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    Establishment and application of one map of current situation of territorial spatial planning according to the foundations of natural resources: Taking Qingdao city as an example
    HAN Qing, SUN Zhong-yuan, SUN Cheng-miao, LI Dan, LIU Yi-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2150-2162.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191011
    Abstract608)   HTML375)    PDF (4151KB)(2328)      

    The construction of the territorial spatial planning system has been fully carried out. The clear and detailed status map and data are an important basis for understanding the natural resources, and also an important support for the preparation of territorial spatial planning. However, the current land classification standards, data accuracy and application targets of the current territorial spatial data are not uniform. Based on remote sensing images, geographic conditions and Internet POI data, this paper studies one map of land and space status, synthesizes existing land classification standards and data accuracy, and constructs one map of territorial spatial planning status of Qingdao city. On this basis, the application direction of one map of territorial spatial planning is discussed, including the preliminary delimitation of "Production-Living-Ecological Space" in Qingdao city. The suitability of urban construction, the importance of ecological service function and the suitability of agricultural production were analyzed. The construction of one map of the status of territorial spatial planning plays an important role in defining the resource utilization cap and the environmental quality bottom line, standardizing the territorial spatial planning data, and supporting the preparation and management of territorial spatial planning.

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    Thoughts on unifying the regulation of territorial space use
    LIN Jian, WU Ting, ZHANG Ye-xiao, ZHAO Ye
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2200-2208.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191015
    Abstract367)   HTML186)    PDF (1014KB)(1398)      

    In recent years, the unification of territorial space use regulations has been upgraded to an unprecedented level of national strategic deployment, which is an extremely important reform task with overall significance. Based on the systematical review on the institutional evolution of territorial space use regulation since 1949, this paper puts an emphasis on summarizing the major features of previous territorial space use regulations in China. In general, we conclude that the key to implement territorial space use regulations is to control the three important aspects which consist of planning, licensing and supervision, to coordinate the utilization of continental space and ocean space and to discriminate the management of construction and non-construction purposes. On the premise of system construction, we propose four suggestions to institution on how to unify the territorial space use regulations: (1) Establishing a unified control line system for territorial space use regulations at the planning level; (2) Building an abundant and effective measure system for territorial space use regulations; (3) Constructing a unified and explicit regulatory system for territorial space use regulations at the supervision level; (4) Improving the legal system to help territorial space use governance at the support level.

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    Shenyang's practice and optimizing exploration of "Three Control Lines" in territorial spatial planning
    ZHANG Nian-guo, WANG Na, YIN Jian
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2175-2185.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191013
    Abstract417)   HTML40)    PDF (4011KB)(1312)      

    Before the institutional reform of the State Council, the "Three Control Lines" of ecological protection red line, permanent basic farmland and urban development boundary were delineated by different ministries, which resulted in insufficient coordination and overlapping results, and difficulties in implementing management. After the institutional reform of the State Council, the Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for establishing a spatial planning system. It requires that the three control lines be delineated from top to bottom on the basis of the evaluation of the urban capacity of resources and environment and the suitability of territorial spatial development. This paper summarizes the manifestations and causes of contradictions and conflicts in the delimitation of the three control lines in Shenyang as a pilot city, constructs relationships between the three control lines and the three spaces of ecology, agriculture and cities, establishes the management system and adjustment rules, and explains the adjustment and optimization practices within the scope of the city. The study found that it is difficult to distinguish the functions of the three control lines overlapped in space, mainly because permanent basic farmland undertakes the mission of restricting urban spatial spread, and the index can not be adjusted across administrative regions, which results in some permanent basic farmland having to be arranged in cities; different definitions leading to some urban parks are classified as ecological protection redline; some cultivated land in ecological protection redline was previously classified as permanent basic farmland. The paper puts forward the optimization proposals of three control lines under the background of territorial spatial planning: First, we highlight the characteristics of both the policy line and the technical line, and delimit them from top down and bottom up; second, the country needs to carry on the innovation to the basic farmland adjustment policy and system; third, we will establish a hierarchical management mechanism to properly reserve the flexibility of local administrative power.

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    Discussion on the application framework of big data in territorial spatial planning
    QIN Xiao, ZHEN Feng, LI Ya-qi, CHEN Hao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2134-2149.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191010
    Abstract307)   HTML99)    PDF (3290KB)(1130)      

    In the new era, the core goal of territorial spatial planning is to meet the people's needs for a better life and also to protect natural resources. As a new type of planning, the method of territorial spatial planning is generally lacking. Based on the endowment of natural resources, scholars use data based on statistics and surveys, as well as methods of statistical analysis, spatial analysis and deduction to evaluate the carrying capacity and suitability of land space at the national and provincial levels, and make a static delimitation of the ecological red line, prime farmland protection line and urban development boundary. However, the existing studies rarely consider the dynamic impact of human activities on the use of land space, and lack the scientific arrangement of ecological space, agricultural space and urban space under the new development trend. This paper introduces the big data which can directly reflect the temporal and spatial changes of human activities. It mainly discusses the direction and specific methodological framework of the application of big data from the four parts of territorial spatial suitability evaluation, ecological spatial planning, agricultural spatial planning and urban spatial planning. Meanwhile, it emphasizes the scientific path of territorial spatial planning compilation under the interaction of "natural space" and "social and economic activities".

