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    An analysis of the relationship between water resources and population-economy-society-environment
    LIU Chang-ming, WANG Hong-rui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2003, 18 (5): 635-644.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.017
    Abstract160)      PDF (358KB)(525)      
    Water resources serve as the material base of the existence and development of human beings.It is a huge complicated system involving population,economy,society and environment.Water resources and water cycle are the keys in the system.Based on the summarization of the water resources concept and its attribute of nature,economy and society,this paper discusses the relationships between water resources and water cycle,water-balance structure,population,economy,society and environment in details.The paper also emphasizes the interactions of water cycle and water balance,water resources utilization and evaluation,economic activity,and water resources carrying capacity.Given an example of the Yellow River valley,the paper states that there is a closer relationship between water resources,population,economy,society and environment.The author gives a definite concept and connotation of water resources carrying capacity on the base of summing up the former studies.Summarizing the model system of water resources carrying capacity,the author also points out that it is very essential to use the system to depict the complex relationship between water resources and other four aspects,namely population,economy,society and environment.Considering the problem from the viewpoint of the regional sustainable development and alleviating the benefit conflict of distribution of water resources,we should clarify the following aspects:water demands for ecological environment,including rivers,animals,plants and land;water demands for population and social-economic development;and water environment capacity that can tolerate certain amount of pollutants.So,in order to promote the sustainable development of population,economy,society and environment,it is of great significance to simulate and predict the evolvement of the huge complex system with the combination of remote sensing,GIS and modern math theory,seek a reasonable allocation of water resources carrying capacity,and study the enhanced module of water resources carrying capacity.
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    Cited: CSCD(53)
    Opportunities and challenges of natural resources research of China in the New Era
    SHEN Lei, ZHONG Shuai, HU Shu-han
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (8): 1773-1788.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200802
    Abstract588)   HTML21)    PDF (2353KB)(420)      
    The Report of the Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that building a New Era of socialism with Chinese characteristics puts forward new demands for comprehensive research and management practices of natural resources. Since the completion of large-scale comprehensive scientific investigations and researches of natural resources in the 1990s, comprehensive research on natural resources has gradually become the focus of attention in the field of resources science. In the New Era, natural resources research is facing various opportunities and challenges. This article discusses the nexus relationship between the frame of the Mountain-Water-Forests-Field-Lakes-Grasses, pointed out by President Xi Jinping, and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in terms of natural resources issues. It focuses on the four typical related research topics that are most concerned at home and abroad today, namely, resource-asset-capital nexus, energy-resource-technology nexus, food-water-energy nexus, energy-water-land-carbon emission nexus, combined with the policy guidance proposed in the New Era. It analyzed the geopolitical risks, climate change, international trade uncertainty, major emergency events and other issues and proposed several new perspectives and related suggestions which are aimed to provide some new ideas for the development of natural resources research and disciplines innovation capacity building. The authors believe that the century-long unprecedented changes have a profound impact on the status and role of natural resources. As a result, it is urgent to strengthen the basic theoretical research of natural resources and establish some major R&D plans for natural resources research as soon as possible to serve the national natural resources strategy and major engineering needs and provide some ways of important technological support for China.
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    The locality and adaptability of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin: Challenges and opportunities
    WANG Fang, MIAO Chang-hong, LIU Feng-gui, CHEN Xing-peng, MI Wen-bao, HAI Chun-xing, DUAN De-gang, WANG Jin-ping, ZHANG Zhan-cang, WANG Cheng-xin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 1-26.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210101
    Abstract511)   HTML29)    PDF (10349KB)(352)      

    Due to the particularity of natural environment and geographical location, the human settlement environment of the Yellow River Basin is in a complex process of constant changes and is always facing severe challenges. The coupling process of human environment space with natural and social elements originates from the dynamic, comprehensive and systematic adaptation mechanism presented in the process of human-land relationship change, so revealing the system adaptation mechanism is the key to solve the human environment dilemma in the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, based on the perspective of "locality and adaptability", this paper invited experts and scholars from Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong along the Yellow River and other provinces. They interpreted the characteristics of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of natural geography, social economy, urban and rural development, and heritage protection, and sought sustainable strategies to adapt to China's new urbanization path. The main points are stated as follows: On the whole, the adaptability of human settlements in the study area has multi-scale spatial correlation and historical geographic dependence. The Yellow River Basin has an important ecological function, but the natural environment in different regions is facing such problems as land salinization, soil erosion and pollution, etc., so it is necessary to promote the greening of human-land coupling relationship. The Yellow River Basin, especially the cities along the upper reaches of the river, have distinct characteristics of openness, ethnic cultural diversity and integration. Due to the complex natural environment, caves and other special settlements have been formed in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River. In the process of rapid urbanization, they are faced with transformation and disappearance, retaining the cultural genes of traditional settlements, and it is urgent to classify and treat them differently to promote their healthy evolution. The internal and external radiation drive of urban agglomeration in the Yellow River Basin is the foundation of high-quality development throughout the river basin, and the optimization and upgrading of urban structure is an important way to promote high-quality development. To achieve sustainable development, scientific and technological innovation and industrial structure transformation and upgrading are also needed.

