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    Opportunities and challenges of natural resources research of China in the New Era
    SHEN Lei, ZHONG Shuai, HU Shu-han
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (8): 1773-1788.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200802
    Abstract588)   HTML21)    PDF (2353KB)(420)      
    The Report of the Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that building a New Era of socialism with Chinese characteristics puts forward new demands for comprehensive research and management practices of natural resources. Since the completion of large-scale comprehensive scientific investigations and researches of natural resources in the 1990s, comprehensive research on natural resources has gradually become the focus of attention in the field of resources science. In the New Era, natural resources research is facing various opportunities and challenges. This article discusses the nexus relationship between the frame of the Mountain-Water-Forests-Field-Lakes-Grasses, pointed out by President Xi Jinping, and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in terms of natural resources issues. It focuses on the four typical related research topics that are most concerned at home and abroad today, namely, resource-asset-capital nexus, energy-resource-technology nexus, food-water-energy nexus, energy-water-land-carbon emission nexus, combined with the policy guidance proposed in the New Era. It analyzed the geopolitical risks, climate change, international trade uncertainty, major emergency events and other issues and proposed several new perspectives and related suggestions which are aimed to provide some new ideas for the development of natural resources research and disciplines innovation capacity building. The authors believe that the century-long unprecedented changes have a profound impact on the status and role of natural resources. As a result, it is urgent to strengthen the basic theoretical research of natural resources and establish some major R&D plans for natural resources research as soon as possible to serve the national natural resources strategy and major engineering needs and provide some ways of important technological support for China.
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    Optimization of ecological security pattern in the source area of Fenhe River Basin based on ecosystem services
    HE Juan, SHI Xue-yi, FU Yang-jun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (4): 814-825.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200406
    Abstract174)   HTML6)    PDF (4961KB)(309)      
    The optimization of the ecological security pattern is an important spatial way to ensure regional ecological security, maintain ecosystem stability and enhance ecosystem service. Taking the source area of Fenhe River Basin as an example, this paper quantitatively evaluated ecosystem services including water production, habitat quality and soil conservation, and used hot spot analysis to identify important ecological sources. Considering the complex mechanism of rivers in ecosystems, this paper established two ecological security patterns, and on this basis, put forward a comprehensive ecological security pattern. The results showed that there were 19 ecological sources in the source area of Fenhe River Basin, accounting for 16.59% of the total study area. Three ecological security patterns established 33, 42 and 43 potential ecological corridors respectively. The network structure evaluation results showed that three patterns could generate a closed ecological network. The total length of the optimized ecological corridor is 565.957 km, and comprehensive ecological security pattern had higher network closure, node connection rate and network connectivity, and the cost was relatively low. In addition, 35 ecological breakpoints were identified, and key areas for ecological protection and restoration construction were determined. This pattern can provide spatial guidance for regional ecological protection and restoration planning.
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    The grain production space reconstruction in China since the reform and opening up
    ZHANG Qiu-meng, YANG Fang-she, LI Fei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1426-1438.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210606
    Abstract110)   HTML6)    PDF (3157KB)(165)      

    Grain production space reconstruction not only concerns China's food security, but also has a profound impact on regional economic development and ecological protection. From three dimensions of quantity, production potential and spatial pattern, the paper employs GAEZ (Global Agro-Ecological Zones) model, landscape pattern index and gravity center model to discuss the grain production space reconstruction of China from 1980 to 2018. Studies have shown that: (1) In terms of quantity, grain production space gradually decreases from south to north, and the total area remains almost unchanged, but it has frequent internal conversion. The grain production space has been transformed into other land use types, amounting to about 64.58 million hm2, of which the Grain for Green and construction land expansion account for roughly 90%. The other land use types have been converted into grain production space, reaching 66.8 million hm2, of which deforestation and grassland reclamation account for 75%. (2) From production potential, the total amount showed decreasing trends in the past 40 years, while the spatial distribution presents a pattern of "high in the east and low in the west", showing an obvious gradient difference from east to west. The decrease of total production potential of grain production space was mainly caused by the Grain for Green and construction land expansion, resulting in the decrease of grain production space with medium-low, medium and medium-high potential levels; However, its total increase was mainly attributed to the deforestation and grassland reclamation, leading to an increase of grain production space with medium and medium-high potential levels. (3) Due to the aggravation of human activities, the landscape pattern of China's grain production space has undergone significant changes since the 1980s. Its scale gradually decreased, the shape tended to be complex, and the distance gradually became far. Meanwhile, the quantity gravity center has moved southward, but not too far. The gravity center of its production potential has been moving to the northeast, with a distance of 82.74 km. This paper enriches the research setup of land system, and provides the basis for guaranteeing food security and realizing food production space's sustainable and intensive use.

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    Analyzing the carbon metabolism of "Production-Living-Ecological" space based on ecological network utility in Zhaotong
    DU Jin-shuang, FU Jing-ying, HAO Meng-meng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (5): 1208-1223.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210510
    Abstract171)   HTML4)    PDF (2653KB)(171)      

    Analyzing the carbon metabolism process of "Production-Living-Ecological" space could contribute to achieving the regional elements integration and structure optimization of "Production-Living-Ecological" space, which could help to strive for green and low carbon development. Taking Zhaotong as an example, this research systematically analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of carbon metabolism in "Production-Living-Ecological" space from 2010 to 2018 through calculating vertical carbon flux between urban system and atmosphere, and building horizontal carbon flows model between components of the urban system. Besides, ecological network analysis was used to evaluate the comprehensive ecological effects of the "Production-Living-Ecological" space evolution on urban carbon metabolism. The results suggested that: (1) The vertical net carbon flux and the horizontal net carbon flows in Zhaotong from 2010 to 2018 were both negative, which indicated that "Production-Living-Ecological" space evolution had a negative influence on the urban carbon metabolism balance, resulting in an increase in carbon emissions. (2) The main ecological relationship of "Production-Living-Ecological" land in carbon metabolism system was restrictive and predatory relationship. Ecological spaces were occupied by living spaces and production spaces, leading to the imbalance of carbon metabolism. (3) The value of whole ecological utility function J was 0.85 (< 1), showing that the comprehensive effect of "Production-Living-Ecological" space pattern change on urban carbon metabolism was negative. This result was consistent with the inference of net carbon flows calculations. The study results can provide theoretical and data basis for the optimization of land space utilization and low-carbon transition in the study area, as well as decision-making support for the development of "Production-Living-Ecological" space.

