates that the importance of wetland is recognized by most farmers, hereby, whether farmers agree with conversion of cultivated land to wetland or not, the supporting rate is still determined by the economic benefits of farmers sustained, moreover it is related to income source and living ability of farmers. In addition,the arable land is regarded as the existent safeguard by farmers because substitute livelihood is uncertain and unsteady. On second thoughts, the compensation system of conversion of arable land to wetland hasn’t come forth and substitute livelihood hasn’t been put forward, which are the holdback of conversion of arable land to wetland. Finally, based on consideration of regional environment, economic level and farmers’ needs, this article puts forwards the sustainable substitute livelihood models which are the ecological transmigrates in core zone, the traditional agriculture alteration in buffer zone and multi-industry model in experimental zone.
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    The Construction of Groundwater Reservoir and Its Beneficial Effect of Resource and Environment in Peninsula Shandong
    WANG Kai-zhang, LI Bin, YU Quan-fa, WANG Jin-jin
    2008, 23 (4):  575-580.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (274KB) ( )   Save
    Water is not only the origin of life, but also irreplaceable natural and strategic resource for sustainable development of human society and it is indispensable part of comprehensive national strength. The sustainable utilized water resource and the beneficial cycle of it are crucial factors that influence the regional economic development and the civilization of society. In Peninsula Shandong, groundwater is the fundamental resource that supports economic development. With the fast development of economy, the phenomenon of water shortage and water environmental deterioration is more and more serious. Therefore, constructing groundwater reservoir is an important approach to solve contradictions, to optimize collocation of water resource and to actualize sustainable development. Through the achievements of groundwater reservoir construction in Peninsula Shandong, this paper expatiates on the type and technological measures of groundwater reservoir. Moreover, it discusses the beneficial effect of constructing groundwater reservoir in this area and points out that with the help of groundwater reservoir we can fasten our steps to regional sustainable development. This paper thus provides scientific basis for harmonious development of economy, society, resource and environment in this area.
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    A Simulation to Economic Growth of Two-Region under Resources Restriction
    WANG Zheng, TENG Li, CAI Di
    2008, 23 (4):  581-588.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (549KB) ( )   Save
    Multi-regional growth spillover and sustainable development subject to resource limits are two important problems in regional growth study.Many models were developed in these two fields. But resources restriction was ignored in the study on the multi-region growth spillovers and report on the study of sustainable development considering of multi-regions is seldom seen. In this article,a two-region growth spillovers model is built for the study of this problem in terms of regional growth,resources development and resources trade. In the model, one of the two regions sells part of its resource to the other region.The parameters of the model are altered to analyze the outcomes of the two regions respectively.It is found that it is better to sell natural resource for the relatively backward region when the FTP is slowly.However, the relatively backward region will achieve more income by inputting its resources to production than by selling them when it has strong internal knowledge spillover.It is also found that the two regions can both get positive spillover through resource trade if the ratio is set carefully.Regional growth spillover and sustainable development problem in growth study are reviewed in the first section of the paper.Models are given in the second part.In third section the impact of parameters alteration on both regions are studied in detail.Discussions and conclusions are given in the fourth part.
