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    28 September 2008, Volume 23 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    The Scientific Investigation of Riverway Renovations and Ecological Rehabilitation of the Tarim River and Reconsideration
    XIA Jun, CHEN Xi, ZUO Qi-ting
    2008, 23 (5):  745-753.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (343KB) ( )   Save
    Sponsored by Significant Consultation Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),the scientific investigation was carried out again on the Tarim River.The process and experience of this river's scientific investigation is briefly introduced and a few preliminary understandings are presented aiming at some problems such as"the sustainability problem of the Bositeng Lake water transfer to downriver Tarim River","the problem of water resource allocation","the problem on the understanding of the Tarim River's trunk course renovation project","the understanding and management issues of ecological dams","the issue on the understanding of Populus euphratica forest's protection","the ecological and environmental restoration of downriver Tarim River"and so on.The elementary consultation advice on river course renovations and ecological rehabilitation of the Tarim River is also presented.
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    The Situation and Managing Strategy of Fertilizer Supply and Consumption in China
    ZHANG Wei-feng, JI Yue-xiu, MA Wen-qi, WANG Yan-feng, ZHANG Fu-suo
    2008, 23 (5):  754-763.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (372KB) ( )   Save
    The situation of supply and demand of fertilizer was not clear in China which was resulted from the unreasonable policy. This paper analyzed the supply and demand of fertilizer at national, regional and monthly levels. The results showed the total supply would match the total demand of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers currently. The self sufficient rate of N, P2O5 and K2O was 100%,95% and 29% respectively in China in 2005. The self sufficient rate of DAP,NPK and potassium chloride was 78%,81% and 23% respectively. Although the supply of some products could not match the demand currently, it was forecasted to be balanced in the future years according to the rapid development of industry. Therefore, the conflict of fertilizer supply and demand depends not at national level but at space-time level. The unbalanced situation in some regions has been widened in recent years because the fertilizer industry was concentrating in the regions which were abundant in raw materials. For example, a total of 23 provinces can not produce enough fertilizer for their respective farmland demand. The traditional industrial regions in East China have been transferred from export regions to import regions in recent years. The unbalanced supply in these regions always happened in some seasons. For example, the surplus of urea between November to next March was proved to be 9 million tons in the whole country. But in July, 2 million tons shortage of supply happened in Guangdong, Guangxi and other regions. Similar problem happened to other products, such as 1 million tons gap for DAP in North China in October and 1 million tons for MOP in South China in May, July and August. The unbalanced supply in some regions and some seasons resulted in the huge transportation demand and risk for price fluctuation. It is also one of the reasons for quickening development of industry. Therefore, balance the supply and consumption between regions and seasons is a necessary strategy for a sound development of industry and agriculture policy in the next few years.To store the surplus supply in off-season and release them in midseason is a best way. According to the integrated analysis, it was proposed to store 15% of the total demand can realize the goal, of which 10% should be stored in off-season to release the burden of producer and 5% should be stored in midseason to ensure enough supply. The central government should set up a scientific fertilizer storage system to select the sound storage site, time and amount based on the changes of supply and demand situation.
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    Impacts of Climate Warming on Electricity Consumption for Heating and Cooling in the Hot Summer and Cool Winter Zone of China
    CHEN Li, FANG Xiu-qi, LI Shuai, ZHANG Hai-dong
    2008, 23 (5):  764-772.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (547KB) ( )   Save
    Benefits and disadvantages caused by global warming on socio-economic development have been paid much attention.It is without question that climate warming can save heating energy consumption and can increase cooling energy consumption.However,it is complicated that the impact of climate warming on the total energy consumption for heating and cooling.Meanwhile,seasonal and spatial variations of climate warming can cause different impacts,even in a same architecture thermal design zone.In this paper,impacts of climate warming since the mid-1980s and the impacts of distinct climate warming since the mid-1990s on heating and cooling electricity consumptions in the hot summer and cool winter zone of China,where people use electricity for heating and cooling their living rooms,are analyzed,respectively.Based on the definition of Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone,impacts on total electricity consumption for heating and cooling are analyzed too.There are conclusions:climate warming since the mid-1980s,especially since the mid-1990s,has saved the heating electricity consumption in most areas and increased the cooling energy consumption in many areas.In general,climate warming has saved the total electricity consumption for heating and cooling in hot summer and cool winter zone except few areas.