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    The impact of land fragmentation on farmer's chemical fertilizer use efficiency
    SHI Chang-liang, ZHANG Yi, GUO Yan, ZHU Jun-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2687-2700.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191216
    Abstract215)   HTML1)    PDF (1640KB)(331)      

    In the background that China strongly advocated the chemical fertilizer use reduction and zero growth, how to improve chemical fertilizer use efficiency by farmers has become a crucial issue. This paper measures the chemical fertilizer use efficiency from the perspective of technical efficiency and analyzes the influence direction and degree of land fragmentation on the chemical fertilizer use efficiency through regression analysis and Shapley value framework based on R2. The results show that: (1) The technical inefficiency is high in the use of chemical fertilizers. In the case of other inputs such as unchanged labor and land, about 52.51% of fertilizer input can be reduced with no effect on the yield. Therefore, this could sufficiently achieve the aim of fertilizer reduction with no effect on the yield by improving the management level of farmer's fertilizer use. (2) The land fragmentation has a significant negative impact on chemical fertilizer use efficiency. All other factors being equal, each block of land increase could lead to a fertilizer use efficiency decrease of 0.002. This conclusion is robust to different variable definitions, estimating methods and winsorized sample. In addition, the Shapley value decomposition result shows that land fragmentation is also an important reason for low chemical fertilizer use efficiency of Chinese farmers. On the whole, land fragmentation can conduct 12.15% of farmer's chemical fertilization efficiency variance which is fourth in all the factors only next to village dummy variables, paddy field ratio and food crop planting ratio. Moreover, the contribution of the land fragmentation to chemical fertilizer use efficiency difference is stronger in the western region where the fragmentation is relatively high. (3) The difference in the chemical fertilization efficiency mainly depends on local village characte-ristics and the characteristics of production and management including the management scale, plantation structure, land quality, and whether or not to join the cooperative. However, the explanation of farmer's individual characteristics influenced by collective decision to chemical fertilizer use efficiency is relatively weak.

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    An analysis of the relationship between water resources and population-economy-society-environment
    LIU Chang-ming, WANG Hong-rui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2003, 18 (5): 635-644.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.017
    Abstract160)      PDF (358KB)(525)      
    Water resources serve as the material base of the existence and development of human beings.It is a huge complicated system involving population,economy,society and environment.Water resources and water cycle are the keys in the system.Based on the summarization of the water resources concept and its attribute of nature,economy and society,this paper discusses the relationships between water resources and water cycle,water-balance structure,population,economy,society and environment in details.The paper also emphasizes the interactions of water cycle and water balance,water resources utilization and evaluation,economic activity,and water resources carrying capacity.Given an example of the Yellow River valley,the paper states that there is a closer relationship between water resources,population,economy,society and environment.The author gives a definite concept and connotation of water resources carrying capacity on the base of summing up the former studies.Summarizing the model system of water resources carrying capacity,the author also points out that it is very essential to use the system to depict the complex relationship between water resources and other four aspects,namely population,economy,society and environment.Considering the problem from the viewpoint of the regional sustainable development and alleviating the benefit conflict of distribution of water resources,we should clarify the following aspects:water demands for ecological environment,including rivers,animals,plants and land;water demands for population and social-economic development;and water environment capacity that can tolerate certain amount of pollutants.So,in order to promote the sustainable development of population,economy,society and environment,it is of great significance to simulate and predict the evolvement of the huge complex system with the combination of remote sensing,GIS and modern math theory,seek a reasonable allocation of water resources carrying capacity,and study the enhanced module of water resources carrying capacity.
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    The Origin, Characteristics and Prospect of Fishing Quota Legal System
    BAI Yang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2012, 27 (3): 522-528.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.03.018
    Abstract65)      PDF (399KB)(203)      
    Fishing quota legal system is an output control management based on ecological characteristics of fisheries resources, which the historical background is over-fishing and input control management failed. It is the development basis for TAC (total allowable catch), and is successfully implemented in Iceland and New Zealand. The system is exclusive, sustainable, transferable and incentive in the layer of law. Scholars have different views for the legal characteristics of quotas, of which the quasi-property was approved by majority. Its resources attribute essentially decides the quotas system which is a common duty that cannot overpass the total allowable catch. Through the implementation of a limited access, deepening international cooperation and strengthening the supervision means, we could secure mutual obligations, and then realize the sustainable utilization of resources.
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    The spatial optimization of red tourism resources utilization based on the resilience of "ruralism-ecology" system: A case study of Dabie Mountains Old Revolutionary Base Area
    ZHU Yuan-yuan, WANG Zi-wei, GU Jiang, YU Rui-lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (7): 1700-1717.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210706
    Abstract150)   HTML2)    PDF (5021KB)(36)      

    The red tourism resources utilization and development of tourist destination have a strong disturbance to human-earth areal system. Based on the resilience evaluation of "ruralism-ecology" system, this study presents a spatial utilization pattern of red tourism resources, which is conducive to promoting the development of red tourism resources and regional sustainable development mutual win-win situation. Taking the Dabie Mountains Old Revolutionary Base Area as an example, we constructed a resilience level evaluation system of the "ruralism-ecology" system of red tourism from four aspects of economy, society, culture and ecology, and identified the spatial characteristics and types of red tourism resources. The results showed that: (1) The resilience of "ruralism-ecology" system in each county was mainly at the middle and low levels, characterised by "high in the middle and low in the surroundings". (2) The resilience of subsystems in the region was barely coordinated, and the coordination of county-level administrative units presented an "olive-shaped" hierarchical structure with more counties at medium level and less counties at high and low levels. (3) The cold spot and hot spot areas of red tourism resources located on the north and south sides of the Dabie Mountains and the central part of the study area, showed a pattern of "large agglomeration, and small dispersion", which were divided into 5 clusters based on their scale and influence. (4) In areas with high concentrations of red tourism resources, the resilience of the "ruralism-ecology" system can be developed to a higher level through the reconstruction of internal elements. In the low- and medium-density areas of red tourism, the resilience of the "ruralism-ecology" system was weak in absorbing and adapting to external disturbances, which inhibited the development of red tourism resources. According to the evaluation results, the spatial pattern of red tourism resources utilization of "three regions, two belts and three cores" can be constructed preliminarily, and differentiated suggestions were put forward from the perspective of "ruralism-ecology" system resilience in different regions. The research results aim to mitigate the interference of the development of red tourism resources to the "ruralism-ecology" system.