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    Analysis of Climate Variation of the Weizhoudao Island in Guangxi Province Based on Original Environment during the Last 50 Years
    TAN Zong-kun, OU Zhao-rong, HE Peng
    2008, 23 (4):  589-599.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1015KB) ( )   Save
    Weizhoudao island meteorological station has been keeping its original environment because of its special geographic position during the last 50 years.In the vicinity of Weizhoudao island,landing surface of Hepu meteorological station has been changed tremendously as urban growth since the 1980s.Based on the data of monthly air temperature and precipitation from both meteorological stations from 1956 to 2005.The difference of climate variations and tendencies of Weizhoudao island have been ananlyzed and compared with Hepu meteorological station during the last 50 years.The climate jump has been examined in terms of 5-year moving average season and annual series of 2 factors using Yamamoto method and Mann-Kendall method.The annual mean temperature was tending to go up and increased 0.615℃ in Weizhoudao island and 1.04℃ in Hepu during the last 50 years.The departure values of annual mean temperature have been positive since 1989.The linear tendency values of annual pecipitation was tending to go up and increased 119.6mm in Weizhoudao island during the last 50 years.The variation of annual precipitaion in Weizhoudao island during the last 50 years had gone throng two increase periods that occurred from 1972 to 1986 and 1993 to 2002.Between them there was a decrease period from 1956 to 1971 and 1987 to 1992 and 2003 to 2005.Climate jumps tested by both Yamamoto method and Mann-Kendall method in Weizhoudao island during the last 50 years are as follows.According to the annual mean temperature,an abrupt warming occurred in the late 1980s.The amplitude of abrupt variation was +0.35℃.The seasonal abrupt warming in spring,summer,autumn and winter all took place in the mid or the late 1980s,and abrupt warming in winter since 1997.The abrupt change of summer and winter precipitation occurred prior to the 1970s.Based on the facts of climate changes of Weizhoudao island,it is held that the abrupt warming of the Weizhoudao island during 50 years probably resulted from keeping original ecosystem environment.
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    The Principles and Methods of Eco-friendliness Evaluation of Land Use in Mountainous Areas at County Level and Its Case Study
    YANG Zi-sheng, LIU Yan-sui, HE Yi-mei, TAO Wen-xing, XU Jing-jing
    2008, 23 (4):  600-611.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (713KB) ( )   Save
    Developing the strategy and pattern of eco-friendly land use is a key content and one of the best starting points to realize the proposed environmentally-friendly society. This research established the principles, indicator system and methodology of eco-friendliness evaluation of mountainous land use, and built up a grading system and quantitative classifying criteria for the degree of eco-friendliness of mountainous land use, so as to promote the combination of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of eco-friendliness of mountainous land use."Eco-friendly mountainous land use" can be defined to be mountainous land development and use in an eco-friendly manner to maintain ecological, economic and social sustainability of mountainous land use.The ecological friendliness of land use can be graded into five degrees: highly friendly, moderately friendly, lowly friendly, unfriendly and very unfriendly. Taking Yunnan Province as an example, this research conducted quantitative measurement of the eco-friendliness degree of land use at county level in the province, and graded the eco-friendliness degrees of land use in 126 counties in Yunnan. This research showed that the average value of eco-friendliness degree (DEF) in Yunnan at present is merely 48.1, being "ecologically unfriendly". Some two thirds of the counties in Yunnan have now practiced ecologically unfriendly or very ecologically unfriendly land use. Of them more than one fifth of the counties carried on very ecologically unfriendly land use, with northeast Yunnan’s mid-mountain areas having the lowest degree of ecological friendliness, which is below 40 on average, and southeast Yunnan’s karst low and middle-mountain areas also having a very low degree of ecological friendliness.This research aims to regulate and improve existing land development and use patterns in mountainous areas based on the principle of ecological friendliness and in accordance with the requirements of modern ecological civilization, to realize the thorough change from being eco-unfriendly to being eco-friendly, and to achieve the best balance point and optimal relationship among productivity development, people’s well-being, and eco-environmental soundness on condition that people and nature coexist in harmony.
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    Characteristics and Driving Forces Analysis of Residential Area Expansion in the North of Shandong Peninsula Coastal Area
    LI De-yi, ZHANG An-ding, ZHANG Shu-wen
    2008, 23 (4):  612-618.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (538KB) ( )   Save
    The economic development made a dramatic progress in Shandong peninsula since reform and opening-up policy implemented in China 20 years ago, and the urban and rural residential area has experienced a remarkable expansion and exerted profound influences on land use and ecological environment in this region. Mastering spatial-temporal distribution and transformation characteristics of residential area contributes to the region's sustainable development significantly. This article chose the north of Shandong peninsula as its study area, the residential area information was obtained and then its expansion was studied, and corresponding influencing factors were discussed. On temporal scale, the periods of 1986, 1992 and 2004 were selected to analyze residential area expansion characteristics quantitatively since reform and opening-up by means of urban expansion index, center of gravity and fractal dimension, and the results showed the pattern of urban expansion transformed from southeast to northwest, and the dimension index increased from 1.68 to 1.75, which showed obvious arbitrary of urban expansion. Furthermore, the influences of social and economic factors such as GDP, rate of population urbanization and investment in permanent asserts on urban expansion in different periods were discussed.