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    Driving Forces of Resource Flow among Regions and Measurement of Resource Flow Potential—Taking Coal Flow from Shanxi to Other Provinces as a Case
    XU Zeng-rang, CHENG Sheng-kui, GU Shu-zhong, SHEN Lei
    2008, 23 (5):  773-780.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (452KB) ( )   Save
    With data of coal flux among different provinces by national railway and price of steam coal in China in 2005, taking the largest coal exporter—Shanxi province as an example, with statistic methods such as correlation and regression analysis, the driving forces of resource flow are analyzed. Based on conception of field theory including resource field, resource potential etc., a method for measuring the potential of resource flow among regions is presented. The conclusions lie in:1) distance and price difference between source and sink of coal flow are the two leading driving factors of coal flow among regions.2) The greater the price difference between source and sink is, the greater resource flux occurs, while the relationship of distance and flux is the opposite.However, at the significant level of 0.05, there isn't linear correlation between price difference and resource flux; while distance and resource flux from source to sinks assumes inverse linear correlation, and spatial assignment of resource flux in resource outflow field complies with the law of distance decay. 3) There is a regression function such as F=e9.091-0.003D between the net flux and the distance from Shanxi province to other provinces. 4) For resources potential difference has covered the two main factors—distance and flux of coal flow, the potential difference is a useful tool for measuring the potential of resources flow.
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    Studies on Current Rural Energy Resources Utilization and Bio-energy Development in Northwest Yunnan — The Case Study on Lanping and Shangri-La Counties
    WU Yan-hong, CAO Bin, GAO Fang, XIA Jianxin
    2008, 23 (5):  781-789.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (271KB) ( )   Save
    The construction of rural energy resources in minority regions is a special field of Chinese energy sustainable development. It is an important part of construction of resources-economical society and the socialist new countryside.Based on the investigation of energy consumption in Lanping and Shangri-La counties,this paper analyzed the characters and problems of the energy consumption in poverty-stricken minority areas of southwestern mountain region.The domestic energy consumption per capita of Lanping and Shangri-La is 512 kgce and 879 kgce,respectively,much lower than the average of the world. The structure is also irrational,the percentage of firewood utilization in Lanping and Shangri-La is 85% and 98%.The utilization of renewable energy,e.g.solar energy,biogas and hydropower is 7.0% and 1.8%,respectively.The result is a series of ecological and environmental problems.Some pieces of advice on the exploitation and utilization of modern bio-energy are given:enforcing energy policy,making plans of exploitation and utilization of rural energy resource and seeking financial and technical support from developed countries,etc.
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    A Study of Current Status and Conservation of Threatened Wetland Ecological Environment in Sanjiang Plain
    ZHAO Kui-yi, LUO Yan-jing, HU Jin-ming, ZHOU De-min, ZHOU Xiao-liang
    2008, 23 (5):  790-796.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (157KB) ( )   Save
    Sanjiang Plain is one of the biggest centralized distributing area of wetlands in China. As a result of fifty-year large-scale reclamation, the area of wetlands decreases rapidly while that of the cultivated land increases greatly, the area of natural wetland decreased from 5340000 ha in 1949 to 1130000 ha in 2000, only accounting for 10.39% of the whole area . Due to the fragmentation of wetland itself, it is confronted with shortage of water source, and is becoming isolated islands. At the same time, the degradation of wetland function is also serious,such as the decrease of the species richness of wetland plants, the reduction of the bio-productivity, the increase of the species number of endangered plants, the annual decrease of the number of endangered animals, especially rare waterfowl. The reclamation of wetland resource has a certain impact on regional environment, such as the aggravation of soil erosion, the increase of the content of soil granules, the evident decline of soil fertility, even the occurrence of desertification locally, the rise of temperature,reduction of precipitation and the increase of drought occurrence frequency.In order to reverse this situation, the conservation engineering progects of wetlands must be implemented, including irrigation project, habitat corridor construction project and showing care for wetland project.