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    Introduction to the Special Issue on Innovation in Territorial Spatial Planning under the Context of Smart Society
    ZHEN Feng, QIN Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2037-2039.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191001
    Abstract354)   HTML15)    PDF (470KB)(1014)      
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    Carrying capacity reconsidered in spatial planning: Concepts, methods and applications
    HAO Qing, DENG Ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2073-2086.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191005
    Abstract484)   HTML15)    PDF (1810KB)(992)      

    Resource and environment carrying capacity is the scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper combs the development of the concept, theory and practical application of carrying capacity, and points out the existing problems in research and application, such as concept's obscurity boundary, evaluation biased index calculation, and insufficient research on carrying capacity transmission mechanism. The reform of the spatial planning system and the changes in production modes, lifestyles and development modes in the new era have put forward new demands on spatial planning. It is necessary to explore and innovate the carrying capacity evaluation which is supporting the spatial planning: (1) Further clarify the conceptual connotation of carrying capacity and form a concept set; (2) Study the internal mechanism of carrying capacity and clarify the formation mechanism of carrying capacity; (3) Construct a multi-space scale, multi-evaluation unit's carrying capacity evaluation system to meet the needs of multi-level spatial planning. In practice, it should provide a scientific basis for determining the main indicators and main tasks of spatial planning according to spatial planning and spatial governance changes, supporting new goals of spatial planning, adapting to new modes of spatial governance, and taking new approaches to spatial governance.

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    From informational empowerment to comprehensive empowerment: Exploring the ideas of smart territorial spatial planning
    ZHEN Feng, ZHANG Shan-qi, QIN Xiao, XI Guang-liang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2060-2072.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191004
    Abstract370)   HTML15)    PDF (2347KB)(933)      

    The Communist Party of China's 19th National Congress Report has clearly set the goal of "smart society" and put forward new requirements for the current development of territorial spatial planning. Nowadays, the empowerment of information technology based on the Internet, big data, cloud computing, etc. is the main driving force and development focus of the current practices of smart territorial spatial planning. How to understand and promote the development of smart society is the foundation of the compilation and implementation of smart territorial spatial planning. This paper emphasizes the importance of human-land relationship and the theory of urban life organism to the planning and governance of territory in a smart society. It points out that the overall conceptualization of smart territorial spatial planning should be transformed from informational empowerment to comprehensive empowerment, which includes technological empowerment and innovative empowerment. The paper constructs a smart territorial spatial planning framework-EPTI-based on the ideas of ecological civilization, people-oriented, technology integration application and institutional innovation, and discusses the paths toward smart compilation and implementation of territorial spatial planning.

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    The model of population urbanization in urban land spatial planning based on multi-source data fusion: A case study of Yangzhou city
    ZHU Jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2087-2102.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191006
    Abstract476)   HTML12)    PDF (6309KB)(878)      

    Nowadays, with the increasingly coordinated development of regions, the study of population urbanization also urgently needs to be carried out from a broad regional perspective. Focusing on the three core issues of new urbanization, mamely, people, land, and property, the social, spatial, and economic attributes on population mobility are derived. Based on a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used data methods in urbanization analysis, this paper constructs a new conceptual model for population urbanization in different scales with multi-source data. Using the census and survey data, mobile phone data, and enterprise registration data, the conceptual model is applied to an empirical study of urban dense areas-Yangzhou city and shows strong applicability, based on migration flow analysis, location identification, and enterprise headquarters-branch network analysis methods. The results show that: (1) At the regional level, due to the factors such as the threshold of settlement, family rights, and social security, population mobility is more cautious than capital flows. And it is compliant with the administrative district economy and urban hierarchy system. (2) At the municipal level, because the central city has greater advantages than the villages and towns, in terms of public service facilities and income levels, the urbanization form is mainly manifested in the direct connection between urban and rural areas, while the radiating and absorbing effects of key towns for population and enterprises are not strong. (3) In the era of ecological civilization, places with beautiful scenery, profound history, and rich cultural heritage are the natural soil for new economy. And the new economy has become a powerful engine for new urbanization in the late-developing areas. Yangzhou has a pleasant ecological environment and profound cultural atmosphere, which is the natural advantage and foundation of developing new types of economy. It needs to develop industrial platform, innovative environment, and innovation system to jointly create a comprehensive advantage of new economic development. Empirical research shows that the conceptual model has good applicability. It can identify the main pattern of economic and social linkages scientifically, reveal the intensive communicating area in town cluster region, and play a supporting role in delimiting urban development boundaries and optimizing the spatial pattern of land. Therefore, this model has a strong reference value for the study of regional coordination of territorial spatial plan at city and county level.

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    The change and reconstruction of spatial planning system under the goal of modern national governance
    ZHANG Jing-xiang, XIA Tian-ci
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2040-2050.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191002
    Abstract281)   HTML8)    PDF (1424KB)(852)      

    From the perspective of intergovernmental relations and government-market relations, this paper, based on the governance theory, analyzes the development process and overall trend of both Western developed countries' and China's spatial planning system under the influence of national governance changes. While spatial planning has become an important institutional reform and reconstruction system for China's ecological civilization construction, this paper hold the opinion that, under the goal of modern national governance, the reconstruction of the future spatial planning system should pay more attention to the following three questions: (1) The multi-attribute nature of "land space" should be fully understood, while the overall balance of spatial planning for multiple objectives should be emphasized; (2) A spatial planning system that corresponds to government affairs should be established; (3) Planning researches and non-statutory planning should be integrated into the spatial planning system to enhance the scientific nature of spatial planning.