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    Effects of global climate change on forest ecosystems
    LIU Guo hua, FU Bo jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2001, 16 (1): 71-78.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.012
    Abstract427)      PDF (136KB)(345)      
    Human induced greenhouse effects and their impacts on global climate change and eco environments,especially the responses of forests to global climate change,have aroused interests of many scientists.In this paper,the potential effects of future climate change on forest ecosystem structure,species composition,tree and forest distribution and productivity are discussed systematically.In the meanwhile,the fields that must be further studied are advanced.
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    Cited: CSCD(77)
    The characteristic of regional differentiation and impact mechanism of architecture style of traditional residence
    WANG De-gen, LYU Qing-yue, WU Yong-fa, FAN Zi-qi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (9): 1864-1885.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190906
    Abstract548)   HTML2)    PDF (7993KB)(271)      
    The protection of traditional villages and towns is one of the important tasks of new-type urbanization. However, the residential buildings that are tangible cultural heritage and cultural genes are the mainstay of traditional feature in traditional villages and towns, and the traditional villages and towns would have lost the carrier of the inheritance of cultural heritage, if their traditional residential buildings were missing. In this paper, we take the representative architectural landscape characteristic towns and villages as study cases to analyze their regional differentiation of architecture style, and explore the impact mechanism of their regional differentiation of architecture style. The study found that, firstly, there are 12 types of architecture style in Chinese traditional dwellings. The resulting architectural feature areas show that there are obvious differences in spatial distribution between north and south. The northern architectural feature area is divided into two sections with different sizes, and the southern architectural feature area has two "string of pearls" distribution. Secondly, there are obvious regional differentiations in the characteristic of Chinese traditional residential architecture in 5 aspects, namely, settlement environment, spatial layout, modeling style, building materials and detail decoration. Thirdly, from the impact mechanism of architecture style regional differentiation of Chinese traditional residential buildings, the natural environmental factors (including topography, landform, water system, climate, planting material, earth and stone) are the cornerstone of the formation of architecture style regional differentiation of traditional residence. The cultural factors such as the patriarchal ethics, fengshui concept and ethnic culture are the internal impetus of the architecture style regional differentiation of traditional residence. The cultural factors such as population migration, war defense and business economy are the extrapolation forces of architecture style regional differentiation of traditional residence.
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    Reducing Food Loss and Food Waste: Some Personal Reflections
    CHENG Sheng-kui, BAI Jun-fei, JIN Zhong-hao, WANG Dong-yang, LIU Gang, GAO Si, BAO Jing-ling, LI Xiao-ting, LI Ran, JIANG Nan-qing, YAN Wen-jing, ZHANG Shi-gang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (4): 529-538.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170202
    Abstract512)   HTML207)    PDF (529KB)(1083)      

    Recently, research on food loss and foodwaste and the related environmental impacts has increased globally. Food loss and food waste occur in all aspects of the food supply chain from farm to table. A better understanding of the scales and trends of food loss and food waste is very important for any mitigation strategies. The food waste reflects directly the civilization of a society, and we need to understand the causes and consequences of food waste from multiple perspectives. Addressing food loss and food waste issue requires a wide range of actions from reducing, to promoting a healthy diet culture, learning from international experience, and building intelligent food systems.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    Change in grain production in China and its impacts on spatial supply and demand distributions in recent two decades
    LIU Zheng-jia, ZHONG Hui-min, LI Yu-rui, WEN Qi, LIU Xue-qi, JIAN Yu-qing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1413-1425.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210605
    Abstract285)   HTML9)    PDF (3920KB)(58)      

    China is feeding roughly 20% of the world's population with less than 9% of the world's cultivated land. The food security at national and regional scales has been a major concern. In this study, we took the province-level area as the research unit and utilized GIS spatial analysis and statistical tools to examine the overall characteristics of grain production changes, the evolution characteristics of regional patterns and the impact of these changes on regional grain supply and demand pattern in China during 1999-2018. The results showed that the total national grain output significantly increased with an annual rate of 1.1 million tons. The total grain output of Northern China showed a significant growth trend, while that of Southern China remained stable. The increment of maize yield played a leading role in these changes. The spatio-temporal yield variations of five major food crops (rice, wheat, maize, beans and tubers) were quite different in the past 20 years at provincial-level scale. The change of grain yield had great influence on regional grain supply and demand pattern. Particularly, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces located in the southeast coastal region had changed from supply-oriented provinces of major grains with rice and wheat into demand-oriented provinces. However, the per capita share of grain was 368.0 kg/person in Y 1999-2003 period(the five-year average during 1999-2003) and 461.5 kg/person in Y 2014-2018 period (the five-year average during 2014-2018) at national-level scale, respectively; and the per capita share of the two major grains was 220.3 kg/person and 247.6 kg/person in Y 1999-2003 and Y 2014-2018 periods, respectively. The change of sown area was the direct reason for the change of grain crop yield at national and regional scales. Nevertheless, the fundamental reason was more attributed to the change of attribution, function and quality, which is driven by land use value. Our study classified the reasons for the decrement of cultivated land into "non-agriculture" "non-grain" "wastage" and "ecology" types. Considering the formation causes of each type, the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable use of regional cultivated land were put forward in order to provide reference for the adjustment of regional grain planting pattern and the transformation of demand-oriented provinces of two major types of grain to self-sufficient provinces.