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    Ecological Responses of Populus Euphratica to Water Supply in the Lower Reaches of Tarim River
    WANG Jian-gang, LI Xia, ZHANG Hui-fang
    2008, 23 (4):  619-625.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (565KB) ( )   Save
    Investigations of the breast-width, the root diameter, the height, the cover of crown, the ratio of dead stems and the ratio of preponderance, the maturing and extra-maturing Populus euphratica which have different distances to the downstream of Tarim River revealed that the ratio of the dead stems increases and that of the preponderance decreases with the increase of the distance to the river. The increasing and decreasing trends indicated by the breast-width, the height and the cover of the crown are unapparent. The increasing and decreasing trends are less and less evident with the increase of the distance to the river. And the three indicators, i.e., the breast-width, the height and the cover of the crown of the renewed Populus euphratica after watering show the decline coincidently with the increase of the distance. In accordance with the investigations, we can classify the restoration class of the watered Populus euphratica with the distance to the river being 50-300m as "best", 300-500m as"good", 500-1050m as "medium" and 1050-1500m as"poor". The restoration class of Populus euphratica shows a gradual decrease with the increase of the distance to the river, and eco-water transfer accelerates the restoration of the Populus euphratica. Water is one of the key factors controlling the growth and renewal of Populus euphratica.
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    Change of Temperature, Precipitation and NDVI in Recent 45 Years in Ningxia
    CHEN Yu-ying, CHEN Nan, ZHENG Guang-fen, MU Jian-hua, MA Shai-yan, NA Li, SHAO Jian
    2008, 23 (4):  626-634.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (636KB) ( )   Save
    Using the data of precipitation and temperature covering 1961-2005 in Ningxia and combining them with data of NDVI covering 1982-2002, the spatio-temporal characteristics and response of precipitation, temperature and NDVI in Ningxia to global warming were analyzed. The result showed that in recent 45 years, there was evident rise in temperature but decrease in precipitation as a whole in Ningxia. There were also evident differences in seasonal and regional temperature and precipitation. Temperature in winter and the areas by diverting Yellow River water for irrigation rose most evidently. Precipitation increased in winter but reduced in other seasons and areas. Especially precipitation in autumn and southern Ningxia mountainous area reduced most evidently. There was a rainfall break in winter and autumn around 1968, and after the break rainfall in winter increased but reduced in autumn. There was also a temperature break during 1985-1996. After the break, temperature rose evidently throughout Ningxia and rainfall in winter and spring and the areas by diverting Yellow River water for irrigation increased but reduced in other seasons and areas. Extreme climate events happened more frequently. The value of NDVI showed an increasing trend and the desertified area was controlled on the whole. Further analysis indicated that when temperature was high and precipitation increased in summer in the previous year, NDVI of present year would increase.