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    An analysis framework for identifying and optimizing ecological-production-living space based on resident behavior
    LIU Chun-fang, WANG Yi-xuan, HE Rui-dong, WANG Chen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2113-2122.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191008
    Abstract334)   HTML4)    PDF (1653KB)(847)      

    Ecological-production-living space (EPLS) is not only the basic carrier of human economic and social activities, but also the spatial reflection of human spiritual and cultural needs. Identifying the scope, understanding residents' demand, adjusting the supply and coordinating the functions of EPLS, are the core of the content of the territorial space planning, as well as the important premise of realizing the modernization of governance capacity and high-quality development in the new era. Based on the requirement of compiling the current territorial spatial planning, and the theoretical methods of behavioral science and behavioral geography, this paper explores the theoretical relationship between ecological-production-living behavior and ecological-production-living space. According to the principle of "demand analysis and spatial identification-problem diagnosis and goal determination-mechanism and coupling relationship-spatial optimization and policy suggestions", an optimization analysis framework of EPLS based on residents' behavior is constructed. This study combines residents' behavior research with space supply and demand, and provides a theoretical framework and new ideas of "humanization" for land and space planning.

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    Classification, scope and the impact of human activities of ecological space in Tibet Autonomous Region
    WEI Zi-qian, XU Zeng-rang, MAO Shi-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2163-2174.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191012
    Abstract302)   HTML6)    PDF (4293KB)(828)      

    The delimitation of ecological space is an important basis for the scientific management of territorial space and the maintenance of regional ecological security. Since the beginning of the 21st century, China has undergone an unprecedented rapid urbanization process, and the territorial spatial pattern has changed dramatically. However, during this period, a series of disorderly processes of territorial spatial development have resulted in the squeezing of ecological space and many severe regional ecological problems, such as land desertification, biodiversity reduction, ecosystem degradation, which restricts the realization of the goal of sustainable development. The definition of ecological space is mainly put forward by domestic scholars in recent years, and the corresponding concepts in other countries are ecoregion, ecological land space, and green space etc., and the classification system of ecological space is also not unified. Taking the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) as an example, we explored the classification system, spatial distribution, attribution of the patches, and human activities intensity of ecological space on provincial scale in the study. The results are as follows. (1) The classification system of ecological space can be composed by 3 hierarchal systems. According to various ecosystems and dominant functions, there are 4 land categories in the primary-class system, 13 sub-categories of land in the second-class system and 29 sub-categories of land in the third-class system. And according to the ecological governance intensity from the strictest regulation to the relatively relaxed regulation, ecological space can be divided into I-level, II-level and III-level areas. (2) Guided by the current spatial planning and governance system, the link between the classification system of ecological space and the existing land classification system such as the land cover and land use classification, ecosystem type was built; the spatial distribution of ecological space, and the attribution of the patches within the space was identified. Besides, the key ecosystem services functional area and the main ecological frangible area were also identified and included into the ecological space. The existing land classification system, the ecosystem services functional area and frangible ecosystem, and the various space can be integrated in GIS environment. The total ecological space of TAR is about 1054500 km2, accounting for 87.7% of the total area. (3) Finally, human activities within the ecological space in Tibet were simulated in order to control the human activities intensity of ecological space and to maintain the ecological security.

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    Comprehensive suitability evaluation of spatial development and construction land in the perspective of land-ocean co-ordination:A case study of Liaoning province, China
    JI Xue-peng, HUANG Xian-jin, CHEN Yi, WANG Dan-yang, SONG Ya-ya
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (3): 451-463.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190301
    Abstract424)   HTML9)    PDF (2313KB)(814)      

    Comprehensive suitability evaluation of spatial development and construction land is the scientific basis and guarantee for optimizing spatial development pattern and improve its quality and efficiency. It is of great significance for the implementation of regional coordinated development strategy. In this paper, according to the principles of urban-rural integration and land-ocean co-ordination, we selected Liaoning province as a case, the only both coastal and border province in Northeast China. The suitability evaluation index system was established from 3 dimensions, including natural environment, economy and society, and marine function. To evaluate and analyze the suitability of spatial development and constructive land in this province, we integrated the application of Delphi method, cask theory, linear weighted summation model and multi-factors space overlay analysis. The results show that there exist obvious characteristics of spatial differentiation in the suitability of spatial development and construction land throughout Liaoning. The most and more suitable construction land represent an obvious central peripheral structure, and concentrate along both the Shenyang-Dalian axis and the Binhai axis; the most unsuitable construction land shows a north-south symmetric distribution by the Binhai axis, while the more unsuitable construction land shows an east-west symmetric distribution by the Shenyang-Dalian axis. The construction land areas of most suitability, more suitability, more unsuitability, and most unsuitability are 15504.39 km2, 22645.34 km2, 66833.96 km2, and 68720.99 km2, respectively, and the proportions of land-ocean area are 8.93%, 13.04%, 38.48%, and 39.56%, respectively. The suitability of natural environment plays a fundamental and decisive role in the development and construction of regional land; and the characteristics of agglomeration and dispersion are significantly different at different levels and regions. The suitability of economy and society obviously modifies that of natural environment. The introduction of marine functional zone has greatly expanded the regional land in Liaoning province, but the spatial distribution of marine functional suitability is extremely uneven. And due to the nature of marine functional zone, the space which can be directly developed and constructed is limited, while the space for protection is great. The contradiction between spatial development and ecological environment protection will be still severe for a long time.