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    Discussions and thoughts of the path to China's rural revitalization in the new era: Notes of the young rural geography scholars
    YANG Ren, WEN Qi, WANG Cheng, DU Guo-ming, LI Bo-hua, QU Yan-bo, LI Hong-bo, XU Jia-wei, HE Yan-hua, MA Li-bang, LI Zhi, QIAO Lu-yin, CAO Zhi, GE Da-zhuan, TU Shuang-shuang, CHEN Yang-fen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (4): 890-910.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190417
    Abstract283)   HTML9)    PDF (2070KB)(259)      

    The rural revitalization, as a national strategy in the new era, puts forward the requirements and goals of the thriving industry, pleasant living environments, social etiquette and civility, effective governance and prosperity. China is a country with a vast territory, marked by regional differences in resource and economic development levels. What's more, rural areas are complex, diverse, and have many problems. Rural revitalization is a systematic project with comprehensive, complex and regional characteristics. Sixteen young scholars in the field of rural geography across the country have conducted in-depth discussions and reflections on the scientific path of rural revitalization in China. The core points are as follows: (1) In accordance with the law of time-space distribution, we should fully understand the connection between the historical basis of rural development and the practical needs, establish a theoretical and technical system that highlights regional characteristics and has operability, and promote the transformation of rural residential environment, industrial system and governance mode in a classified and orderly manner. (2) Rural revitalization strives for the integration between urban and rural areas to build a compound multi-center network system, which breaks through the village and town systems of traditional linear "central place", and innovate the spatial organization mode of "village cluster". Rural endogenous force, urban radiation force and planning binding force jointly drive rural revitalization. (3) The agriculture has multiple functions such as food safety, social stability, and ecological products. Its development needs to create the whole value chain of agriculture to promote the integration of primary, secondary and tertiary industries. (4) In energy-rich areas, we should fundamentally solve the problem of unbalanced and inadequate rural development under the premise of ensuring the national energy security demand. In Southwest China, we should take advantage of ecology and human resources to build a modern agricultural industry system, remodel the brand of rural tourism, and build landscape rural homes. In Northeast China, rural revitalization must proceed in an orderly and classified way in the process of synergistic promotion of the "northeast revitalization" strategy. In the Yangtze River Delta region, it is necessary to cognize the evolutionary stages from rural industrialization to rural urbanization, and then to rural characteristics with more and more emphasis on the social, cultural and ecological construction of rural areas, seeking a scientific path of rural revitalization. In Northwest China, we propose to effectively improve the ability of "independent poverty alleviation" in rural areas under the premise of ecological protection, and realize the transformation from "transfusing blood" to "producing blood". In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, oriented by equalization of basic public services in urban and rural areas, we will promote the development of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization. In resource-oriented areas, rural industries will replace the industrial system formed around resource exploitation with an efficient agricultural system integrating primary, secondary and tertiary industries. In traditional agricultural areas, it is necessary to optimize the coupling pattern between farmland use transformation and rural labor structure change, which is an important means to achieve rural revitalization. In economically developed areas, villages with "mixed" characteristics need to activate the assets and capital attributes of rural land resources, promote the integration and activation of spatial order, and comprehensively explore the modern rural governance mode with the participation of multiple subjects.

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    Research on comprehensive investigation work system of natural resources
    GE Liang-sheng, XIA Rui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (9): 2254-2269.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200917
    Abstract320)   HTML9)    PDF (1121KB)(179)      
    According to the Chinese president XI Jin-ping's idea of ecological civilization construction in the New Era and the concept of "mountain, river, forest, farmland, lake and grassland are a life community", and in the context of the concept, connotation and attribute analysis of the natural resources, the hierarchical classification scheme of the natural resources serving the comprehensive investigation work, eight basic categories of underground space, minerals, shallow geological layer, land, water, forest, grassland and wetland, and its space-time and attribute structures were established. Based on these works, the comprehensive investigation system frame of natural resources that follows the basic flow of unified basic investigation, special thematic investigation, dynamic monitoring and data update, data processing and comprehensive integration, results expression and application services, has been primarily built. Besides, the work content and the requirement of each stage have been briefly discussed, which provides a reference for reconstruction of natural resources comprehensive investigation system.
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    Application of ecological restoration and planning based on resilience thinking in coastal areas
    LI Yang-fan, XIANG Zhi-yuan, YANG Yi, WANG Quan-li, LI Yi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 130-140.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200112
    Abstract225)   HTML7)    PDF (5900KB)(264)      

    Adaptive characteristics of a resilient system (plan-absorb-recover-adapt) provide supports for ecological restoration and guidances for coastal spatial planning. In this research, we took coastal area of Mulanwan in Hainan province as a case study to estimate desertification mitigation and adaptation based on resilience theory. We developed a methodology of land spatial planning according to the analysis of vulnerability and ecosystem services in our study area. Our results show that: (1) Dry land and sand (21.8% of the total area) were identified as high vulnerability area, forests, water and wetlands (67.5% of the total area) were classified as areas with high ecosystem services; (2) Redeveloping restoration areas were mainly identified in fishing ponds and dry lands (16.4% of the total area), artificial restoration area was located on dry land and windward side (5.5% of the total area), and conservative zone was mainly covered by sands (15.8% of the total area). System's responses to human-related and environmental pressures can be characterized by overlapping the maps of vulnerability and ecosystem services, which addresses the integrated management and resilient restoration in coastal areas.

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    Construction path and intergenerational differences of Yan'an urban residents' red memory
    BAI Kai, KANG Xiao-yuan, WANG Bo-lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (7): 1631-1646.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210701
    Abstract263)   HTML3)    PDF (1471KB)(29)      

    As a typical cultural phenomenon throughout the progress and development of modern and contemporary Chinese society, the writing, construction, inheritance and other topics of red memory at the macro level have been widely concerned and discussed. However, the research on red memory on the individual level is relatively deficient and requires to be promoted. Therefore, this paper takes Yan'an urban core area, which is rich in red resources, as a case study. With the help of generation research method, through in-depth interviews with 36 local residents, this paper interprets the red memory differences among three generations of Yan'an urban residents, and explores the "macro-micro" construction path and results of red memory. The results show that the macro level of memory elements mining, narrative expression and resource activation construct the coding, selection and consolidation process of residents' red memory, promote the local residents to generate red memory content with characteristics of the times, and finally construct the authoritative, functional and reflective red memory system of the old, middle and young generations. The results reflect the significance of the social forces of memory construction and the changing times in shaping the content of individual memory, and provide a theoretical reference for standardizing the practice of red memory and promoting the inheritance of red memory.