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    Effect of Different Vegetation Recovery Modes on Soil Moisture Ecoeffects in Hilly and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau
    ZHANG Xiao-pei, YANG Gai-he, HU Jiang-bo, WANG De-xiang
    2008, 23 (4):  635-642.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.011
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    Vegetation recovery is one of the major measures to improve eco-environment of the Loess Plateau. In order to find the ecological effects of different vegetation recovery modes on soil moisture in this region, six trial sites in Ranjiagou were studied. The results showed that compared to farmland, the soil bulk density under the recovery modes of Platycladus orientalis, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, 20-year Robinia pseudoacacia, 4-year Robinia pseudoacacia and 4-year Medicago sativa L declined dramatically with a percentage of8%-16%; total porosity, capillary porosity and non-capillary porosity apparently increased by 24.5%-8.1%, 1.2%-13.9% and 20.5%-90.0%; the water retention capability of soil increased by 33%-7.5%; the water supply capacity under the mode of Platycladus orientalis, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla and 4-year Robinia pseudoacacia were 2.16, 1.78 and 1.85 times of the farmland while the 20-year Robinia pseudoacacia mode and 4-year Medicago sativa L mode were 25% and 62.3% of the farmland; >0.25mm water stable aggregates were increased by 56.84%-30.72% by all the recovery modes compared to the farmland; the structure fragmentation rate of soil under all recovery modes was 16.2%-62.6% while in farmland it was as high as 41.09%. The correlation analysis indicated there was a significant correlation of soil bulk density, total porosity, water characteristic curve, water stable aggregates and structure fragmentation rate, so the conclusion could be drawn as every vegetation recovery mode has a better ecological effect on soil water than farmland except for the water supply capacity of 20-year Robinia pseudoacacia and 4-year Medicago sativa L.
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    Remote Sensing-based Characteristics of Grassland Degradation in the Arid Western Three-River Sources Regions of Qinghai in the Past 30 Years
    SHAO Jing-an, LU Qing-shui, ZHANG Xiao-yong
    2008, 23 (4):  643-656.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1002KB) ( )   Save
    Using three-phase remote sensing images (i.e., 1970sMSS, 1990sTM and 2004TM/ETM) and field investigation, this paper reconstructed spatial and temporal characteristics of grassland degradation across the arid western Three-River Sources regions of Qinghai for resent 30 years. The results indicated that the proportions of grassland degraded area to total grassland area were approximately 10% of the whole study stages. The area of slight degraded grassland coverage to total grassland degraded area was 80%, followed by slight desertification and salinization of grassland, accounting for 10%. At spatial patterns, the reduced tendency of grassland degraded area was along a southwest to northwest direction in the study site. In this orientation, the grassland degradation degree presented declined stages, and the grassland degradation types were transiting from complexity to single. At temporal possess, the increasing tends were observed, compared with the area of grassland degradation of two stages, especially grassland desertification. Significant differences are among grassland degraded areas under different altitudes, slope gradients and aspects. A number of grassland degraded areas are mainly distributed in the altitude of 4800-5100m, and the grassland degradated area at 4500-4800m was not obviously different to that above 5100m. Furthermore, the proportions of grassland degraded area to total grassland area occurred at the slope gradient of 2-8o, and were similar to the distribution of grassland area under different slope gradients. At the same time, there was more grassland degraded area in shady and on subsunny slope than on sunny slope. The reasons for these results were due to the limited factors, including vulnerable environment and interannual periodic fluctuations of extreme climate which controlled the trends and processes of grassland degradation, while human disturbances, as incentive forces, determined the intensity and speed of grassland degradation. In short, grassland desertification associated with natural conditions has been in a dominant position in the study site. Human activities were relatively weakening. The increasing trends of grassland degradation were not pronounced, and new grassland degradation phenomenon was not very obvious.
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    The Variations of Atmospheric Precipitable Water over Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region (LRGR) in Southwestern China
    WAN Yun-xia, ZHANG Wan-cheng, XIAO Zi-niu
    2008, 23 (4):  657-664.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.013
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    In this paper,the multiyear feature and their monthly,seasonal,yearly and interdecadal changes for the air column precipitable water(hereafter PW) over Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region and its surroundings have been analyzed,utilizing the NCEP’s monthly mean specific humidity,wind velocity and potential height reanalyzed grid data and the observed rainfall data.The results show that there exist the considerably monthly,seasonal,yearly and interdecadal changes of the air column PW over the LRGR.It is wetter in the south than that in the north.There are maximum PW in summer and the minimum PW in winter.The air column PW over Yunnan presents approximately a southeast-northwestern U-shaped pattern.The monthly variations of PW show the"corridor-barrier"effect of LRGR.Summer PW shows distinct changes over 25°N, 98.5°E and 106°E.The variation of the summer and winter PW in LRGR is characteristic by both interannual and interdecadal scale.Summer PW underwent a catastrophe in the early 1970s; winter PW underwent a catastrophe in the mid 1950s, the late 1960s and the early 1980s.