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    The development history and prospect of natural resources research in China
    CHENG Sheng-kui, SHEN Lei, FENG Zhi-ming, ZHONG Shuai
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (8): 1757-1772.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200801
    Abstract815)   HTML36)    PDF (2208KB)(347)      
    Since the 1950s, driven by large-scale, long-term and continuous comprehensive investigations of natural resources oriented to serve national strategic needs, China's natural resources research has formed a comprehensive and integrated development characteristics, and the development process of "task with discipline" has also gradually created a more systematic resources science theoretical basis and empirical methodology system. Faced with the country's major demand for deepening the reform of the comprehensive management system of natural resources since the establishment of the Ministry of Natural Resources, promoting the establishment and improvement of an independent resources science discipline system has become an important task in the field of natural resources research in China. This article systematically sorts out the development process of comprehensive investigation and research on China's natural resources from the 1950s to the early 2000s, focusing on the key development directions and characteristics of different periods. Combining the summary and prospects of historical opportunities in different periods, we believe that China's natural resources research has formed a national demand-oriented and leading discipline development trend. In the future, we should continue to adhere to the comprehensive research paradigm featured by multi-disciplinary integration; open up new perspectives on resources science system research with Chinese characteristics; accelerate the formation of a complete discipline system; improve the talent training system of resources science; strengthen the study of the discipline history of resources science; determine the relationship between resources science and geography, geology, ecology, environmental science and other related disciplines; actively introduce the big data theoretical framework and technical advantages to innovate "Natural Resources Big Data" or "Resource Utilization Big Data" and other related theories and technologies and to establish a dynamic evaluation method for the process of natural resources development and utilization; provide the background of natural resources and its comprehensive impact assessment with the ecology and environment for ecological civilization construction and sustainable development strategies support for decision-making; explore and analyze natural laws, socio-economic laws and the systematic association between the two in the process of natural resources utilization.
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    The new conception and review of territory consolidation based on the past years of reform and opening-up
    WANG Wei, HU Ye-cui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 53-67.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200106
    Abstract231)   HTML6)    PDF (1206KB)(477)      

    In the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, territory consolidation has changed with the political will and institutional changes in the fields of resources and ecological environment, and has undergone a process of rise, collapse and integration. On the basis of the important policies in the field of territory consolidation in the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, this paper summarizes the development experience, the main problems and the new trend of territory consolidation in the new era, and then puts forward a new conception of territory consolidation. The goal of territory consolidation of the new era will be firmly integrated with the ecological civilization strategy to optimize territorry space, resources and ecology and to create a people-oriented and high-quality territorry space. Territory consolidation in the new era will depend on carrying capacity and suitability evaluation mechanism, combining comprehensive research and attribution analysis to divide "territory consolidation" functional zones and carry out major projects. Territory consolidation will deal with "negative externalities" in the process of territory space development and utilization to restore land functions by various measures, so as to optimize territory space,improve resource utilization efficiency, protect important ecosystem, restore damaged ecosystem, prevent disaster and control pollution. It will enhance carrying capacity, suitability, beauty, security and the sustainability of territory space.

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    Reducing Food Loss and Food Waste: Some Personal Reflections
    CHENG Sheng-kui, BAI Jun-fei, JIN Zhong-hao, WANG Dong-yang, LIU Gang, GAO Si, BAO Jing-ling, LI Xiao-ting, LI Ran, JIANG Nan-qing, YAN Wen-jing, ZHANG Shi-gang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (4): 529-538.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170202
    Abstract512)   HTML207)    PDF (529KB)(1083)      

    Recently, research on food loss and foodwaste and the related environmental impacts has increased globally. Food loss and food waste occur in all aspects of the food supply chain from farm to table. A better understanding of the scales and trends of food loss and food waste is very important for any mitigation strategies. The food waste reflects directly the civilization of a society, and we need to understand the causes and consequences of food waste from multiple perspectives. Addressing food loss and food waste issue requires a wide range of actions from reducing, to promoting a healthy diet culture, learning from international experience, and building intelligent food systems.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    Establishment and application of one map of current situation of territorial spatial planning according to the foundations of natural resources: Taking Qingdao city as an example
    HAN Qing, SUN Zhong-yuan, SUN Cheng-miao, LI Dan, LIU Yi-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2150-2162.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191011
    Abstract608)   HTML375)    PDF (4151KB)(2328)      

    The construction of the territorial spatial planning system has been fully carried out. The clear and detailed status map and data are an important basis for understanding the natural resources, and also an important support for the preparation of territorial spatial planning. However, the current land classification standards, data accuracy and application targets of the current territorial spatial data are not uniform. Based on remote sensing images, geographic conditions and Internet POI data, this paper studies one map of land and space status, synthesizes existing land classification standards and data accuracy, and constructs one map of territorial spatial planning status of Qingdao city. On this basis, the application direction of one map of territorial spatial planning is discussed, including the preliminary delimitation of "Production-Living-Ecological Space" in Qingdao city. The suitability of urban construction, the importance of ecological service function and the suitability of agricultural production were analyzed. The construction of one map of the status of territorial spatial planning plays an important role in defining the resource utilization cap and the environmental quality bottom line, standardizing the territorial spatial planning data, and supporting the preparation and management of territorial spatial planning.