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    The degree of cultivated land abandonment and its influence on grain yield in main grain producing areas of China
    LI Yu-ling, MA Wen-qiu, JIANG Guang-hui, LI Guang-yong, ZHOU Ding-yang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1439-1454.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210607
    Abstract217)   HTML5)    PDF (1870KB)(45)      

    Cultivated land abandonment has a profound impact on China's food security. Taking the main grain producing areas in China as an example and based on the identification of the distribution of abandoned land, this paper measured the spatial distribution pattern of abandoned land, established the mediating effect model of cultivated land abandonment, and explored the influence mechanism of cultivated land abandonment on regional grain yield. The results showed that: (1) The area of abandoned cultivated land in the main grain producing areas of China was 4.0553 million hectares, with a rate of 5.85%; the distribution of abandoned land presented a T-shaped pattern, mainly concentrated in the Northeastern Heilongjiang, Northwestern Jilin and Southern Inner Mongolia. (2) Cultivated land abandonment had a significant negative impact on the grain yield of the main grain producing areas. In 2017, these areas lost a farmland production potential of 13.3915 million tons, and the loss of grain output was as high as 22.656 million tons, accounting for 4.69%; Inner Mongolia was the most affected region. (3) Grain sown area, farmland production potential, and agricultural technology input all played an intermediary role, and their regression coefficients were -0.194, -0.025 and 0.006, respectively. (4) We should follow the trend of urban-rural integration and agricultural-rural development, strengthen the input of modern agricultural production factors and policy support in major grain producing areas, and construct the flexible mechanism of spatial transformation between grain production and cultivated land fallow to ensure food security in China.

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    The historical evolution of urban settlements and man-land coupling in Wuding River Basin
    TONG Biao, DANG An-rong, ZHOU Hong-yu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 38-54.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210103
    Abstract253)   HTML4)    PDF (5798KB)(123)      

    The Wuding River Basin, located in the Loess Plateau of the middle reaches of the Yellow River, is a typical transitional zone and ecologically fragile area in history. Based on the analysis of the historical development process of urban pattern and the coupling relationship between human and land in this process, this paper puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions for the future urban development and ecological protection of the basin in combination with the current situation of urban development. The main findings are as follows: the development and evolution of the urban hub area in the basin was bow shaped in the Tang Dynasty and before, when the natural conditions were better, and the urban spatial layout was mainly based on natural factors; the hub area after the Tang Dynasty presented a triangle pattern, and the urban spatial layout was mainly based on human factors; the contemporary urban pattern of the basin inherited the context of historical development, but the driving force of urban development was mainly based on resources along the Great Wall. The human activities have an impact on the vegetation coverage in some areas; at the same time, the ecological protection policies, such as returning farmland to forests, wind prevention and desertification control, have exerted positive effects. It is suggested that the development of the river basin should be reasonably determined and concentrated around the main cities and towns in combination with the national strategic positioning and regional ecological environment bearing capacity. In addition, the ecological barrier and key prevention and control areas are constructed with the river as the backbone.

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    The development history and prospect of natural resources research in China
    CHENG Sheng-kui, SHEN Lei, FENG Zhi-ming, ZHONG Shuai
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (8): 1757-1772.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200801
    Abstract815)   HTML36)    PDF (2208KB)(347)      
    Since the 1950s, driven by large-scale, long-term and continuous comprehensive investigations of natural resources oriented to serve national strategic needs, China's natural resources research has formed a comprehensive and integrated development characteristics, and the development process of "task with discipline" has also gradually created a more systematic resources science theoretical basis and empirical methodology system. Faced with the country's major demand for deepening the reform of the comprehensive management system of natural resources since the establishment of the Ministry of Natural Resources, promoting the establishment and improvement of an independent resources science discipline system has become an important task in the field of natural resources research in China. This article systematically sorts out the development process of comprehensive investigation and research on China's natural resources from the 1950s to the early 2000s, focusing on the key development directions and characteristics of different periods. Combining the summary and prospects of historical opportunities in different periods, we believe that China's natural resources research has formed a national demand-oriented and leading discipline development trend. In the future, we should continue to adhere to the comprehensive research paradigm featured by multi-disciplinary integration; open up new perspectives on resources science system research with Chinese characteristics; accelerate the formation of a complete discipline system; improve the talent training system of resources science; strengthen the study of the discipline history of resources science; determine the relationship between resources science and geography, geology, ecology, environmental science and other related disciplines; actively introduce the big data theoretical framework and technical advantages to innovate "Natural Resources Big Data" or "Resource Utilization Big Data" and other related theories and technologies and to establish a dynamic evaluation method for the process of natural resources development and utilization; provide the background of natural resources and its comprehensive impact assessment with the ecology and environment for ecological civilization construction and sustainable development strategies support for decision-making; explore and analyze natural laws, socio-economic laws and the systematic association between the two in the process of natural resources utilization.
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    Research progress of sustainable cities and its implications for national territory spatial plan
    ZHU Xiao-dan, YE Chao, LI Si-meng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (9): 2120-2133.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200907
    Abstract266)   HTML7)    PDF (2070KB)(163)      
    Sustainable cities are the focus of attention in many areas. The advent of the intelligent era and the evolution of the network society have promoted the study of the relationship between technology and sustainable development. Sustainable cities need innovative research methods and contents. The domestic academic circles have not paid enough attention to the forefront of sustainable cities. The national territory spatial plan also needs to draw on and integrate the relevant theories of sustainable cities. With the help of CiteSpace software, this article systematically reviews the current research situations and development trend of sustainable cities. The paper analyzes its evolution and research hotspots, and finds that the research on sustainable cities has mainly experienced four stages: germination, rise, growth and diffusion. International sustainable cities research mainly focuses on three aspects: climate change, urban governance and smart cities. The research changes from "sustainable" to "smart sustainable". Big data-assisted urban planning has become a trend, and the co-governance of diverse community stakeholders has gradually increased. However, the research and practice of smart sustainable cities in China are insufficient, the evaluation index system of sustainable cities is not perfect, the international experience is lacking, and the research on joint urban-rural governance is insufficient. The combination of the new sustainable cities research framework and the territorial development plan will be the key to future research. The practice of sustainable cities in China is not just for cities, but for urban-rural co-governance, which is also a concentrated manifestation of sustainability in terms of time, space and society. In the evaluation index system of sustainable cities, rural development indicators should be considered. And the issues of rural intelligence, environmental compatibility and technology compatibility in the national territory spatial plan are also important aspects of sustainable cities. Sustainable cities should focus on the coordinated development of nature, society and technology, not only to protect the environment and natural resources, but also to reform the urban and rural governance model and system. The national territory spatial plan is an important foundation for China to achieve sustainable cities. Starting from the proposition of "urban-rural China", urban-rural co-governance is the focus of China's sustainable urban development and research, and is also the main content of the national territorial development planning. Only through the reform of the combination of multi-dimensional systems can the concept of sustainable cities be implemented, and the integration of urban and rural areas can be achieved with the help of intelligent technology. In the future, China's sustainable cities research and practice will become a focus.
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    A study on the calculation methods of the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lakes
    LIU Jing-ling, YANG Zhi-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2002, 17 (5): 604-609.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.05.011
    Abstract253)      PDF (233KB)(115)      
    In arid and semi-arid areas of northern China,lakes have been facing a number of problems such us dried-up,shrinkage and serious water pollution.Non-scientifical utilization and management of the lake resources has resulted in water shortage and water quality degrada-tion.To keep rational water level and self-purification ability of the lakes is the guarantee for scientific and sustainable utilization of the water resources.The calculation method of the mini-mum eco-environ mental water demand for lakes is the basic precondition to keep rational uti-lization and management of the lake ecosystem.Based on the analysis of the crisis of lake eco-environment and the obstacles to the solution of the problems in China,the concept and calcula-tion methods about the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lakes have been analyzed.According to the feature s and actual situation of the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lake ecosystem s we put forward the calculaton methods:(1)water quantity balance method;(2)exchange water cycle method;(3)minimum water level method;and(4)function method.The results show that the function method can reflect exactly the relationship s between the healthy state and the minimum eco-environmental water demand of the lake ecosystems.This can offer technical support against the trend of eco-environmental deterioration and for the restoration of the lake ecosystems.These different methods should be used for different kinds of and different eco-environmental characters of the lake ecosystems.To define the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lakes,it is possible to offer scientific support for lake ecosystem management and restoration.In northern China the lake ecosystems will get into the new period of scientific management and ecological restoration after the minimum eco-environmental water demand for lake ecosystem s is determined and implement eco-environmental construction planning is imple-mented.
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    The locality and adaptability of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin: Challenges and opportunities
    WANG Fang, MIAO Chang-hong, LIU Feng-gui, CHEN Xing-peng, MI Wen-bao, HAI Chun-xing, DUAN De-gang, WANG Jin-ping, ZHANG Zhan-cang, WANG Cheng-xin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 1-26.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210101
    Abstract511)   HTML29)    PDF (10349KB)(352)      