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    Substance Flow Analysis of Copper Resources in China
    GUO Xue-yi, SONG Yu, WANG Yong
    2008, 23 (4):  665-673.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.014
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    Since copper is the most widely used nonferrous metal in China, the research on the use and recycling of copper plays a strategic role in the sustainable development of economy. In this paper the copper flow was interpreted in the SFA model of "STAF" by the four stages such as production, manufacture & fabrication, use and waste management. The change in stock and substance flow of copper in China in 2004 was analyzed, and the result showed that from 1998 to 2004, the average of PZ, PS, MZ and MSwere 49.08%, 25.98%, 57.14% and 21.45%, respectively, being far below the level of European countries. It's revealed by the comparison of copper flows in China between 1994 and 2004, the copper inflows and outflows of every stage in China had all inreased, while the recycling rate of waste copper had a lower increase than the quickly growing demand of copper. Therefore, faced with the resource crisis, the key points of the sustainable development of copper industry in China are the intensification of policy guidance and technical research, and the increase of the resource production of primary resource and the recycling rate of secondary resource.
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    Spatio-temporal Impact of Non-agricultural Land Expansion on Soil Resources in Suzhou City
    LI Gui-lin, CHEN Jie, TAN Man-zhi
    2008, 23 (4):  674-684.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.015
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    It is quite controversial on the impact of non-agricultural land sprawl on soil resources in China. One opinion holds that food security has been challenged because non-agricultural land sprawl has caused the dramatic shrinkage of agricultural soil resources; and another opinion thinks the food security can be guaranteed by the implementation of "dynamic balance of total amount of arable land between occupying and supplementing" which can keep total area of agricultural soil resources without decrease. Therefore, based on the 4 phases of Landsat TM images covering the 1984-2003 period and the soil quality map generated from local soil map, this paper examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of non-agricultural land expansion on soil resources in Suzhou city, which is one of the most urbanized cities and also characterized by the most fertile soils. The result indicated that the moderately high quality soil is the most extensively occupied soil resource by non-agricultural land expansion in cantonal Suzhou, being 92.10% of the total occupied area. And then the high quality soil followed by less moderately and low quality soil, being only 1.95% of the total expanded area. Additionally, analysis on the non-agricultural land expansion separately in urban and rural areas revealed that in urban area the soil with higher quality is easier to be occupied for non-agricultural purpose while on the contrary, in rural area the soil with low quality is more inclined to be consumed. For example, the expansion rate of high quality soil increased from 1.58% in 1984 to 3.43% in 2003 and that of low quality decreased from 19.95% in 1984 to 1.50% in 2003 in urban area; and at the same time in rural area, the expansion rate of the high quality soil decreased from 2.57% in 1984 to 1.13% in 2003 and increased from 0.88% in 1984 to 2.07% in 2003.
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    Coupling Relationship between Tree Growth and Water Consumption of Pinus elliottii in Subtropical Red Earth Area
    TU Jie, LIU Qi-jing, LIN Yao-ming, LI Hai-tao
    2008, 23 (4):  685-693.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.016
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    Whole-tree sap flow density (SFD) in an artificial Pinus elliottii forest was measured on six trees continuously using Granier’s thermal dissipation probe (TDP) method.Several ambient environmental factors including meteorological variables and soil variables were also measured simultaneously. At the same time,stem analysis and branch analysis were utilized to investigate tree growth.The aim of this paper was to explore the characteristics of water consumption and carbon accumulation of P.elliottii and provide scientific methods and fundamental data for the research on coupling water and carbon in subtropical area of China.The results were as follows:SFD was mainly related to some meteorological factors in stands such as canopy temperature (CT),canopy relative humidity (CRH) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR).Correlations between SFD and the three separate factors were well expressed by linear regression models.Multiplelinear model between SFD and the integrated three factors was also established.All equations and correlation parameters were significant at 1% safety.The sequence of correlated degrees was as: CRH>PAR>CT.A significant linear correlation was found between daily cumulative sap flow and SWA with r2 value reaching 0.99. For P. elliottii in early growth stage,the correlation between sapwood area (SWA) and diameter at breast height (DBH) was well fitted by quadratic model.Based on sap flow observation and biomass investigation results during 2004,an important conclusion that 1.7731 gram biomass would be formed with the consumption of about 1kg water was obtained.Furthermore,water consumption was also calculated from biomass data according to the results above in the end of the paper.