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    The Action of Environmental Regulation on Industrial Structure Adjustment and Atmospheric Environment Effect under the New Normal in Shandong Province
    XU Cheng-long, CHENG Yu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (10): 1662-1674.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151256
    Abstract339)   HTML0)    PDF (2023KB)(752)      
    Environmental regulation is the important means to promote industrial structure adjustment and improve the ecological environment. As a big province of heavy industries, Shandong Province was faced with triple pressure of “structure adjustment, steady growth, environmental protection” in the process of industrial structure adjustment under the new normal. This paper explored the influence of environmental regulation on industrial structure adjustment and atmospheric environment effects in Shandong Province under the new normal by using dynamic panel system GMM estimation method, LMDI decomposition model, historical value constraint extrapolation simulation and linear programming model. The conclusions were as follows. Firstly, the proportion of industries in Shandong Province increased at first and then decreased, and the proportion of pollution intensive industries decreased at first and increased subsequently from 2001 to 2013 in Shandong Province. The environmental regulation intensities of both were on the rise. Secondly, the influence coefficients of environmental regulation on the proportions of industries, pollution intensive industries and new and high technology industries were respectively -0.043, -0.451 and 0.523 in Shandong Province. This showed that the implementation of the environmental regulation had positive effects on the adjustment of industrial structure and industrial internal structure in Shandong Province. Thirdly, with the increasing of environmental regulation intensity, the industrial structure effect and the technical efficiency effect restrained the air pollutant emissions. The structure effect of pollution intensive industries was the main reason of the emissions reduction, but the absolute reductions resulting from it was little. Fourthly, comparing the predicted results in different scenarios, the potentials of industrial structure adjustment and air pollutants emission reduction in Shandong Province under the new normal increased in the order of easing environmental regulation, appropriate environmental regulation and strict environmental regulation. It is important to note that industrial structure adjustment of Shandong Province is more advantageous to the sustainable development of social economy under appropriate environmental regulation. The research will provide certain reference and guidance for the formulation of the industrial policy and environmental policy in Shandong Province.
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Ecological assets valuation of the Tibetan Plateau
    XIE Gao-di, LU Chun-xia, LENG Yun-fa, ZHENG Du, LI Shuang-cheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2003, 18 (2): 189-196.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.010
    Abstract433)      PDF (316KB)(343)      
    Based on a series of1∶1000000maps of natural resources of China,6categories of ecological assets were divided,which included forest,grassland,farmland,wetland,water body and desert.By means of GIS,the1∶4000000Ecological Assets Map of Tibetan Plateau was compiled and the relative data were calculated.According to partial global ecosystem services value evaluation results obtained by Costanza et al.(1997)along with responses of ecological questionnaire s from specialists of China,this paper established the ecosystem services value unit area of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems.We used the ecological assets value table as a basis and also adjusted price value by biomass and then,the ecological assets value of the Tibetan Plateau was estimated.The results indicated that ecosystem services value of Tibetan Plateau is some 9363.9×10 8 yuan annually,accounting for17.68%of annual ecosystem services value of China and0.61%of the world.The value of soil formation and disposition provided by ecosys-tem s is the highest,which occupies19.3%of the total ecosystem services value and then,the value of waste treatment takes up16.8%,water conservation value,16.5%and biodiversity,16%.The forest and the grassland ecosystem s offered the main ecosystem services value,being31.3%and48.3%of the total value provided by different ecosystem types,respectively.
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    Cited: CSCD(1087)
    Ouyang Zhiyun, Wang Rusong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    1995, 10 (3): 203-215.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.002
    Abstract143)      PDF (871KB)(372)      
    To coordinate the relation between man and the nature and resource exploitation through ecological planning can be traced back to the works and practices of the ecological thinkers and regional planning pioneers at the end of the 19th century, such as George Marsh, Patrick Geodes and John Powell. Ecological planning theory and practice developed very quickly during the period before World War Two but disappeared in the literature for nearly 20 years until the environmental movement in the 1960's. With the occurrence of more and more serious environmental problems and resource degradation ecological planning began its new development era since the late 1960's. Particularly I. L. McHarg's and his colleagues' outstanding work and planning practice made the ecological planning thinking and methods gain widespread application. Recent trends of ecological planning research and practice develop towards applying the modern ecological knowledge and achievements directly and establishing the theory and methodology based on ecology, development economics and other related disciplines. They shift from quality analysis to quantity simulation with powerful computer and geographic information system,and from the single goal planning to urban and regional planning in order to promote sustainable development. It is obvious that ecological planning will become one of the important aspects in sustainable development.
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Analysis of Characteristics and Cause of Spatial Distribution of the World Heritage in China
    YU Zheng-jun, TIAN Xiang-li, CHEN Ya-ling
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2015, 30 (10): 1762-1773.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.014
    Abstract318)   HTML7)    PDF (8080KB)(264)      
    World heritages are the common wealth of all mankind. To analyze the distribution of world heritages in China, reveal the characteristics and regularity of the spatial distribution, can provide scientific basis for declaration, management and protection plans for the world heritages. This paper, with the help of Google Earth, fixed the position of world heritages in China on the map. Then, by using Excel and GIS software, detailedly analyzed the quantity characteristics and spatial distribution characteristics of world heritages in China, and also investigated the causes of the variety of spatial distribution. The results show that: the work on world heritages in China has gone through three stages, respectively, initial stage, leap transition stage, steady development stage. The world heritages show a trend of agglomeration on spatial distribution, which mainly distributed in a circle, the center of the circle being in Henan, the radius being 1017.6 km. All kinds of world heritages display different spatial distribution characteristics in different divisions of geographic regions, such as in the division of east-middle-west, south-north, or Three Terrains, respectively. The natural heritages mainly distribute in the western region and the southern region, but the cultural heritages mainly distribute in the central and eastern region and northern region. From the Three Terrains point of view, the world heritages in China mainly distribute on the second and third steps. The distribution of world heritages in China is affected by many factors, such as natural, socio-economic, human etc. And then relevant countermeasures were put forward, including: continue the world heritage declaration, maintain stable and rapid economic development, strengthen the protection of the world heritage etc.
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    Evaluating the cumulative impacts of the hydropower development on the river ecosystem services in terms of spatial and temporal aspects: A case study in the mainstream of the Wujiang River
    JIA Jian-hui, CHEN Jian-yao, LONG Xiao-jun, CHEN Ji-chen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (9): 2163-2176.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200910
    Abstract123)   HTML9)    PDF (1278KB)(262)      
    The impact of hydropower development on river ecosystems cannot be ignored, and scientific evaluation of its impact will contribute to the establishment of a more sustainable hydropower development patterns. In this paper, we analyzed the benefits and losses of the cascade hydropower development in the mainstream of the Wujiang River on the riparian terrestrial ecosystems and river ecosystems by using both equivalent factor and functional value evaluation methods. Based on the benefits and losses, we made a comprehensive evaluation of the cascade hydropower development on the river ecosystem services. The results show that the hydropower development in the mainstream of the Wujiang River increased the values of the riparian terrestrial ecosystem and river ecosystem services, particularly in the hydrological regulating and water supply functions. In addition, positive effects of the development were found on the power generation, hydrological and air regulating functions, while negative effects were observed on biodiversity maintaining and soil conservation. And the positive effects on river ecosystem service are greater than the negative effects. It was difficult to compare directly the ecological losses of unit electrical energy with other basins as different hydropower stations had their own emphasis regarding the positive and negative effects. Based on the long-term survey data of fish resources in the Wujiang River, the trend of fish biological loss index was analyzed to understand temporal cumulative ecological effects of hydropower development. The differences in the spatial pattern of hydropower generation were discussed by using InVEST model. The impact of ecosystem services such as biodiversity was hard to evaluate directly in terms of currency, and the service value per unit area of the water body was considerably higher than that of any other land-use types, which resulted in a conservative, e.g. a low value of negative effects of the hydropower development in the mainstream of the Wujiang River, and a high ratio of positive to negative values.
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    Thinking for the transformation of land consolidation and ecological restoration in the new era
    WANG Jun, YING Ling-xiao, ZHONG Li-na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 26-36.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200104
    Abstract310)   HTML11)    PDF (907KB)(721)      