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    Geogovernance of national land use based on coupled human and natural systems
    CAO Xiao-shu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2051-2059.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191003
    Abstract549)   HTML17)    PDF (882KB)(798)      

    The geosystem mainly studies the interaction mechanism between human and natural system on the surface of the earth, emphasizing the integration of human-land use relationship, natural and human factors, namely the human-land use coupling systems. Applications of the geosystem in the land space is mainly composed of geodecisions-making, geosimulation and geoengineering, and the interactions among these constitute geogovernance. Land space is the material carrier of the common practice of nature and human, the extent to which human shaped by nature is no less than that of opposite transformation, therefore, geosystem theory with the core of Coupled Human and Natural Systems has become the theoretical basis of land spatial planning and renovation. Based on the coupled human and natural systems, the remodeling of land space is ultimately reflected in various activities of human acting on the natural environment with the form of geogovernance. With the development of reform and opening-up for 40 years, Chinese land space has been basically in a relatively stable pattern and mainly consists of economic zones, poor areas and small towns, which is different from that of developed countries. We are in a state of "three-dimension-transformation coupling", i.e. urbanization, townization and ruralization. Thus, we must attach importance to the studies of strategic areas based on the Belt and Road Initiative, such as the Pan-Third Pole, the South China Sea Rim, and the Northeast Asia-Arctic. According to the theory of Coupled Human and Natural Systems and the value equilibrium of land space, the basic scientific problem of land space remodeling is the evolution and driving mechanisms of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Land spatial planning can be divided into three types: Development planning, controlling planning and restoration planning. The protection and management of land space includes the whole area renovation with the core of land use, the systematic restoration with the core of ecological civilization, and the comprehensive management with the core of social harmony. The development goal of human activity system is to establish a community of shared future for mankind, correspondingly, that of the natural system is to establish a sustainable system, so the ultimate development goal of Coupled Human and Natural Systems is to form a community of shared destiny with the interaction between human and nature.

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    The implementation mechanism of territorial spatial correction in the Yangtze River Economic Belt: Taking Yizheng city and Zhangjiagang city of Jiangsu province as an example
    JIN Zhi-feng, ZHU Feng-wu, YAN Chang-qing, SHEN Chun-zhu, ZHANG Xiao-lei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2223-2233.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191017
    Abstract307)   HTML2)    PDF (2483KB)(792)      

    Territorial spatial correction is an important means for the natural resources management departments to implement the "unified exercise of all territorial spatial control responsibilities" and is an important part of the control and governance. Based on the research on Yizheng city and Zhangjiagang city, this paper clarifies the type and cause of territorial space mismatch in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and attempts to construct a implementation mechanism which aims to provide theoretical and practical reference for the construction of the national land use control system in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The territorial space mismatch types mainly include: the mismatch due to unreasonable planning, lack of planning, and planning conflicts; the mismatch between urban, agricultural and ecological spaces; the industrial mismatch caused by labor, capital, land mismatch and environmental regulation requirements, the intensity mismatch caused by excessive use or inefficient use of resources. (2) For different types of mismatches, the research attempts to construct a territorial spatial correction mechanism from the following aspects, such as establishing the "three-line" coordination mechanism, building a "full process, multi-agent, multi-path" classification correction mechanism, improving territorial spatial use control system, establishing a comprehensive land improvement and ecological restoration mechanism and dynamic supervision mechanism. The results can provide theoretical and practical reference for the correction of territorial spatial mismatch, the control of land use and the optimization of territorial space in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

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    Construction of ecological security pattern based on coordination between corridors and sources in national territorial space
    HAN Zong-wei, JIAO sheng, HU Liang, YANG Yu-min, CAI Qing, LI Bei, ZHOU Min
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2244-2256.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191019
    Abstract452)   HTML4)    PDF (5023KB)(768)      

    Constructing an ecological security pattern with closer ecological connections and less ecological disturbance is an important way to make contributions to the balance between ecological protection and economic development in national territorial planning. This paper aims to establish an ecological security pattern, which should take into account the coordination and protection of sources and corridors in the ecological system in an integrated manner. Taking 33 counties (districts) around Dongting Lake as examples, it puts forward the ecological pattern formed by the ecological essential source areas and natural corridors, and the urbanization pattern formed by economic society source areas and artificial corridors. Then, we reveal the spatial characteristics of the ecological positive points and ecological disturbing points between the ecological pattern and urbanization pattern, and offer artificial and natural countermeasures for the problems in particular areas of the ecological environment. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) There should be 1537 identified ecological corridors in the ecological security pattern and 908 key points urged to be protected, which takes up 0.48% of economic society areas for returning to the ecological core source area, so as to promote the spatial relationship between ecological elements; (2) There are 8800 ecological disturbing points, 1.36% of ecological essential source areas and 12.95% of the length of natural corridors are in disturbance. In order to collaboratively develop the natural and artificial systems, the interference areas should be managed by means of creating buffers, establishing an early-warning system, and so on; (3) Natural corridors of the first to third levels in non-essential patches can be measured as 203.22 km2, 125.67 km2 and 35.59 km2, respectively, which can be defined as protected area of future ecological security pattern separately to meet a continuous increasing demand for ecological protection land. The results can provide a reference for the coordination of ecological land and urban construction land in the national territorial planning system.