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    Analysis of Characteristics and Space-time Distribution of Plum Rains in the Regions along Huaihe River in Anhui Province
    YU Jia-cheng, HUANG Xiao-yan, YU Yang, CHEN Xiao-hong, WANG Hua
    2008, 23 (4):  694-704.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.017
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    Based on the exploration of the characteristics of the plum rains spell (include the beginning date of the plum rains period, the end date of the plum rains period and plum period length),plum rains amount and plum rains intensity(include average daily figures of rainfall, the quotient of plum rains amount to annual amount, storm rainfall days during plum rains spell and intensity index of plum rains),the annual change characteristics of the plum rains spell,the plum rains amount and the plum rains intensity and others about plum rains amount and intensity of 11 stations were emphatically analyzed. The results are:1)The average plum rains spell is 24 days(the beginning date of the plum rains period is on June 16,the end date of plum rains period is on July 10),the plum rains amount is 221.9 mm, average daily figures of rainfall is 8.6 mm, the pluviometric quotient of plum rains amount to annual amount is 22.3%, the storm rainfall day is 1.3d, the intensity index of plum rains is 4.0 in the regions along Huaihe River in Anhui Province. 2) There is a trend of fluctuation in all of the items of plum rains character in the regions along Huaihe River.3) There is a nine-year fluctuation cycle in the items of plum rains character, and there are characteristics of decreasing amplitude and increasing frequency with the elapse of time. 4) The plum rains amount and intensity of 11 stations from west to east along Huaihe River in Anhui Province presents an "S-shaped" trend of "up-down-up". These results are of important referential values for the climatic research and weather forecast of the regions along Huaihe River.
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    Hydro-chemical and Isotopic Characteristics of Conghua Hot Mineral Springs in Guangdong
    ZHOU Hai-yan, ZHOU Xun, LIU Chun-hui, YU Lan, LI Juan, LIANG Yong-guo
    2008, 23 (4):  705-712.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.018
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    The Conghua hot springs are located in the northeast of Conghua,Guangdong,and lie in the northeastern part of the Guangzhou-Conghua faulted zone.The springs occur in the small NW and NE trending faults in the granite of Yanshan Period.The springs are of low TDS,low-to-moderate temperature and weak alkali.The thermal groundwater is predominated by K, Na and Ca in cations and HCO3 in anions and is of Na-HCO3 and Na·Ca-HCO3 types.The hot water has high concentrations of H2SiO3 and F,and is enriched in Li,Sr,Ba,HBO2,Ra and Rn.Isotopes of D and 18O indicate that the hot water is of meteoric origin.The temperature of the geothermal reservoir estimated with a SiO2 geothermometer ranges from 82.14 to 93.52℃.The residence time of the thermal groundwater estimated with Ra-Rn method is short,indicating a quick water circulation.The formation of the hot springs suggests that sustainable utilization of the hot water will be maintained if the total withdrawal rate is relatively small and an alternative pumping and non-pumping pattern is used.