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    Applying SLEUTH for Simulating Urban Expansion of Hangzhou
    LIU Yong, WU Ci-fang, YUE Wen-ze, HUANG Jing-nan
    2008, 23 (5):  797-807.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (850KB) ( )   Save
    Rapid urbanization often results in intensive land use change especially in the urban area of China. Simulation of urban expansion thus captures increasing research interests. Taking the metropolitan area of Hangzhou as a case study, this paper utilized the urban growth model of SLEUTH to forecast the urban growth of Hangzhou in four alternative scenarios based on four Landsat TM/ETM+ images(e.g. 1991, 1996, 2000 and 2005). Through generating buffers from the CBD and urban fringe area, the research explored the past change process and projected the future urban pattern. The results indicated that Compare and Lee-sallee were 0.95 and 0.59 respectively in the calibration process of SLEUTH, and the amount and morphology of simulatcd urban were more consistent with actual situation in 2005 than in the past. Due to the complex behavior of urban systems, SLEUTH was unable to simulate wave-like process of urban growth and potential development. Based on different assumptions, four scenarios were simulated by SLEUTH model, which included Maintain Status Quo, Expanded Roads, Moderate Farmland Protection and Compact City. The urbanization process could be divided into three phases including radial urban growth from 1991 to 1996, spatially contiguous expansion from 1996 to 2000, and multi-nuclear development from 2000 to 2005.Urban area would increase linearly and urban morphology would continue to be multi-nuclear from projected scenarios. The hotspot area featured by intensive urban growth would shift from urban center to new developed area outside. The growth intensity declined in power function and it would be less in the future than in the past. It would decrease gradually in the area with the radius of 12 km from CBD or 500 m from urban fringe. Urban area would increase by 189 km2 and farmland would reduce by 9 km2 per year from the result of MSQ. Urban area would be restricted by MFP from urban encroachment, and pushed to new developed area by ER from over crowded area and concentrated in the edge of the existing urban area by CC. Urban plan and land use planning can help to save farmland and adjust urban morphology.
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    Scale Effect Analysis of Driving Mechanism of Rural-urban Land Conversion
    MIN Jie, ZHANG An-lu, WU Zhong-yuan, CAI Wei-min
    2008, 23 (5):  808-820.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (424KB) ( )   Save
    Harmonizing the contradiction between economic growth and cultivated land conservation has important effect on the realization of sustainable development in China,and rural-urban land conversion is the focus of that contradiction. Rural-urban land conversion patterns are governed by a broad variety of potential driving forces and constraint which act over a large scale. It has been recognized that the types and effects of rural-urban land conversion drivers may vary with spatial scale and multi-scale investigation of rural-urban land conversation patterns which is essential for fully understanding of its complexity. From the viewpoint of social and economic factors that influence rural-urban land conversion,this paper analyses the driving mechanism for rural-urban land conversations in different spatial-temporal scales by using province data from 1999 to 2004. The results show that: (1)Relationships obtained at a certain scale of analysis may not be directly applied at other scales and the variables included in the models and their relative importance varied between rural-urban land conversion types. (2)Temporal scale effect in driving mechanism of rural-urban land conversion in China changes as follows: as long as the time influences forces for rural-land conversion,but different factors have different driving effects passes by,GDP,fixed assets investment and population increase which always used to be the main factors affect conversion. In 1999 and 2004,one percent increase in fixed assets investment will make 0.1548ha and 0.4344 ha rural land be converted into urban land,one percent increase in GDP will make 0.1969 ha and 0.2968 ha rural land be converted into urban land,one percent increase in total population will make 0.4469 ha and 0.0351 ha rural land be converted into urban land. (3)Spatial scale effect in driving mechanism of rural-urban land conversion in China changes as follows: One percent increase in GDP and fixed assets investment will make 0.20372 ha and 0.4909 ha rural land be converted into urban land,which obviously influence rural-urban land conversion in the eastern provinces; one percent increase in industrial structure upgrade and fixed assets investment will make 0.23089 ha rural land not to be converted into urban land and 0.1151 ha rural land be converted into urban land,which show the most obvious influence on rural-urban land conversion in the middle provinces; one percent increase in GDP and total population will make 0.2008 ha and 0.24901 ha rural land be converted into urban land,which obviously influence rural-urban land conversion in the western provinces. Some valuable propositions are presented.