    As the national land space and ecosystems are affected by global change nowadays, ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning must be the positive responses of China in the new era. Great achievements have been made in the restorations of ecological space and ecosystems through projects for land consolidation and ecological restoration. However, the degradation of some regional ecosystems still exists, and the interference of unreasonable traditional human activities has not been completely eliminated in China. Meanwhile, China faces a large number of challenges in the economic and social developments of the new era. The transformation and improvement of land consolidation and ecological restoration therefore become the inevitable requirement. Through introducing the concepts, connotations of land consolidation, ecological restoration and relationships between them in the new era, this paper suggested that the transformation should be determined by the variations and complexities of regional ecological and environmental issues, the new requirements of ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning. We also indicated the four shortcomings of land consolidation and ecological restoration at present, including working perception, theoretical basis, technological system, and institutional construction. Specifically in recent practices, the integrated and comprehensive concepts are lagging behind, the key theoretical systems are deficient, the technological supports are instable, and the related institutions are insufficient. Therefore, we proposed the strategies for the corresponding transformation, which mainly included: (1) intensifying the systematic thinking and concept to promote the implementation of land consolidation and ecological restoration on a regional basis; (2) upgrading the theoretical system to stimulate the new motivation for land consolidation and ecological restoration; (3) enhancing the technical support to improve the effectiveness of land consolidation and ecological restoration works; (4) improving the institution construction to reinforce the support foundation for land consolidation and ecological restoration implementations.

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    Spatiotemporal pattern of water conservation and its influencing factors in Bailongjiang Watershed of Gansu
    LIU Dong-qing, CAO Er-jia, ZHANG Jin-xi, GONG Jie, YAN Ling-ling
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (7): 1728-1743.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200716
    Abstract211)   HTML4)    PDF (4872KB)(293)      
    Bailongjiang Watershed is an important area of water conservation in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, with great significance for maintaining the ecological balance of the watershed and promoting regional sustainable development. Taking the Bailongjiang Watershed in Gansu as an example, we used the InVEST water conservation assessment model based on parameter localization to analyze the multi-scale spatiotemporal change of water conservation in the watershed from 1990 to 2016 and its influencing factors. The results showed that the average annual water conservation depth of the watershed was 47.50 mm, with a trend of decreasing first and then rising. In terms of spatial distribution, the high value areas were mainly concentrated in the steep overcast forest area of middle-high mountain in Wenxian, Diebu and Zhouqu (the conservation depth of the three counties, 2500-3500 m altitude section, shaded and semi-shaded slopes, slope section above 25° and the forest land was higher than the average conservation depth of the watershed). The low value areas were mainly distributed in the gentle apricus farming and pastoral areas of middle-low mountain in Tanchang and Wudu (the average conservation depth in the two counties, below 2500 m elevation, sunny slope and semi-sunny slope, below 25° slope, cropland and grassland was lower than the watershed). Under the climatic background, the spatial difference of land use/cover pattern driven by human activities was an important factor affecting the spatiotemporal change of water conservation. Returning cropland to forest is of great significance in slowing down the decline of water conservation depth in the context of climate warming.
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    An evaluation of the Belt and Road cereals production from a view of spatial-temporal patterns
    Kun JIA, Yan-zhao YANG, Zhi-ming FENG
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (6): 1135-1145.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190601
    Abstract594)   HTML39)    PDF (3696KB)(360)      

    The "Belt and Road" Initiative is the inevitable result of globalization in the new era. As an important strategic resource, food production research is of great significance to regional and global food security. By a quantitative analysis of cereals production, planting area, yield and planting structure, the spatial-temporal patterns and regional differences of countries along the "Belt and Road" were revealed based on time-series data of nearly 40 years. The results showed that: (1) The countries along the "Belt and Road" were important cereals production areas, and the production accounted for 50% to 60% of the world total. A constant growth trend of cereals production was showed during 1977-2016. Per capita cereals production has increased with much difference at country level during 1995-2016, which means the man-grain relationship has been gradually improved and the regional food security has increased. (2) There were obvious regional differences in cereals production in countries along the "Belt and Road", and the spatial pattern was relatively stable. China, India and Russia were high cereals production countries. Cereals production in countries in Southeast and South Asia was generally high, while that in the Arabian Peninsula was relatively low. (3) Rice, wheat and maize were major cereal crops in countries along the "Belt and Road", and rice contributed the most to the total production. The proportions of rice and wheat were relatively stable, but that of maize was increasing. Meanwhile, the regional distribution characteristics of the three major crops were also obvious.