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    The Drought Assessment of Sichuan Basin Based on Information Diffusion and the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method
    ZHANG Shun-qian, HOU Mei-ting, WANG Su-yan
    2008, 23 (4):  713-723.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (477KB) ( )   Save
    According to meteorological datasets from 1961 to 2005,we selected drought days,relative wetness index,standard precipitation index, temperature anomaly and percentage of sunlight anomaly as evaluation indices of drought.Based on the method of information diffusion,level standards of agricultural drought that correspond to different evaluation indices were established.Then we assessed drought in Sichuan Basin during 1961-2006 with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method,and gave the drought occurrences frequency of each city.The results showed that severe spring drought,severe summer drought and extremely severe late-summer drought occurred in Sichuan Basin in 2006.Late-summer drought occurred in all the 17 cities,of which 13 cities witnessed extremely severe late-summer drought in the Basin.On average,the sparse precipitation weather occurred about once every 30 years in late summer.High-temperature occurred once every 60 years.About 29%of stations encountered the shortage of precipitation,and 90% of stations encountered high temperature,which occurred once over 50 years.Spring drought and summer drought mostly occurred in northwest and south of Sichuan Basin,about once per 2.5 years,late-summer drought mostly occurred in east of Sichuan Basin,about once per 2 years.
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    An Improved Precipitation-Runoff Model Based on MMS and Its Application in the Upstream Basin of the Heihe River
    ZHOU Jian, LI Xin, WANG Gen-xu, HU Hong-chang, CHAO Zhen-hua, George Leavesley, Steve Markstrom, Roland Viger
    2008, 23 (4):  724-736.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.020
    Abstract ( )   PDF (775KB) ( )   Save
    The Heihe river upstream basin was selected as a case study, the mechanisms of runoff yield and concentration in upstream mountain areas were cognized by using the rainfall-runoff relevant modules in MMS (modular modeling system) model. Considering hysteresis of rainfall seepage in non-saturated soil, and integrated the snowmelt models and frost-soil area identify models together, the existing tested-basin PRMS (precipitation-runoff models) was modified and improved in this study. The improved new PRMS is used to simulate and forecast the hydrological process in the upstream of the Heihe River, and the results showed that the improved new PRMS was more suitable for the dry and cold mountain areas of inland basins. Due to considering the frost-soil conditions, the runoff simulation and forecast error is less than 2.7%, and each element of runoff composition was simulated and forecasted more veracious than the original PRMS. Finally, the stream flow changing trends were analyzed under different climate and land cover change scenarios in future, which provided the scientific basis for the rational use and management of water resources in the Heihe River Basin.
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    Environmental Effect of Plant Resources— Antimicrobial Activities'Study of Volatile Oil in the Leaves of Fortunella calamondin,Rutaceae
    ZHOU Bao-hua, CAO Jing-jing
    2008, 23 (4):  737-744.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.021
    Abstract ( )   PDF (547KB) ( )   Save
    Essential oils are mixtures of different volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants. Since the discovery of their antifungal and antimicrobial properties, preparations of essential oils have been applied in pharmacology, medical microbiology, phytopathology and food preservation. Nowadays, the problem of environmental pollution and ecological environment destruction has been more and more serious. The study of how to utilize the plant resources' environmental effect has become an important field of the plant-resources utilization, and it also has been an important subject in academic field. With the increasing public concern on the level of their effects about environment, Fortunella calamondin Rutaceaei was used as an example by examining its anti-bacterial and anti-tumor activity in this paper. As the oil’s antifungal activity is a basic research work for the application of its environmental functions of essential oils, the study concerning the composition of essential oil from Fortunella calamondin is very limited. At first the volatile oil form its leaves was obtained by steam distillation, then its chemical constituents were analyzed by GC-MS. After that biological activity of the volatile oil was screened with microbiological method and Alamar Blue method. With the analysis of its constituents and biological activity of volatile oil from the leaves of the Fortunella calamondin, 23 compounds were identified, showing 99.578% of the total contents; the tested Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Rhodotorula glutinis showed great sensitivity to the volatile oil, and the volatile oil could also obviously inhibit the growth of cultured tumor cells. And the inhibitory effects on the cell viability were obviously dose-dependent with a inhibition rate of 82.56% at a volatile oil concentration of 0.1g/L.
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