    Due to the particularity of natural environment and geographical location, the human settlement environment of the Yellow River Basin is in a complex process of constant changes and is always facing severe challenges. The coupling process of human environment space with natural and social elements originates from the dynamic, comprehensive and systematic adaptation mechanism presented in the process of human-land relationship change, so revealing the system adaptation mechanism is the key to solve the human environment dilemma in the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, based on the perspective of "locality and adaptability", this paper invited experts and scholars from Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong along the Yellow River and other provinces. They interpreted the characteristics of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of natural geography, social economy, urban and rural development, and heritage protection, and sought sustainable strategies to adapt to China's new urbanization path. The main points are stated as follows: On the whole, the adaptability of human settlements in the study area has multi-scale spatial correlation and historical geographic dependence. The Yellow River Basin has an important ecological function, but the natural environment in different regions is facing such problems as land salinization, soil erosion and pollution, etc., so it is necessary to promote the greening of human-land coupling relationship. The Yellow River Basin, especially the cities along the upper reaches of the river, have distinct characteristics of openness, ethnic cultural diversity and integration. Due to the complex natural environment, caves and other special settlements have been formed in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River. In the process of rapid urbanization, they are faced with transformation and disappearance, retaining the cultural genes of traditional settlements, and it is urgent to classify and treat them differently to promote their healthy evolution. The internal and external radiation drive of urban agglomeration in the Yellow River Basin is the foundation of high-quality development throughout the river basin, and the optimization and upgrading of urban structure is an important way to promote high-quality development. To achieve sustainable development, scientific and technological innovation and industrial structure transformation and upgrading are also needed.

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    The spatio-temporal evolution and driving factors of eco-efficiency of resource-based cities in the Yellow River Basin
    YAN Xiao, TU Jian-jun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 223-239.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210115
    Abstract197)   HTML7)    PDF (3211KB)(114)      

    Eco-efficiency is the comprehensive embodiment of regional development quality, and the synthetic reflection of coordination degree between socio-economic system and environmental system. Taking the Yellow River Basin as the research area, this study explored the spatio-temporal evolution and driving forces of eco-efficiency of resource-based cities. At first, eco-efficiencies of 37 resource-based cities from 2003 to 2017 were evaluated, using the TOPSIS method. Then, the spatio-temporal changing trends were revealed through the Theil index, the Global Spatial Autocorrelation analysis and the Hotspot analysis. At last, the key driving factors of eco-efficiency change were explored by the Panel Tobit Regression model. The results showed that: (1) On the whole, the eco-efficiency of resource-based cities in the Yellow River Basin stabilized first and then increased during 2003 and 2017, with 2007 as the turning point. However, the quantity and rate of eco-efficiency growth varied considerably among resource-based cities. The two indexes of downstream cities were significantly higher than those of middle and upstream cities, and these two indexes of regenerative cities were significantly higher than those of growing cities, grow-up cities and recessionary cities. (2) The eco-efficiency gap between resource-based cities decreased slightly at first and then increased continuously during 2003 and 2017. Meanwhile, the eco-efficiency spatial distribution pattern of resource-based cities evolved from random state to aggregate state. Specifically, the low-value agglomeration areas were distributed at the junction of Shanxi and Henan provinces at first, and then moved upstream to the central and northern parts of Shanxi province. The high-value agglomeration areas, however, remained consistently in Shandong province, which is located in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. (3) In general, industrial transformation, scientific and technological innovation, infrastructure improvement and location conditions had significant positive effects on the improvement of eco-efficiency in the study area. However, export-oriented economy, resource dependence and environmental regulation had significant inhibitory effects, and urbanization, industrialization and foreign capital utilization had no significant impact. It is worth noting that the driving factors of eco-efficiency were heterogeneous across different types of resource-based cities, which means that different resource-based cites should take different measures to improve their eco-efficiencies.