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    Index System for Appraising National Petroleum Security
    WANG Li-mao, FANG Ye-bing
    2008, 23 (5):  821-831.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (527KB) ( )   Save
    Petroleum is a political goods and strategic material, which is influenced easily by some factors, such as politic, economic and military factors.According to the nature and connotation of national petroleum security (NPS) and the principles of establishment of index system, this paper selects 16 indices from five aspects and establishes an index system for appraising NPS.The index system of appraising NPS is made up of four layers, five subsystems and 16 indices.This paper firstly explains the 16 indices and gives their calculating formulas.Then on the basis of classification and quantification of the indices, this paper uses the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine the weight coefficient and revises it by using entropy technique with the following formula:λjjwj[]∑n[]j=1μjwj Where λj stands for the modified weight coefficient by using entropy technique,μj is the information weight and wj is the weight coefficient determined by AHP.Some inspiration we can get from the studies is as follows: (1) NPS appraising is a difficult work.The selection and value calculation of indices and the determination of the weight coefficient all need researcher's personal judgment.So, a good index system needs a professional researcher; (2) we try to convert some important indices that are very difficult for quantifying into semi-quantified indices; and (3) the result is satisfied by using entropy technique to revise the coefficient.
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    Regional Security Evaluation of Main Food Resources and its Security Countermeasures: A Case Study on Fujian Province
    YAO Cheng-sheng, ZHU He-jian
    2008, 23 (5):  832-840.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (534KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the food security index (FSI), mean value of food security index (MVFSI), variable coefficient of food security index (VCFSI), the security changing trends of nine kinds of food in Fujian province from 1991 to 2005 were quantitatively analyzed, which were the grain, vegetables, fruit, beef and cotton, poultry, meat, eggs, milk and aquatic products. The results showed that: The security situation of grain production was in an extremely low level, the gap between supplies and demands of grain became bigger year by year because of the linear increasing of the indirect grain consumption, which was caused by the overproduction of meat and eggs of high-grain consuming products. Entering the year 2000, the shortage of grain became more and more serious; for example in 2005, the shortage amount of grain was 1.65 times of its output. The MVFSI value of beef and cotton, poultry products and milk were 0.16, 0.13 and 0.05, which meant that the production of these three kinds of food can only meet the requirement of the people in Fujian province. But their VCFSI values were all very big, which meant that their outputs fluctuated obviously, and their secure situation was in a low level. The case of milk was particularly so because it could not satisfy the demands of the people since 1998. The FSI value of meat and eggs were all bigger than 0.40 during the past 15 years, their MVFSI values were 0.48 and 0.52, and their VCFSIs were both very small, which meant that the meat and eggs were in a relatively high security level. But these two kinds of food belong to grain-consuming animal products,facing an extremely low security level of grain in Fujian province. Their security level were totally depended on the grain import outside of Fujian, therefore their security was greatly influenced by the fluctuating of the grain output outside; as a result, the security level of the two kinds of food was not so optimistic. The FSI value of fruit and aquatic products were all bigger than 0.70 in the past 15 years, their MVFSIs were 0.76 and 0.91, and their VCFSIs were lower in 0.07 and 0.01, which meant that the two kinds of food were in an extremely high security level, and the surplus could be sold or saved. Since 1991, the production of vegetables has been highly developed, therefore its security level has been increased continuously. As a whole, the food security level of Fujian province was not so optimistic. Finally, in order to improve the food security level in Fujian province, some advices and policies were put forward.
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    Dynamic Analysis of Ecological Carrying Capacity of a Mining City
    GU Kang-kang, LIU Jing-shuang, CHEN Xin, PENG Xiao-li
    2008, 23 (5):  841-848.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (248KB) ( )   Save
    As one of the important mining cities, Anshan was also one of the biggest steel industrial bases in China. In order to offer suggestions for the sustainable development of Anshan city, we should research the status and developing trend of ecological carrying capacity in Anshan city. Based on the unique meaning of mining cities, we established the indicator system about ecological carrying capacity in Anshan city. Using entropy weight and integrated index evaluation method, we researched the situation of ecological carrying capacity in Anshan city during the 10th Five-year Plan, and then we discussed the developing trend of ecological carrying capacity in 2010. The results showed that: during the 10th Five-year Plan, the integrated ecological carrying capacity in Anshan city was in a critical safe state; however, it was increasing throughout the period with an increase from 0.44 to 0.60. Pressure and support indicators were also increasing on the whole, being 0.61 in 2005 but inferior to the safety state. However, the indexes of economic pressure, resource pressure and ecological health were still low. Economic pressure was lower than the critical value from 2001 to 2004; resource pressure was lower than the critical value from 2001 to 2003; and ecological health was lower than it from 2001 to 2002. They would restrict the development of ecological carrying capacity in Anshan. The ecological carrying capacity changed from over loading to surplus, and the harmony degree of economy was increasing gradually. According to the layout level in Anshan city, the integrated ecological carrying capacity would be in a comparatively safe state and no indicators would be lower than the critical safety values. In addition, both the carrying degree and harmony degree of ecological carrying capacity would be increased. By the method of integrated index evaluation method, the ecological carrying capacity of Anshan city during the 10th Five-year Plan was well reflected and forecasted, which would be a good example for the research of ecological carrying capacity in other areas.