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    Thinking for the transformation of land consolidation and ecological restoration in the new era
    WANG Jun, YING Ling-xiao, ZHONG Li-na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 26-36.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200104
    Abstract310)   HTML11)    PDF (907KB)(721)      

    As the national land space and ecosystems are affected by global change nowadays, ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning must be the positive responses of China in the new era. Great achievements have been made in the restorations of ecological space and ecosystems through projects for land consolidation and ecological restoration. However, the degradation of some regional ecosystems still exists, and the interference of unreasonable traditional human activities has not been completely eliminated in China. Meanwhile, China faces a large number of challenges in the economic and social developments of the new era. The transformation and improvement of land consolidation and ecological restoration therefore become the inevitable requirement. Through introducing the concepts, connotations of land consolidation, ecological restoration and relationships between them in the new era, this paper suggested that the transformation should be determined by the variations and complexities of regional ecological and environmental issues, the new requirements of ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning. We also indicated the four shortcomings of land consolidation and ecological restoration at present, including working perception, theoretical basis, technological system, and institutional construction. Specifically in recent practices, the integrated and comprehensive concepts are lagging behind, the key theoretical systems are deficient, the technological supports are instable, and the related institutions are insufficient. Therefore, we proposed the strategies for the corresponding transformation, which mainly included: (1) intensifying the systematic thinking and concept to promote the implementation of land consolidation and ecological restoration on a regional basis; (2) upgrading the theoretical system to stimulate the new motivation for land consolidation and ecological restoration; (3) enhancing the technical support to improve the effectiveness of land consolidation and ecological restoration works; (4) improving the institution construction to reinforce the support foundation for land consolidation and ecological restoration implementations.

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    Research on the compiling thinking of city and county territorial spatial master planning regulations based on the perspective of human behaviors
    ZHAO Kun, XU Jing-quan, SHEN Chi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2234-2243.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191018
    Abstract174)   HTML3)    PDF (2255KB)(694)      

    Since the territorial spatial planning is required to merge multi-planning, unify zoning, and implement baseline regulations by land functions, compilation of spatial regulation is significant for constructing and implementing the strategies and system of spatial regulation. Even though we can unify the zoning of multi-planning through the boundary lines of spatial regulation districts, three issues must be concentrated to coordinate multi-planning regulation and reinforce the binding of territorial spatial master planning regulation to special plans and site plans. First, implement spatial regulations with human behaviors as the objects to improve constraint on negative influences. Second, merge current ordinances into territorial spatial master planning regulations. Third, enhance the guidance and constraint of baseline control model to non-developing and constructing human behaviors. The current researches have studied the definitions and objectives of the territorial spatial planning regulations through legal principles, logics, zoning and policies, and attempted to compile the strategies and systems of the territorial spatial planning regulation as well. Meanwhile, some researches have studied the influence relations among human behaviors, natural resources and territorial space. However, they lack a discussion of the compiling thinking of regulation ordinance from the perspective of human behaviors, which is an indispensable factor supporting the implementation of territorial spatial planning. This research aims at establishing a compiling thinking of the territorial spatial master planning regulation based on the perspective of human behaviors. We coordinate the zoning and regulations between territorial spatial planning regulations and regulation ordinances with human behaviors as carriers, and infer the relevant regulations of territorial spatial master plan according to the impacts caused by human behaviors to ensure the targeted implementation.

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    Empirical analysis of the influence of natural resources on regional economic growth: Based on the sample of key coal cities in China from 2000 to 2016
    SI Ri-ji-mo-leng, MAO Pei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2491-2503.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191201
    Abstract271)   HTML6)    PDF (1345KB)(694)      

    In most resource-based regions, their long-term economic growth is slow during the exploitation of natural resources. How to use resource advantages, get rid of resource bottlenecks, and achieve long-term stable economic development are key issues of the resource-based regions. In view of this, this paper takes the panel data of China's key coal cities from 2000 to 2016 as a sample to explore different ways in which natural resources in resource-based areas affect economic growth. The results show that resource-based regions benefit from the "resource bonus" in the short term. However, due to being prone to resource industry dependence behavior, these regions have a "crowding out effect" on other economic activities and resources and environment, which affects the long-term economic growth rate. At the same time, resource-based regions are likely to exhibit the "extensive growth" characteristics of relying on physical capital investment to achieve economic growth. The conclusions of this paper not only enrich the literature on the impact mechanism of natural resources on economic growth, but also have some practical enlightenment on how to achieve sustainable development in resource-based regions.

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    Evaluation model of regional resource and environment comprehensive carrying capacity based on the conjugation-wrestling mechanism
    HUANG Xian-jin, SONG Ya-ya
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2103-2112.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191007
    Abstract200)   HTML1)    PDF (1484KB)(626)      

    The resource and environment carrying capacity is the basis for strategy decision-making of regional development, especially the optimization of spatial development strategy. In recent years, it has played a pivotal role in guiding regional sustainable development, land planning, urbanization, post-disaster reconstruction planning, and industrial planning. At the same time, clarifying the interaction mechanism between regional resource-environment and production-living factors is the basis of the evaluation of resource and environment carrying capacity. Based on PSR model, this paper presents the conjugation-wrestling theoretical mechanism of resources-environment and production-living, which divides the carrying capacity into four pairs of interaction forces, i.e., support-sensitive point, recovery-fragile point, destruction-critical point and development-equilibrium point. Then it presents DENS model including four dimensions, namely development, environment and disaster, natural resource and ecology, and social welfare.

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    Analysis of basic national conditions of China's tourism industry
    XI Jian-chao, LIU Meng-hao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (8): 1569-1580.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190801
    Abstract428)   HTML7)    PDF (1989KB)(611)      

    China's tourism industry has been fully integrated into the national strategic system when it comes to the era of "mass tourism". It is not enough to realize tourism from the perspective of industrial development. Tourism industry should be reconsidered on the level of basic national condition and strategy. The research based on the "three bodies" theory in tourism as well as the restriction of holiday pattern, constructed an analysis framework, under which the tourism conditions of China was analyzed: China's tourism is the "super tourism" of a "super country" and the peculiar "great nation effect" of China as a consequence. In order to fully release the comprehensive value of tourism industry, optimization on holiday pattern and enough supply of recreation space is required. The analysis of China's tourism national conditions provides a basic perspective for understanding the development of China's current tourism industry, which not only has a reference value for China's socio-economic development and national tourism strategy, but also has great influence on promoting the development of China's tourism geography discipline. For the development of the discipline, the research objects of China's tourism geography should be expanded from traditional scenic spots and destinations to the selection and optimization of national recreation space. In this process, it is necassary to reposition the components, structure, characteristics, evolution process and mechanism, policy system design and supporting safeguard measures of "tourism regional system" in different spatial dimensions, improve the research content, research methods, research paradigms and related disciplines of tourism geography in the new era, and then comprehensively expand tourism in the field of geographical research, and enhance its academic value and social impact.