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    Establishment and application of one map of current situation of territorial spatial planning according to the foundations of natural resources: Taking Qingdao city as an example
    HAN Qing, SUN Zhong-yuan, SUN Cheng-miao, LI Dan, LIU Yi-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2150-2162.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191011
    Abstract608)   HTML375)    PDF (4151KB)(2328)      

    The construction of the territorial spatial planning system has been fully carried out. The clear and detailed status map and data are an important basis for understanding the natural resources, and also an important support for the preparation of territorial spatial planning. However, the current land classification standards, data accuracy and application targets of the current territorial spatial data are not uniform. Based on remote sensing images, geographic conditions and Internet POI data, this paper studies one map of land and space status, synthesizes existing land classification standards and data accuracy, and constructs one map of territorial spatial planning status of Qingdao city. On this basis, the application direction of one map of territorial spatial planning is discussed, including the preliminary delimitation of "Production-Living-Ecological Space" in Qingdao city. The suitability of urban construction, the importance of ecological service function and the suitability of agricultural production were analyzed. The construction of one map of the status of territorial spatial planning plays an important role in defining the resource utilization cap and the environmental quality bottom line, standardizing the territorial spatial planning data, and supporting the preparation and management of territorial spatial planning.

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    Conceptual cognition and research framework on sustainable intensification of cultivated land use in China from the perspective of the "New Agriculture, Countryside and Peasants"
    LYU Xiao, NIU Shan-dong, GU Guo-zheng, PENG Wen-long
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (9): 2029-2043.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200901
    Abstract308)   HTML19)    PDF (2221KB)(174)      
    Promoting sustainable intensification of cultivated land use (SICL) has provided a new idea for ensuring food security and green development of agriculture and sustainable use of resources. It is of important practical significance to deepen the dominant position of farmers, strengthen the modernization orientation of agricultural development, and solve the problem "New Agriculture, Countryside and Peasants", which is a complex collection of problems. This paper reviews the research on the ideologial origin of sustainable intensification abroad, identifies the connotation differences of SICL, and clarifies the logic origin of SICL of China under the background of "New agriculture, Countryside and Peasants". Based on the trajectory of "factor fusion-structural reorganization-functional excellence", following the logical approach of "process-pattern-mechanism-effect" in the system of cultivated land use, this paper clarifies the problem domain of cultivated land use system from the aspects of theoretical analysis, level measurement, evolution mechanism and optimal regulation, so as to construct a research framework of SICL. Finally, it proposes the scientific issues of "agricultural ecological space-human-land relationship-SICL", and discusses the significance and key issues of "factor & mechanism, function & system, process & pattern, scale & interface".
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    Coupling relationship and interactive response between ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin
    LIU Lin-ke, LIANG Liu-tao, GAO Pan, FAN Chang-sheng, WANG Hong-hao, WANG Han
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 176-195.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210112
    Abstract314)   HTML9)    PDF (3237KB)(139)      

    Based on the analysis of the coupling mechanism of ecological protection and high-quality development, the provincial unit is taken as the research unit to evaluate the coupling coordination degree of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, compared with the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Finally, the panel VAR model is used to quantitatively analyze the interactive response relationship between ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) During the study period, both the ecological protection index and the high-quality development index of the Yellow River Basin showed an increasing trend, and the overall pattern of the middle and lower reaches was higher than that of the upper reaches. (2) The coupling coordination degree of ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin showed an overall increasing trend. Among them, the coupling coordination degree from 2003 to 2011 was less than 0.5, which was an antagonistic stage; in 2012-2017, the coupling coordination degree is between 0.5-0.7, which belongs to the run-in stage. The metropolis in the Yellow River Basin presents a spatial pattern of downstream > middle reaches > upstream, with the highest coupling coordination between Shandong and Shanxi at the provincial level, and the lowest coupling coordination between Ningxia and Qinghai. (3) The ecological protection index of the Yellow River Basin is slightly higher than the national average. The high-quality development index and the coupling coordination degree are lower than the national average. The ecological protection index of the Yellow River Basin in the early stage (2003-2009) is lower than that of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, while it is higher in the later period (2010-2017). The high-quality development index and coupling coordination degree are lower compared with the Yangtze River Economic Belt in all the years. (4) Both the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin have positive progressive effects and inertial development characteristics, and their effects on themselves are declining year by year, and the degree of attenuation of high-quality development is more obvious. The ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin play a positive role in promotion, but due to the overall low level of ecological protection and high-quality development and uneven internal development, the mechanism of action of the two is not significant.

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    New patterns of globalization and food security
    CHEN Yang-fen, WANG Jie-yong, ZHANG Feng-rong, LIU Yan-sui, CHENG Sheng-kui, ZHU Jing, SI Wei, FAN Sheng-gen, GU Shan-song, HU Bing-chuan, LI Xian-de, YU Xiao-hua
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1362-1380.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210602
    Abstract310)   HTML8)    PDF (1155KB)(44)      

    The world is undergoing tremendous changes, and food security is encountering major challenges in China and even the world. In order to systematically study globalization and explore its new patterns, new issues and new paths for food security, we interviewed ten distinguished professors from different fields and discussed hot topics, including the potential for increasing farmland production, agricultural water and soil resources and food production, food waste, international agricultural product trade, stable supply of key agricultural product, global agricultural food system, dual circulation pattern and corporate actions, global food production and consumption, international food security governance, and cutting-edge research on food safety. The result shows that the global agricultural food system has entered an era of complexity and high risk. International food security governance is facing challenges in terms of resources, binding force and action power. We are facing an increasing pressure of import dependent agricultural products to ensure stable supply. It is necessary to deepen supply-side reform and strengthen demand-side management so as to guarantee national food security. New changes have taken place in globalization. This will test China's ability to deepen agricultural opening-up, participate in global food security governance, and achieve national food security. In the face of complex international and domestic situations, for better national food security governance, it is necessary to adhere to system thinking and coordinate domestic and international markets. It is also very important to target the entire industry chain, emphasize risk control, and handle the relationship between the government and the market. Furthermore, researchers need to explore the internal relationships and specific mechanisms between food security and other important issues, such as food systems, ecosystems, high-quality development goals, agricultural opening-up, and new dual-circulation development patterns. This could provide a scientific reference for establishing and improving the national food security strategy of "featuring self-sufficiency based on domestic grain production, guaranteed food production capacity, moderate imports, and technological support" in the New Era.