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    Plant Coefficient Variation and Adaptability Evaluation of Different Succession Communities on the Loess Plateau
    WU Yuan-zhi, HUANG Ming-bin, ZHAO Shi-wei
    2008, 23 (5):  849-857.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (449KB) ( )   Save
    Many studies has been taken on calculating the vegetation ecological water requirement using plant coefficient(Kp)and potential evapotranspiration(PET),while attention is rarely paid to restriction of soil water deficit and very little information is available on Kp of different communities especially on the Loess Plateau. According to the succession sequence of vegetation in Ziwuling forest region of the Loess Plateau, herbaceous community, shrub community, early forest community and climax forest community were selected to investigate the water consumption and ecological adaptability of different succession stage, considering the soil water stress simultaneously. Using the data getting from long-term experiments in situ, plant coefficients of different communities were calculated in this study, the actual evapotranspiration(ETa)and mean soil water contents during the growing stage for five representative communities were compared, and the impacts of soil water change on water absorption of plant roots and soil water availability were analyzed.The results showed that,in different succession stages of vegetation,ETa of communities was mainly influenced by precipitation, with no notable distinction among different communities(P>0.05); soil water content of the early stage of forest community was significantly higher than other communities, and that of the herbaceous community was clearly higher than the two shrub communities(P<0.05); the plant coefficients of the shrub communities were the highest, that of herbaceous community was the second and that of climax community was higher than early stage of forest community; the two forest communities had significantly higher soil water availability than the herbaceous and shrub communities (P<0.05),which might consume more soil water and aggravate the drought of soil.Therefore, not only the plant coefficients but also the soil water availability should be considered in vegetation construction. And the soil water restriction factor should not be ignored in the calculation of vegetation ecological water requirement and the adaptability evaluation.
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    The Analysis on the NDVI Difference before and after Water Transfer to the Lower Reaches of Tarim River
    NIU Ting, LI Xia, YAO Xiao-rui, GUO Yu-chuan, SHI Rui-hua
    2008, 23 (5):  858-864.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (443KB) ( )   Save
    Using statistical methods, this paper analyzed the NDVI differences before and after water transfer to Yinsu section, Kaerdayi section and Alagan section at Daxihaizi reservoir in the lower reaches of Tarim River as well as speculated the level of response of riparian vegetation at these sections to water transfer. The results showed that with the practice of water transfer, the study area’s NDVI and the groundwater level gradually presented negatively correlating trends, with the increase in groundwater level, the range of NDVI increase gradually increased; before and after water transfer NDVI difference varied significantly on the same sections, according to the degree of NDVI difference before and after water transfer the order of vegetation restoration speed is Yinsu> Kaerdayi> Alagan; no difference of NDVI among sections was observed before water transfer after at NDVI differs significantly among sections, according to the degree of vegetation restoration, the order is Yinsu> Kaerdayi> Alagan; taking NDVI of the neighboring Daxihaizi Reservoir as a reference, vegetation restoration rate of the three sections respectively is 20.2%,18.4% and 8.4%. The above study shows that, after seven years the ecological restoration of vegetation is still limited by water supply, hence, continuous water transfer is quite necessary.