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    Effects of global climate change on forest ecosystems
    LIU Guo hua, FU Bo jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2001, 16 (1): 71-78.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.012
    Abstract427)      PDF (136KB)(345)      
    Human induced greenhouse effects and their impacts on global climate change and eco environments,especially the responses of forests to global climate change,have aroused interests of many scientists.In this paper,the potential effects of future climate change on forest ecosystem structure,species composition,tree and forest distribution and productivity are discussed systematically.In the meanwhile,the fields that must be further studied are advanced.
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    Cited: CSCD(77)
    A Review of Food System Research Abroad
    GUO Hua, WANG Ling-en
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2018, 33 (6): 992-1002.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20180244
    Abstract434)   HTML18)    PDF (597KB)(531)      
    Food is highly related to the national security and people’s livelihood. The efficient supply of food depends on the efficient operation of the whole food system. At present, domestic research on food system is rare, therefore, systematically sorting out the research progress abroad can provide a good reference for China’s food system research. In order to better grasp the research context of the food system, this paper studies foreign food system research literature by document analysis. Relevant theories, methods and main research fields of food system research are summarized and analyzed. Food system is the organic integration of economic, social, and ecological sustainable development consisting of the interaction of subsystems such as production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste disposal based on the elements of material, capital, technology, culture, and political system. Food Footprint, GIS Analysis, Food Domain Analysis, Stakeholder Analysis, Life Cycle Theory, Elasticity Theory, Food Landscape and Scenario Analysis are the most commonly used methods in food system study. Focusing on the research content, globalization and localization of food systems, food system planning, resources and environmental effects on the food system, food safety and policy research are systematically reviewed. Based on the study of food system research abroad and existing research foundations and social needs in China, the focuses of China’s food system research are proposed, including empirical studies on food systems at different scales, interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research, the design of quantitative index systems for food systems, the impact of technological innovation on food systems, and research on stakeholders in food systems, etc.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Improvement of the Evaluation Method for Ecosystem Service Value Based on Per Unit Area
    XIE Gao-di, ZHANG Cai-xia, ZHANG Lei-ming, CHEN Wen-hui, LI Shi-mei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2015, 30 (8): 1243-1254.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.001
    Abstract563)   HTML17)    PDF (2813KB)(235)      
    Ecosystem service value is the base of decision-making for ecological protection, ecological regionalization and ecological compensation, and it appears the dynamic spatio-temporal changes which are closely connected with the variations of ecological structure and function. However, it is still lack of a universal and integrated dynamic evaluation method for ecosystem service value in China. Based on literature survey, expert knowledge, statistical data and remote sensing data, using model simulations and GIS spatial analysis method, this paper modified and developed the method for evaluating the value equivalent factor in unit area, and proposed an integrated method for dynamic evaluation on Chinese terrestrial ecosystem service value. This method can realize the comprehensive and dynamic assessment of ecosystem service value for 11 service types of 14 different types of terrestrial ecosystem at monthly and provincial scales in China. The preliminary application indicated that the total ecosystem service value was 38.1×10 12 yuan in 2010, in which the value from forest ecosystem was the highest, accounting for about 46%, followed by water body and grassland. Among different ecosystem service types, the contribution from regulation function was the highest, especially the values from hydrological regulation and atmospheric regulation which accounted for about 39.3% and 18.0% of total service value, respectively. Moreover, ecosystem service value presented apparent spatio-temporal patterns in China. Spatially, the ecosystem service value decreased from southeast to northwest and the highest value appeared in southeastern and southwestern regions. Temporally, the ecosystem service value for most of the ecosystems attained the peak in July and reached the trough during December and January except desert, barren and glacier ecosystem. Generally, although this established method still needs to be developed and optimized, it is the first to provide a relatively comprehensive approach for the spatio-temporal dynamic evaluation of ecosystem service value in China, which will be helpful to the scientific decision-making on natural capital rating and ecological compensation.
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    Cited: CSCD(279)
    The model of population urbanization in urban land spatial planning based on multi-source data fusion: A case study of Yangzhou city
    ZHU Jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2087-2102.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191006
    Abstract476)   HTML12)    PDF (6309KB)(878)      