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    Multi-functional evaluation of metropolitan suburbs and its spatial difference: A case study of 89 towns in Shanghai
    GU Xiao-kun, TAO Si-yuan, LU Fang-fang, ZHOU Xiao-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2281-2290.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191103
    Abstract260)   HTML1)    PDF (2717KB)(592)      
    With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization as well as enhancement of geographic differentiation and diversity of man-earth areal system, functions and regional development orientations in metropolitan suburbs have shown an increasingly strong trend towards diversification. It is one of the keys to draw up the Rural Revitalization policy objectively to evaluate the multi-functional system and then sum up pattern of metropolitan suburbs. The multi-functional evaluation method of metropolitan suburbs was constructed. The multi-source spatial data, statistical data and survey data were used to evaluate the multi-functional values of the 89 towns in Shanghai. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in the development of multifunction among 89 towns in Shanghai. The order of mean values is listed as ecological environment function (0.7674) > economic development function (0.6054) > agricultural production function (0.5882) > life guarantee function (0.5238) > leisure culture function (0.2525). (2) The high value areas of the ecological environment were mainly distributed in Chongming Island, Western Qingpu and Southern Fengxian. The high value areas of agricultural production were mainly located in Southern Pudong, Fengxian, Jinshan, Southern Chongming and Qingpu. The high value areas of economic development was mainly located in the vicinity of central city. The low value areas of life security were mainly located in the towns close to the central city and the most remote towns. The high value area of leisure culture was mainly located in Songjiang, Qingpu and Jinshan, which are the most remote from the central city. (3) A total of 89 towns could be divided into 4 types: balanced, mixed, compound and dominant. Among the 8 subdivision patterns, only 10 towns like Pujiang town were multi-functional and presented a highly balanced development pattern, accounting for 11.24%. Thus, the final but main part of this paper envisions the innovative policies and practices in metropolitan suburbs including the diversified rural renewal, homestead regulation, and low efficiency industrial land reduction.
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    Village classification system for rural vitalization strategy: Method and empirical study
    LI Yu-rui, BU Chang-li, CAO Zhi, LIU Xuan-he, LIU Yan-sui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (2): 243-256.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200201
    Abstract419)   HTML3)    PDF (2022KB)(570)      
    Rural Vitalization Strategy (RVS) is an important measure to promote rural development in China in the new era. Village classification is an important work to promote the effective implementation of the plan for RVS at the village level. It is of great significance to achieve the phased objectives of the national RVS. The National Strategic Planning for Rural Vitalization (2018-2022) puts forward four types of villages: agglomeration and upgrading, suburban integration, characteristic protection, relocation and evacuation, but it does not specify the specific principles and methods for classification. Based on the four types of villages, this study further clarifies their sub-types, and puts forward the corresponding principles and methods for classification. A village classification model is also established, which refines the classification index system of villages from five dimensions: village characteristics, villagers' living conditions, village development and construction, urban-rural links and village functions. Based on the principles, methods and models mentioned above, 102 administrative villages in Yanchi county of Ningxia are classified. Empirical study shows that the principles and methods proposed in this study have practical guiding value for village classification. However, in view of the differences and complexity of village characteristics, some parameters and thresholds need to be set according to the actual situation.
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    Spatial-temporal change and collaboration/trade-off relationship of "production-living-ecological" functions in county area of Jiangsu province
    LI Xin, FANG Bin, YIN Ru-meng, RONG Hui-fang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2363-2377.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191109
    Abstract333)   HTML1)    PDF (3780KB)(559)      
    This paper reveals the spatial-temporal correlation characteristics and coordination/trade-off relationship of the "production-living-ecological" functions in the county of Jiangsu province, which can provide theoretical support for the spatial planning of the county. Based on the theory of "production-living-ecological" spatial superior group and niche situation theory, this paper constructs the function recognition system of land space from three dimensions of production, life and ecology. The spatial autocorrelation and correlation coefficient method were used to quantitatively measure the time effect and coordination/trade-off relationship of the "production-living-ecological" function in Jiangsu province in 1996, 2005 and 2015. The results were obtained as follows: (1) The niche width of "production-living-ecological" functions in Jiangsu was varied, and its spatial distribution had its own characteristics. The specific manifestation was that the niche width of production function had a general increasing trend in the period 1996-2015, but the changing process had the stage characteristic, presenting a pattern of "high in the south high but low in the north", the south bank of the Yangtze River was in strips distribution, and the north bank was multi-aggregated. From 1996 to 2015, the niche breadth of life function was continuously compressed, and the space was attenuated by the concentric circle centered on the municipal area. In the same period, the ecological function niche width increased continuously, the ecological functional niche breadth in space has high value near the mountain and water. (2) From 1996 to 2015, the three functions of production, life and ecology in this province had positive correlation type (HH, LL) clustering obviously, presenting a "group" type distribution with the change of time. On the contrary, negative correlation type (HL, LH) with low agglomeration, showing a "discrete" distribution. (3) Production and life function had spatial synergistic relationship, and production and ecological functions showed a coordination/trade-off fluctuations. The changing trend of life function and ecological function was similar to the production and ecological function with more obvious change, and the coordination/trade-off relationship in different years had obvious differences in different units. Studies have shown that all of the above characteristics were in good agreement with regional economic and social development. In the future, we should gradually change the phenomenon of production function expansion and compression of life and ecological functions, so as to protect the ecological environment and to improve the quality of life oriented coordinated and optimized development path.
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    Research on smart technology-assisted territorial spatial planning: A case study at city and county level
    KONG Yu, ZHEN Feng, LI Zhao-zhong, FU Xing-xing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2186-2199.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191014
    Abstract276)   HTML4)    PDF (2761KB)(545)      