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    The Land Carrying Capacity of China Based on Man-grain Relationship
    FENG Zhi-ming, YANG Yan-zhao, ZHANG Jing
    2008, 23 (5):  865-875.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (893KB) ( )   Save
    With the increase of population, land carrying capacity and food safety have been attracted great attention worldwide. From the point of man-grain relationship, based on GIS techniques,by setting up the land carrying capacity(LCC) and the land carrying capacity index(LCCI) models, this paper firstly analyzes the spatial-temporal dynamic patterns of land carrying capacity of China between 1949 and 2005 at county, province and country level. Choosing 2005 as the typical year, this paper then evaluates the land carrying capacity of 264 pastoral(semi-pastoral)regions, 663 urban regions and 592 poverty-stricken regions of China. The result shows that: (1) From 1949 to 2005, with the increase of grain production, the land carrying capacity of China has been improved conspicuously, but for the rapid population growth, it still only balances with the low level grain consumption. (2) Over the last 25 years (1980-2005), the number of overloading provinces decreased from 23 to 15 and the man-grain relationship was bettered gradually, but there were more overloading provinces than surplus provinces in China. (3) At county level, there were 1572 overloading counties in 1980 whic accounted for 68.26% of the total with a population of 649 million, while in 1990,2000 and 2005, the number of overloading counties was 1066, 1133 and 1087 respectively,indicating that the man-grain relationship has been improved obviously during the past 25 years; as for spatial distribution, the surplus counties are mainly concentrated in agriculture developed regions, such as Northeast Plain, North China Plain, Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Plain etc., and overloading counties are mainly located in regions with poor natural environment and low grain production capacity, such as Northwest China, Tibetan Plateau and Loess Plateau etc. and economy developed urban regions, such as Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai etc. (4) Grassland husbandry led to great improvement of the land carrying capacity of pastoral and semi-pastoral regions, while urban regions were overloaded due to population concentration and more than half of the poverty-stricken regions were overloaded with critical natural environment and poor economic condition.
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    Application of the Theory of Emergy Analysis to the Sustainability Assessment of Cultivated Lands — A Case Study of Nanjing
    SHU Bang-rong, LIU You-zhao, LU Xiao-ping, SHEN Chun-zhu, HE Shou-chun
    2008, 23 (5):  876-885.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (407KB) ( )   Save
    In the study of sustainability assessment of cultivated land use, it is crucial but difficult to establish an index system. Although some research progress has been made recently, there're still many problems to be solved. For instance, traditional evaluation indices of economic profit can be influenced by various factors, including market supply and demand, fluctuation of monetary value, unit yields and growth periods of different crops. Furthermore, the traditional methods do not take the consumption of free environmental resources and their contributions into consideration. The theory of emergy analysis presented by H. T. Odum overcomes these insufficiencies in the eco-economic system evaluation by the traditional cost theory and market value theory, and offers an important standard to measure the rationality of cultivated land use. However, when the theory of emergy analysis is applied to the evaluation of sustainable cultivated land use independently, it's difficult to analyze agricultural pollution, policies and some other factors, which can be done directly or indirectly by traditional methods. Accordingly, on the basis of the traditional evaluation methods, the emergy theory is introduced and a new index system is established, in order to offset the deficiencies of both traditional methods and the theory of emergy analysis, and make contributions to the research of sustainable use of cultivated land.Taking Nanjing as an example, the study combines the traditional methods with the theory of emergy analysis to establish a new index system from three aspects of economic, ecological and social sustainability. And then, the study computes the weights of all indices by the method of AHP, to evaluate the cultivated land use from the year 1995 to 2004. The research indicates that the sustainable use of cultivated land in Nanjing experienced two phases. In the first phase (1995-1998), the sustainable use index of cultivated land decreased by 4.30%, from 1 in 1995 to 0.9570 in 1998, mainly because the economic sustainability index decreased to 0.8036 in 1998; in the second phase (1998 to 2004), the sustainable use index of cultivated land increased to 1.1123 in 2004, the highest level in the research period, mainly because the economic sustainability index increased to 1.0898, and the ecological sustainability index to 1.1762 in 2004. On the whole, the cultivated land use system is developing towards sustainability, conforming to the conclusions of some relative researches. All these indicate that it is feasible to apply the theory of emergy analysis to the evaluation of sustainable use of cultivated land. Compared with the traditional evaluation methods, the evaluation index system established in this paper can reflect the sustainability of cultivated land use more objectively.