    Nowadays, with the increasingly coordinated development of regions, the study of population urbanization also urgently needs to be carried out from a broad regional perspective. Focusing on the three core issues of new urbanization, mamely, people, land, and property, the social, spatial, and economic attributes on population mobility are derived. Based on a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used data methods in urbanization analysis, this paper constructs a new conceptual model for population urbanization in different scales with multi-source data. Using the census and survey data, mobile phone data, and enterprise registration data, the conceptual model is applied to an empirical study of urban dense areas-Yangzhou city and shows strong applicability, based on migration flow analysis, location identification, and enterprise headquarters-branch network analysis methods. The results show that: (1) At the regional level, due to the factors such as the threshold of settlement, family rights, and social security, population mobility is more cautious than capital flows. And it is compliant with the administrative district economy and urban hierarchy system. (2) At the municipal level, because the central city has greater advantages than the villages and towns, in terms of public service facilities and income levels, the urbanization form is mainly manifested in the direct connection between urban and rural areas, while the radiating and absorbing effects of key towns for population and enterprises are not strong. (3) In the era of ecological civilization, places with beautiful scenery, profound history, and rich cultural heritage are the natural soil for new economy. And the new economy has become a powerful engine for new urbanization in the late-developing areas. Yangzhou has a pleasant ecological environment and profound cultural atmosphere, which is the natural advantage and foundation of developing new types of economy. It needs to develop industrial platform, innovative environment, and innovation system to jointly create a comprehensive advantage of new economic development. Empirical research shows that the conceptual model has good applicability. It can identify the main pattern of economic and social linkages scientifically, reveal the intensive communicating area in town cluster region, and play a supporting role in delimiting urban development boundaries and optimizing the spatial pattern of land. Therefore, this model has a strong reference value for the study of regional coordination of territorial spatial plan at city and county level.

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    Study on the implementation evaluation of urban construction boundary in land use planning—A case study of Hangzhou
    FENG Ke, WU Ci-fang, HAN Hao-ying, WU Yu-zhe
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2010, 25 (3): 376-385.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.03.003
    Abstract117)      PDF (476KB)(318)      
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    Optimization of ecological security pattern in the source area of Fenhe River Basin based on ecosystem services
    HE Juan, SHI Xue-yi, FU Yang-jun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (4): 814-825.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200406
    Abstract174)   HTML6)    PDF (4961KB)(309)      
    The optimization of the ecological security pattern is an important spatial way to ensure regional ecological security, maintain ecosystem stability and enhance ecosystem service. Taking the source area of Fenhe River Basin as an example, this paper quantitatively evaluated ecosystem services including water production, habitat quality and soil conservation, and used hot spot analysis to identify important ecological sources. Considering the complex mechanism of rivers in ecosystems, this paper established two ecological security patterns, and on this basis, put forward a comprehensive ecological security pattern. The results showed that there were 19 ecological sources in the source area of Fenhe River Basin, accounting for 16.59% of the total study area. Three ecological security patterns established 33, 42 and 43 potential ecological corridors respectively. The network structure evaluation results showed that three patterns could generate a closed ecological network. The total length of the optimized ecological corridor is 565.957 km, and comprehensive ecological security pattern had higher network closure, node connection rate and network connectivity, and the cost was relatively low. In addition, 35 ecological breakpoints were identified, and key areas for ecological protection and restoration construction were determined. This pattern can provide spatial guidance for regional ecological protection and restoration planning.
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    Study on the spatial characteristics and intensity factors of "three-line conflict" in Jiangxi province
    YI Dan, ZHAO Xiao-min, GUO Xi, HAN Yi, JIANG Ye-feng, LAI Xia-hua, HUANG Xin-yi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (10): 2428-2443.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201010
    Abstract195)   HTML8)    PDF (10622KB)(224)      
    Delimiting three lines (permanent basic farmland protection zones, urban growth boundaries and ecological protection redlines) scientifically is conducive to rational arrangement of land space resources and identifying the "three-line conflict" intensity factors can deepen the understanding of the national space planning. This study took the provincial spatial planning pilot area-Jiangxi province as an example, recognized the regional difference of "three-line conflict" by defining the "three-line conflict intensity", revealed its spatial characteristics by using spatial autocorrelation analysis, and analyzed the influencing factors of different types of conflict intensity by applying geographically weighted regression model (GWR). The results showed that the conflict areas of town-ecology, town-agriculture, ecology-agriculture and town-ecology-agriculture were 4305.791 km 2, 2892.894 km 2, 1845.341 km 2 and 159.444 km 2, respectively. There is obvious spatial clustering in the conflicts of town-ecology, town-agriculture, ecology-agriculture and town-ecology-agriculture. The main influencing factor of town-ecology conflict is the intensity of fixed assets investment, and the leading factor of town-agriculture conflict is the proportion of suitable area of construction land. The ecology-agriculture conflict is most affected by the topographic index, and the town-ecology-agriculture conflict is mainly affected by urbanization rate and the distance from river. The research results can provide reference for the rational layout of the "three lines" and the optimization of land structure.
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    The change of continental coastline and its development and utilization intensity in the East China Sea
    LI Jia-lin, TIAN Peng, SHAO Shu-yao, WANG Hai-feng, WANG Li-jia, YE Meng-yao, ZHAO Meng-qi, ZHANG Ke-qin, CAI Kai-te, RUAN Ying-chao, SHEN Xing-wen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (9): 1886-1901.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190907
    Abstract320)   HTML1)    PDF (2623KB)(412)      
    Based on remote sensing images of the six periods from 1990 to 2015 in the coastal zone of the East China Sea, the changes of the continental coastline were analyzed and the intensity of shoreline utilization was evaluated. The results show that: (1) The continental coastline continued to go towards the sea, and the length of the coastline was reduced by 495.91 km. The intensity of shoreline changes was fluctuating. A large amount of natural shorelines in the structure was converted into artificial shorelines, and the proportion of natural shorelines decreased by 14.18%, while that of artificial shorelines increased by 21.94%, and the diversity of shorelines increased rapidly. (2) The average fractal dimension of the coastline showed a downward trend of fluctuation, and the shape developed in a straight and regular direction. The sea-land pattern of the coastal zone was characterized by land reclamation and the land area increased by 2655.01 km 2. The coastal zone was significantly affected by human activities such as tidal flat farming, reclamation and port construction. (3) The development and utilization intensity of the coastline was strengthened. The coastline artificialization index increased to 53.88% in 2015. The development and utilization of the subjectivity changed from the single subject model to the formation of the dual subject model, by 2015, the coastline dual entity into bedrock coastline (30.53%) and construction coastline (20.26%). The coastline comprehensive utilization index rose by 32.42%, and the influence of human activities on coastline changes significantly increased.
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    Spatio-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of Chinese red tourism network attention
    GAO Nan, ZHANG Xin-cheng, WANG Lin-yan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1068-1089.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200505
    Abstract1112)   HTML15)    PDF (2914KB)(332)      
    Red tourism network attention degree is a typical method for measuring the performance level of red tourism development promotion, and it is also an important reflection of the influence of red tourism promotion level. This paper takes the "red tourism network attention degree" of 31 provincial-level regions as the research object, and uses the Moran index and panel vector autoregressive model to analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics and the influencing factors of the red tourism network in China from 2011 to 2018. The results show: (1) The network attention of the national red tourism shows a fluctuant growth trend in the study period, and its seasonal difference is significant. (2) The national red tourism network attention shows a decreasing trend from the eastern to central and western regions, but the trend of attention in the red tourism 5A-level tourist attractions is prominent in the western region. (3) The attention of red tourism networks in the 31 provincial-level regions has significant global spatial autocorrelation. The phenomenon of "high-high" and "low-low" agglomerations is concentrated in the eastern region, and central and western region. (4) The contribution of the factors affecting red tourism network attention was ranked as follows: internet penetration rate > per capita GDP > tourism information index > regional media attention > red tourism classic scenic network attention.
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    Urban agglomeration and industrial transformation and development in the Yellow River Basin
    DENG Xiang-zheng, YANG Kai-zhong, SHAN Jing-jing, DONG Suo-cheng, ZHANG Wen-ge, GUO Rong-xing, TAN Ming-hong, ZHAO Peng-jun, LI Yu, MIAO Chang-hong, CUI Yao-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 273-289.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210201
    Abstract478)   HTML20)    PDF (1885KB)(214)      

    Ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin is one of the major national strategies, in which urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development are the intrinsic requirements and fundamental guarantees. Thus, revealing the path of the river basin scale urban agglomeration development and industrial transformation and upgrading is of great significance to guide the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, this paper brings together scholars from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Institute for Eco-civilization, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Capital University of Economics and Business, Peking University and Henan University, to discuss key issues on urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of ecological protection, resource allocation, dynamic evolution, spatial structure, and integration and regulation. This paper aims to serve the major national stragety of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. The core views are as follows, regulating the relationship among water resources, urban agglomeration and industrial development is the key to promoting the coordination of industrial transformation and urban transformation, and the synchronized advances of economic transformation and social transformation;the analysis of the complex coupling and dynamic evolution mechanism of river basin ecological protection and high-quality development is of great significance for achieving high-quality development of the basin; it is an effective way to promote the high-quality development of the basin to reveal the evolution mechanism of typical urban agglomeration and industrial space and to construct the spatial integration target and mode of urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development; under the background of increasing uncertainty of trade caused by globalization and energy revolution, complex relationship between social economy and ecological environment, and the construction of a new development pattern of "dual circulation", the basin urgently needs a more comprehensive integrated regulation mechanism.

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    Water resources endowment and exploitation and utilization of countries along the Belt and Road
    Yan-zhao YANG, Zhi-ming FENG, Tong SUN, Feng TANG
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (6): 1146-1156.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190602
    Abstract779)   HTML26)    PDF (4103KB)(285)      

    Water resources is the basic strategic resource. It is of great significance to conduct research on water resources of countries along the Belt and Road for promoting the scientific construction of the Belt and Road. Based on the World Bank and the FAO Water Resources Databases, we started from the perspective of water exploitation and utilization, analyzed the natural endowment and utilization status of water resources of countries along the Belt and Road, and further explored the water resources exploitation potential status. The results showed that: (1) In terms of water endowment, the surface water, groundwater and total water resources were relatively high in Russia, China, Southeast Asia and South Asia, while they were relatively low in Central Asia and West Asia. The per capita water resource was relatively high in Central and Eastern Europe, Russia and Southeast Asia, while it was relatively low in West Asia and South Asia. The external water dependency rate was high in the downstream of transboundary rivers, while it was low in the upstream of transboundary rivers and island countries. (2) In terms of water utilization, the water consumption was higher in the east than in the west of the Belt and Road region, the per capita water consumption was the highest in Central Asia and it was low in the surrounding areas. In terms of water use structure, agricultural water was dominant in Asian countries, while industrial water was dominant in Central and Eastern Europe countries. (3) In terms of water resources exploitation potential, the exploitation potential of countries in the Arabian Peninsula was extremely low, and it was extremely high in Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia.