    The emergence and development of the e-society affect the relationship between man and land. Smart technology, as one of the main driving forces and an important support for the rise of the e-society, is changing the mode of protection, development and governance of territorial space. It also puts forward new requirements for the compilation method of territorial spatial planning. At present, the application of smart technology in territorial spatial planning has been explored, and there are many practices at the technical level, but there is a lack of holistic thinking on the application of smart technology in territorial spatial planning. Based on the core concept of "ecological civilization" and "people-oriented", and on the basis of combing the traditional planning and the current application of smart technology, this paper systematically constructs a framework of the whole process of smart technology-assisted territorial spatial planning from four aspects: smart perception and collection, smart analysis and processing, smart evaluation and smart decision-making, so as to adapt to the current territorial spatial planning. To meet the new requirements, it is more reasonable, scientific and wise to assist in territorial spatial planning.

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    Research on the spatial planning method of metropolitan area under the logical transition of planning
    XU Hai-xian, SUN Zhong-ya, HOU Bing-jie, WEI Sheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2123-2133.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191009
    Abstract251)   HTML0)    PDF (1866KB)(536)      

    At present, China is promoting the modernization of territorial space governance, and the territorial space planning system is also being reconstructed. As a response, the spatial planning of metropolitan area is facing the transformation of political logic oriented by ecological civilization and development logic constrained by resources and environment. Based on the transformation of planning logics, the paper clarifies that the spatial planning of metropolitan area is a special planning with the focus on coordinated development of space as the core in the system of territorial space planning, and puts forward the technical framework of the spatial planning of metropolitan area from the two perspectives, namely, corresponding demand objectives and coordination of local conditions. Based on the above new requirements, the paper considers that the planning should focus on the formulation of conduction and coordination-oriented index system, the optimal allocation and regulation of liquidity factor resources, the planning of spatial pattern of coordinated control and utilization, and the spatial cooperation of cross-border groups. In view of the lack of a unified implementation subject, this paper puts forward the organizational mode of spatial planning compilation in different types of metropolitan areas. Regional cooperation mechanism, dynamic monitoring of the plan, and co-construction of information platform for management, are also proposed. Through the systematic discussion on the spatial planning of metropolitan area, this paper will provide theoretical basis and methodological guidance for the compilation of the forthcoming spatial planning and the modernization of the spatial governance of metropolitan area.

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    Determining and identifying key areas of ecosystempreservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning based on ecological security patterns: A case study of Yantai city
    FANG Ying, WANG Jing, HUANG Long-yang, ZHAI Tian-lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 190-203.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200116
    Abstract288)   HTML10)    PDF (3542KB)(527)      

    Ecosystem preservation and restoration of Mountain-River-Forest-Farmland-Lake-Grass System is very important for national ecological security. Current researches on ecosystem preservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning lack the determination and identification of key areas from a perspective of ecosystem integrity and landscape connectivity. Due to wetland degradation and homogeneity of habitat types that resulted in the low ecosystem resilience, it is urgent for in Yantai, a typical bay city in China, to restore degraded ecosystem and preserve natural resources. In the study, a regional ecological security pattern was proposed and key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration including pinch points, barrier points, break points and fragmented ecological functional land were identified using habitat quality model, habitat risk assessment model, granularity inverse method, minimum cumulative resistance model and circuit theory. The results showed that the ecological hubs covered an area of 668.85 km2, with a total of 1548.36 km corridors between them, and most of the hubs were water body and forests. All of them constructed a "two horizontal and two vertical" ecological security pattern. Key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration were identified based on the ecological security pattern, including a total of 13 ecological pinch points, 8 ecological barrier points, 39 ecological break points, and 1308.66 km2 of fragmented ecological land. Suggestions of restoration were proposed, with a combination of the spatial distribution characteristics and land use status of various key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration. It would help to provide scientific guidance for identifying key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning and sustainable ecosystem management.

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    Target setting of food self-sufficiency level in China: Literature review and policy enlightenment
    XIN Xiang-fei, WANG Ji-min
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2257-2269.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191101
    Abstract308)   HTML5)    PDF (605KB)(523)      
    Ensuring the supply of important agricultural products, particularly food, is one of the primary tasks of implementing the strategy of rural revitalization. Setting the goal of food self-sufficiency level is the foundation of food security evaluation and food policy formulation, and this directly affects the strategic direction and implementation path of a nation's food industry development. Based on the review of the existing literatures regarding the goal setting of food self-sufficiency in China, this paper summarizes the relevant concepts of China's food self-sufficiency rate, reviews the evolution of food self-sufficiency policy at the national level, and focuses on the systematic summary of the level, basis and significance of the goal setting of China's food self-sufficiency rate, as well as the causes and effects of its change in recent years. The study results show that the concept of "food" is closer to the essential meaning of food security than the concept of "grain". However, in existing studies, there is no clear or unified judgment regarding the level of self-sufficiency required for food security in China, nor regarding the level of self-sufficiency allowed by resource conditions. This study proposes that the current stage take the carrying capacity of resources and the environment as a hard constraint and stable maintenance of grain production as the red line; replace the former grain self-sufficiency rate target with the total grain self-sufficiency target; and compensate for the gap between domestic supply and demand, by making full use of foreign resources and international markets. Doing so will allow us to more effectively achieve a higher level of unity of domestic food production with ecological environmental protection and food security.
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    Spatial pattern and coupling types of multidimensional morphology of rural residential land
    QU Yan-bo, WEI Shu-wen, LIU Min, ZHAN Ling-yun, LI Ya-nan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2673-2686.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191215
    Abstract361)   HTML0)    PDF (3907KB)(515)      