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    Nitrate Concentration in Water in Small Watersheds of Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Its Relationship with Land-use
    LIU Ren-yan, FENG Ming-lei, LIN Shan, HU Rong-gui, JIANG Cheng, CHEN Xing-quan, XIAO Hong-yu
    2008, 23 (5):  886-892.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.016
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    This article mainly discusses the influence of land-use structure and fertilizer consumption on the nitrate concentration in water body in two small watersheds in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. By investigating the structure of land-use and the consumption of fertilizer and nitrate variability in three consecutive years, some conclusions are drawn that: (1) Distinguished discrepancies exist in nitrate concentration between the two watersheds. In Quxi Watershed, it fluctuates between 0.4 and 14.6 mg/l, and the average is 6.96mol/l; in Baotahe Watershed, it is between 0.2 and 6.8mol/l, and the average is 2.41mol/l. The ratio of arable land and forest land plays an important role on the nitrate concentration in water bodies of the watersheds. (2) Seasonal change of the nitrate concentration in Quxi Watershed is higher in winter, then autumn and summer, lower in spring, which may relate to the rainfall and seasonal agricultural activities. Due to the significant effect of the residents,non-agricultural activities, the nitrate concentration in Baotahe Watershed shows no seasonal change rule, the annual change is that it increased in 2005 and then decreased in 2006;and the effect of cultivation on the nitrate in Baotahe is weaker than that in Quxi.
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    Evaluating on Resource-conserving Degree of Industries — Taking Nanjing City as an Example
    ZHAO Hai-xia, ZHU De-ming, WANG Bo
    2008, 23 (5):  893-902.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.017
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    The industrial sector is not only the core of supporting and promoting economic and social functions,but also consumes and wastes a large quantity of energy, worsens environment.It is of vital practical significance to the evaluation on the industrial resource conservation for accelerating the realization of a resource-saving city and society.Taking the case of Nanjing,which has relatively developed industrial system and scarce resources,preliminary analysis of the use of resources of the industrial sectors and environmental pollution characteristics was made by the method of contrast. From input conservation,recycling conservation,safeguard conservation and technology conservation,setting the analysis model of matrix,resource conversation of 13 industrial sectors in Nanjing from 1988 to 2004 was evaluated by cluster analysis and the evaluation results was classified.Future development focus and direction of various industrial sectors were put forward so as to provide theoretical and practical basis for adjusting industrial structure and construction of a resource-saving society.
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    Concentrations, Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of Nutrient Elements in Taiwania Flousiana Plantation
    HE Bin, HUANG Heng-chuan, HUANG Cheng-biao, HUANG Hai-zhong, Wu Qing-biao
    2008, 23 (5):  903-910.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (322KB) ( )   Save
    Taiwania flousiana,a rare species endemic to China, is naturally distributed to the southwestern part of Hubei province, the southeastern part of Guizhou province and the west of Yunnan province. Due to the virtue of high adaptability, fast growth, high timber ratio and timber quality, T. flousiana has been successfully introduced to the southern part of China since the 1970s. In order to understand the nutrients characteristics in T. flousiana plantation, the concentrations, accumulation and distribution of five nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) as well as their changes with growth of stands in T. flousiana plantations of three different stand ages (8-year old,14-year old and 28-year old) were studied in Nandan Shankou Forestry Farm of Guangxi,China. The results showed that concentrations of these five nutrient elements in different components of T. flousiana plantation were in the order of leaves > bark > branch > root > stem. And in different diameters of the root (expect Stump), nutrient concentrations reduced with the increase of root diameter. In plant, concentrations of N, Ca or K were the highest among the five elements, followed by P, while Mg was the lowest in various organs of T. flousiana plantation and in the litter. The total nutrient accumulations at three different stand ages plantations were 576.26 kg/ha, 833.20 kg/ha and 1214.11 kg/ha, respectively. Of the total storage of nutrients, 85.88%-92.89% was distributed in arbor layer, 2.01%-4.62% in forest floor layer and 5.10%-10.27% in standing litter layer. Among five elements, N or Ca accumulation in arbor layer was the highest and Mg accumulation in arbor layer was the lowest. The accumulations of nutrients in T. flousiana varied with different stands growth stages. Most nutrient elements accumulated in leaves and branches at 8-year-old and 14-year-old trees, while they transmitted gradually to the stem and bark at 28-year-old trees. The net production of organic matter per ton needed five elements in plantations from 4.21kg to 8.97 kg and decreased with the biomass accumulation in the process of the stands growth. And the N or Ca element amount was the biggest, then the K and Ca, and the Mg was the smallest among the five nutrient elements.