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    The degree and influencing factors of household food waste in China from the perspective of food conversion: An empirical analysis based on CHNS database
    LI Feng, DING Yuan-yuan, CAI Rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (4): 811-826.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210401
    Abstract234)   HTML16)    PDF (1148KB)(205)      

    The food supply in China has been adequate and stable for a long time and China has made remarkable achievements in food security which is proved to be true. However, this situation has been challenged by population growth and environmental degradation in recent years. On the one hand, the large population in China is still growing, which makes enormous demands on food supplies. On the other hand, grain production is constrained by resources and the environment, and importing foreign food excessively will squeeze domestic agricultural production. Therefore, the best way to ensure food security in China is to reduce food waste. As an important part of the consumption, households account for a large proportion of food waste production sector, which deserves our attention. What is the current situation of household food waste in China and what factors will affect household food waste in China are worth considering. From the perspective of food conversion, the food waste rate in this paper is defined as the proportion of family food consumption that is not normally converted to body mass index of family members. This paper uses data from China nutrition and health survey (CHNS) and applies stochastic frontier model to estimate household food waste rate from the perspective of food conversion and discusses the impact of heterogeneous family characteristics (such as household size, household structure, household income, storage condition, regional factors, the characteristics of the head of the household and the characteristics of the main female member) on food waste. The result shows that: the average household food waste rate is about 11.28%; such a family is likely to waste more, which has a small size, more children or the elderly, a higher per capita annual income, less-educated head of household, female with higher-education or have jobs, a bad grasp of dietary knowledge, and the family lives in Southern China. Therefore, it is of great importance to encourage the production of small packaging food and small cooking utensils, instruct household members to purchase food according to the actual needs, strengthen the efforts of the government, and raise the awareness of school children and their parents about food security so as to reduce food waste.

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    Progress in Household Adaptation of Land Use to Environmental Stresses
    WANG Jia-li, HUANG Xian-jin, YU Zhong-xiang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2014, 29 (9): 1598-1612.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.09.014
    Abstract67)      PDF (1942KB)(204)      

    Household adaptation responses of land use to environmental stresses have becomethe focus of climate change and sustainability science. This paper reviews the determinants ofhouseholds'adaptive capacity, the barriers for adaptation responses, and the assessment on ecologicaland environmental consequences of household adaptation to environmental stressors ofland utilization. The approaches of household adapting environment are presented, involvingcomposite index method, participatory rural assessment, statistic and econometric model, andadaptive co-management model. Some problems are proposed for further study in need of transformative adaptation: 1) Theoretically, building the theoretical framework of adaptation to supply theoretical support for empirical research; 2) more attention be paid to the assessment ofecological and environmental consequences of household adaptation practices and policies forimproving adaptive capacity, which providing scientific basis for sustainable adaptation; 3) toexplore the mechanism of household adaptation process of land use across multiple actors; and4) to construct adaptive co-management model of household to environmental stresses involve dmultiple actors on the basis of systematic ideas, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge,and present methodologies for realizing the combination of qualitative and quantitative research.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    The dynamic evolution and its driving mechanism of coordination of rural rejuvenation and new urbanization
    XU Wei-xiang, LI Lu, ZHOU Jian-ping, LIU Cheng-jun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (9): 2044-2062.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200902
    Abstract266)   HTML11)    PDF (3887KB)(202)      
    The research reconstructed the index system for rural revitalization and new urbanization, and used the coupling coordination model, spatial Markov chain, and geographic weighted regression model to analyze the coupling between rural revitalization and new urbanization in 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) of China from 2005 to 2017 in the aspects of coordination level, spatio-temporal differentiation pattern, dynamic evolution of space, and driving mechanisms. The results show that: (1) The degree of coupling and coordination between rural revitalization and new urbanization presents a distribution pattern of "high in the east and low in the southwest"; intermediate coordination areas are gradually spreading to the middle, and the number of high-level coordination areas is increasing. Most of the provinces with advanced coordination type are characterised by "lagging in rural development", and most of them with primary coordination and near-imbalance types are featured by "new urbanization and development lagging". (2) The dynamic evolution of the degree of coupling coordination showed the characteristics of maintaining the stability of the original state, and it was difficult to achieve leapfrog transfer. There is a phenomenon of "club convergence" in the provinces in the advanced coordination stage. The provinces that are shifting upward are mainly concentrated in the central region, and most northern provinces are undergoing downward adjustments. Areas with a low degree of coupling and coordination have a negative spillover effect on the surroundings, while areas with a high degree have a positive effect on neighboring provinces, indicating that the spillover effect is asymmetric. (3) The driving force that affects the change in the degree of coupling and coordination of rural revitalization and new urbanization has a significant spatial difference, showing a development trend of hierarchical band distribution. Government-driven, investment-driven and population-driven forces present a north-south-level band-shaped distribution. Consumption-driven, income-driven, and industry-driven forces present a zonal distribution of east and west levels.
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    Study on valuation of rangeland ecosystem services of China
    XIE Gao di, ZHANG Yi li, LU Chun xia, ZHENG Du, CHENG Sheng kui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2001, 16 (1): 47-53.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.008
    Abstract311)      PDF (124KB)(584)      
    It is of great significance to estimate ecosystem services value By using method proposed by Constaza et al (1997) and others,this paper calculated the unit area value of rangeland ecosystem services in terms of its biomass in China The results showed that the total value of annual rangeland ecosystem services in China was about US$149.79 billion,among which,the percentage of gas regulation took up 2 66%,that of disturbance regulation accounted for 16 07%,water regulation and water supply 14 44%,erosion control and sediment retention 9 08%,soil formation 0 31%,waste treatment 42 03%,pollination 7 83%,biological control 7 2%,refugia 1 08%,food production and raw material 22 26%,and recreation and culture 5 78% Owing to the integrated effects of biological communities distribution and ecosystem function of unit area,the contribution ratio of ecosystem services of various rangeland types different greatly The contribution ratio of marsh type made up 52 34%,the total contribution ratio of temperate steppe type,tropical herbosa type,tropical shrub herbosa type,lowland meadow type and alpine meadow type varied in the range from 5 03% to 7 74%,that of others types below 5%
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    Cited: CSCD(391)