    Systematic understanding and classification of the spatial form of rural settlements is an important basis for rural renovation and scientific implementation of the strategy of Rural Revitalization at the present stage. In this paper, Pinggu district of Beijing is taken as the research area. According to the idea that rural residential areas are regarded as map patches, land use patterns and carriers, the identification indicators of rural residential types are constructed from three dimensions of intensity, structure and function. The intensity suitability, structure rationality and function coordination of each research unit are obtained by using multi-factor comprehensive evaluation method. With the help of ArcGIS and GeoDa, the intensity suitability, structure rationality and function coordination degree of each research unit are obtained. A spatial correlation analysis of the three is carried out, and eight coupling types of rural settlements are classified based on three-dimensional characteristics. It is concluded that: (1) There is a positive spatial correlation among intensity suitability, structural rationality and functional coordination in Pinggu district, i.e. there is a spatial agglomeration characteristic, and the spatial distribution of hotspot analysis of suitability, rationality and coordination degree presents progressive, circle and mosaic patterns respectively. (2) There are significant differences in spatial and regional characteristics in Pinggu district, Beijing, with 62.8% of the villages not suitable for intensity, 51.3% of the villages are unreasonable in structure and 61.4% of the villages are inconsistent in function. (3) The main types of rural settlements in the whole district are unsuitable-reasonable-uncoordinated and unsuitable-unreasonable-uncoordinated, which account for 53.6% of the total rural settlements. Unsuitable-reasonable-uncoordinated rural settlements are mainly distributed in townships close to urban areas and unsuitable-unreasonable-uncoordinated rural settlements are mainly located in the northern, southwestern and eastern hilly areas far from the urban area.

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    Evolution and optimization of spatial structure of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration from the perspective of coordination
    FAN Qing-yu, YANG Shan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (8): 1581-1592.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190802
    Abstract297)   HTML3)    PDF (3206KB)(499)      

    Taking urban agglomeration as the main object to optimize the spatial layout of urbanization is an important part of constructing the national land spatial planning system, and the essence of spatial optimization is to promote the coordinated development of large, medium and small cities within the urban agglomeration. Based on the measurement of urbanization coordination level of 26 cities in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration from 2001 to 2016, this paper analyses and identifies the urban coordination relationship by using the methods of social network and multi-dimensional-scaling, and explores its internal evolution mechanism. The results show that: (1) With the improvement of the urbanization coordination level of the cities in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration, the internal space of the urban agglomeration is obviously changed. The high coordination cities gradually show a Z-shaped distribution with Shanghai as the core, and the low coordination cities were stably distributed in the expanded area of the urban agglomeration. (2) According to the correlation strength of the coordination level of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration, the cohesive subgroups were divided. The values of weighted average centrality and the contact density of the cohesive subgroups of the urbanization coordination relationship increased, and the polarization effect of Shanghai was more obvious. (3) The coordination structure of the urban agglomeration was identified from two dimensions of space and time. The Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration has transformed from the "circle layer" structure centered on the provincial capital cities under the influence of spatial distance into the structure of "core-periphery" under the influence of temporal distance. (4) The evolution of spatial structure of the urban agglomeration was influenced by the change of coordination level of population, land and economy urbanization. Compared with population and economy urbanization, land urbanization has a significant role in promoting the level of urban coordination. The optimizing policies of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration were proposed from the perspective of coordination after analyses of its spatial structure. This is conducive to the realization of the integration of urban agglomeration and the efficient use of space resources under the conditions of China's existing resource and environmental carrying capacity.

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    The new conception and review of territory consolidation based on the past years of reform and opening-up
    WANG Wei, HU Ye-cui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 53-67.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200106
    Abstract231)   HTML6)    PDF (1206KB)(477)      

    In the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, territory consolidation has changed with the political will and institutional changes in the fields of resources and ecological environment, and has undergone a process of rise, collapse and integration. On the basis of the important policies in the field of territory consolidation in the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, this paper summarizes the development experience, the main problems and the new trend of territory consolidation in the new era, and then puts forward a new conception of territory consolidation. The goal of territory consolidation of the new era will be firmly integrated with the ecological civilization strategy to optimize territorry space, resources and ecology and to create a people-oriented and high-quality territorry space. Territory consolidation in the new era will depend on carrying capacity and suitability evaluation mechanism, combining comprehensive research and attribution analysis to divide "territory consolidation" functional zones and carry out major projects. Territory consolidation will deal with "negative externalities" in the process of territory space development and utilization to restore land functions by various measures, so as to optimize territory space,improve resource utilization efficiency, protect important ecosystem, restore damaged ecosystem, prevent disaster and control pollution. It will enhance carrying capacity, suitability, beauty, security and the sustainability of territory space.

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