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    Spatio-temporal distribution and network structure of red tourism flow in Jinggangshan
    WANG Jin-wei, WANG Guo-quan, LIU Yi, LEI Ting, SUN Jie, WANG Xin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (7): 1777-1791.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210711
    Abstract161)   HTML13)    PDF (2973KB)(24)      

    Tourism flow is an important indicator of industrial operation of red tourism destination, which plays a significant guiding role for the planning and management of tourism destinations. Based on 1286 online travel notes of typical travel websites (2000-2020), this paper uses ArcGIS spatial analysis method and social network analysis method to examine the spatio-temporal distribution and network structure characteristics of Jinggangshan red tourism flow. Results show that: (1) Tourism flow in Jinggangshan has formed a double-core and multi-point spatial pattern with "Ciping-Huangyangjie" as the center, while the temporal distribution presents a periodic seasonal difference, which is closely related to climatic and phenological changes, holiday system and other factors. (2) Tourism flow network in Jinggangshan presents a "core-periphery" hierarchical structure, and forms a "Longshi-Dujuanshan" dense flow area in the northwest-southeast direction, in which the tourist flow between Huangyangjie, Longtan and Ciping is most frequent, occupying the core position of tourism distribution hub. Erling, Tongmuling, Xiangzhou and Xiankou occupy the peripheral position of tourism flow network. The reasons for this hierarchical structure are mainly related to tourism transportation, supporting facilities, tourism attractiveness, geographical location and other factors. (3) The 11 nodes (scenic spots) in Jinggangshan tourism flow network can be divided into three categories: diffusion type, balanced type and agglomeration type. Among them, Ciping is the only diffusion-type scenic spot, Longshi is the only agglomeration-type scenic spot, while Huangyangjie, Longtan, Zhufeng, Dujuanshan and Maoping belong to balanced-type scenic spots. Among all the flow paths between 11 nodes, "Ciping→Huangyangjie" and "Huangyangjie→Longtan" are the core routes in the tourism flow network. In order to further promote the development of Jinggangshan red tourism in the new period, this research puts forward the following suggestions: (1) Strengthening the exploration of the revolutionary history and the connotation of red culture in scenic spots, develop diversified theme tourism products in different seasons and the characteristics of holiday system, so as to attract the deep participation of different groups, and obtain the understanding of the red revolutionary spirit. (2) Improving infrastructure and tourism route planning, enhance the integration degree of peripheral scenic spots (nodes) in the tourism flow network, and create a more systematic and balanced tourism network. (3) Allocating red tourism resources and other economic and social elements rationally within Jinggangshan region, and strengthen the driving role of the agglomeration-type scenic spots and core routes in the tourism flow network, so as to realize the integration and coordinated development for Jinggangshan red tourism.

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    Ouyang Zhiyun, Wang Rusong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    1995, 10 (3): 203-215.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1995.03.002
    Abstract143)      PDF (871KB)(372)      
    To coordinate the relation between man and the nature and resource exploitation through ecological planning can be traced back to the works and practices of the ecological thinkers and regional planning pioneers at the end of the 19th century, such as George Marsh, Patrick Geodes and John Powell. Ecological planning theory and practice developed very quickly during the period before World War Two but disappeared in the literature for nearly 20 years until the environmental movement in the 1960's. With the occurrence of more and more serious environmental problems and resource degradation ecological planning began its new development era since the late 1960's. Particularly I. L. McHarg's and his colleagues' outstanding work and planning practice made the ecological planning thinking and methods gain widespread application. Recent trends of ecological planning research and practice develop towards applying the modern ecological knowledge and achievements directly and establishing the theory and methodology based on ecology, development economics and other related disciplines. They shift from quality analysis to quantity simulation with powerful computer and geographic information system,and from the single goal planning to urban and regional planning in order to promote sustainable development. It is obvious that ecological planning will become one of the important aspects in sustainable development.
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Improvement of the Evaluation Method for Ecosystem Service Value Based on Per Unit Area
    XIE Gao-di, ZHANG Cai-xia, ZHANG Lei-ming, CHEN Wen-hui, LI Shi-mei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2015, 30 (8): 1243-1254.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.001
    Abstract563)   HTML17)    PDF (2813KB)(235)      
    Ecosystem service value is the base of decision-making for ecological protection, ecological regionalization and ecological compensation, and it appears the dynamic spatio-temporal changes which are closely connected with the variations of ecological structure and function. However, it is still lack of a universal and integrated dynamic evaluation method for ecosystem service value in China. Based on literature survey, expert knowledge, statistical data and remote sensing data, using model simulations and GIS spatial analysis method, this paper modified and developed the method for evaluating the value equivalent factor in unit area, and proposed an integrated method for dynamic evaluation on Chinese terrestrial ecosystem service value. This method can realize the comprehensive and dynamic assessment of ecosystem service value for 11 service types of 14 different types of terrestrial ecosystem at monthly and provincial scales in China. The preliminary application indicated that the total ecosystem service value was 38.1×10 12 yuan in 2010, in which the value from forest ecosystem was the highest, accounting for about 46%, followed by water body and grassland. Among different ecosystem service types, the contribution from regulation function was the highest, especially the values from hydrological regulation and atmospheric regulation which accounted for about 39.3% and 18.0% of total service value, respectively. Moreover, ecosystem service value presented apparent spatio-temporal patterns in China. Spatially, the ecosystem service value decreased from southeast to northwest and the highest value appeared in southeastern and southwestern regions. Temporally, the ecosystem service value for most of the ecosystems attained the peak in July and reached the trough during December and January except desert, barren and glacier ecosystem. Generally, although this established method still needs to be developed and optimized, it is the first to provide a relatively comprehensive approach for the spatio-temporal dynamic evaluation of ecosystem service value in China, which will be helpful to the scientific decision-making on natural capital rating and ecological compensation.
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    Cited: CSCD(279)