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    Expert Knowledge Based Valuation Method of Ecosystem Services in China
    XIE Gao-di, ZHEN Lin, LU Chun-xia, XIAO Yu, CHEN Cao
    2008, 23 (5):  911-919.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (247KB) ( )   Save
    Valuation of global ecosystem services by R Costanza(1997)has attracted attention of the Chinese ecological researchers over the years. And many Chinese scientists have been using the methods to valuate the ecosystem services for forest, grassland and farmland ecosystems. However, it has been turned out that there are several shortcomings in direct adaptation of the methods, for instance, some ecosystem services have been insufficiently valuated or even ignored via using Costanza’s method. To fill this gap, we have, on the basis of Costanza’s method, developed a new method or 'unit value’ based method for assessment of ecosystem services. Expert interviews with structured questionnaire were contacted in 2002 and 2007 respectively, and altogether 700 Chinese ecologists were involved in the interviews for testing the method. It has been found that the values of ecosystem services from expert knowledge based unit value method and biomass based method are comparative. Therefore, expert knowledge based assessment of ecosystem services could be used as a method for assessing ecosystem services with known land use areas, and a good result could be generated within a short period of time. However, for scientifically sound and concrete results, the spatial disparity of ecosystem services should be taken into account.
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    Analysis on Regional Disparity and Its Influential Factors of Energy Utilization Efficiency in China
    QIU Ling, SHEN Yu-ming, REN Wang-bing, YAN Ting-ting
    2008, 23 (5):  920-928.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.020
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    Energy problem is always the focus and difficulty in China’s national economic development. The most realistic and efficient way to resolve current energy shortage and energy pollution issue is to improve energy utilization efficiency. This paper applied hierarchical cluster analysis to classify energy utilization efficiency of 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2005. Then Theil coefficient was applied to investigate the regional disparity characteristics of energy utilization efficiency. On this basis, the factors affecting energy utilization efficiency were explored quantificationally both in time and space dimensions with panel data models. The following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, there was notable inter-provincial disparity in energy utilization efficiency. In the geographical space, all provinces could be divided into high-efficiency area (distributing along the coast of eastern China), moderate-efficiency and low-efficiency area. Secondly, energy utilization efficiency rose significantly during the 10th Five-Year Plan Period in 2001-2005, but its regional disparity in the scale of nationwide, inter-category and intra-category showed a trend of further expansion. Thirdly, excluding the factor of economic development level, the main factors affecting energy utilization efficiency were energy structure, technique level, industrial structure, price level and investment level. Fourthly, coal consumption had the most negative effect on energy utilization efficiency, while the total labor productivity had the most positive effect. Finally, effective measures improving energy utilization efficiency were to adjust energy consumption structure and raise the productivity of labor.
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    An Investigation on Water Consumption of an Individual Plant of Corn
    CHENG Wei-xin, OUYANG Zhu
    2008, 23 (5):  929-935.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.021
    Abstract ( )   PDF (234KB) ( )   Save
    How much water for an individual plant of corn does cost? There is no conclusion so far worldwide. Many literatures have frequently cited the number of "200kg" as the whole water consumption for an individual plant of corn in entire growth period. In the monograph of "Corn Cultivation in China", the water consumption of corn by transpiration is 80kg/plant, which is two and half times difference with the former number mentioned. By analyzing the data collected at the Yucheng Comprehensive Experimental Station, CAS, the author studied the water consumption for an individual plant of corn and the average total water consumption (including transpiration and evaporation among plants) under the natural growth condition. The following results were concluded: 1) Water consumption for an individual plant of spring corn is about 100kg/plant and transpiration is about 60kg/plant. 2) Total water consumption for summer corn in North China Plain is 50-80 kg/plant and transpiration is 30-40 kg/plant. 3) Water condition in soil has no great influence on water consumption for an individual plant of corn unless the long-term drought happening. 4) The density of corn planting impacts the water consumption greatly. When the density of corn planting increased from 50,000 plants/ha to100,000 plants/ha, the total water consumption increased only 13.18%. Meanwhile the water consumption for an individual plan decreased by 44.48%.
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