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    The Effect of Farmer Households’ Farmland Use Function on Their Land Rental Decision in Urban Fringe—A Case Study of 1 022 Farmer Households in Suzhou, Chengdu and Wuhan
    CAI Yin-ying, WANG Ya-yun, ZHU Lan-lan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (10): 1648-1661.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151255
    Abstract322)   HTML0)    PDF (929KB)(501)      
    In the process of rapid urbanization and rural social economic transformation, the function of the farmland use in the household has changed comparing to the traditional way. Due to the subsidence of the agricultural labor force depending on the land and the diversity of livelihood, the land rental market has become more and more active. So we investigate the farmer households in Wuhan, Chengdu and Suzhou to analyze the effect of the farmer households’ farmland use function on their land rental decision in the urban fringe. The research shows that: 1) The farmers in the investigated areas have weaken the food production and economic contribution functions of land use, while enhanced the functions of pension employment and retaining & inheritance. There exists the regional difference of the change of land use functions. 2) There is a strong desire to rent out the land in the urban fringe, and the rental rate is up to 59.39%. The famers in Suzhou have higher intension to rent out the land, and the land rental market is more developed there. As the typical city of the west and middle, Chengdu and Wuhan are slower in the development of the land rental market due to the lower speeds of the economic transformation and rural population urbanization. 3) Due to the comprehensive effect of the economic development, the policy of the farmland compensation and the diversity of livelihood, the farmers’ household land use has obvious effect on their land rental decision. The more strongly the famer household lives depend on the land, the less desirably they rent out the farmland. So we suggest to build up a sound system of the rural social and pension security, strengthen the property right of the land resource and the construction of ecological environment. Only by this could we make sure that we can release the function of the pension employment and retaining & inheritance, activate the land rental market, and promote the development of the land rental market.
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    The Action of Environmental Regulation on Industrial Structure Adjustment and Atmospheric Environment Effect under the New Normal in Shandong Province
    XU Cheng-long, CHENG Yu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (10): 1662-1674.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151256
    Abstract339)   HTML0)    PDF (2023KB)(751)      
    Environmental regulation is the important means to promote industrial structure adjustment and improve the ecological environment. As a big province of heavy industries, Shandong Province was faced with triple pressure of “structure adjustment, steady growth, environmental protection” in the process of industrial structure adjustment under the new normal. This paper explored the influence of environmental regulation on industrial structure adjustment and atmospheric environment effects in Shandong Province under the new normal by using dynamic panel system GMM estimation method, LMDI decomposition model, historical value constraint extrapolation simulation and linear programming model. The conclusions were as follows. Firstly, the proportion of industries in Shandong Province increased at first and then decreased, and the proportion of pollution intensive industries decreased at first and increased subsequently from 2001 to 2013 in Shandong Province. The environmental regulation intensities of both were on the rise. Secondly, the influence coefficients of environmental regulation on the proportions of industries, pollution intensive industries and new and high technology industries were respectively -0.043, -0.451 and 0.523 in Shandong Province. This showed that the implementation of the environmental regulation had positive effects on the adjustment of industrial structure and industrial internal structure in Shandong Province. Thirdly, with the increasing of environmental regulation intensity, the industrial structure effect and the technical efficiency effect restrained the air pollutant emissions. The structure effect of pollution intensive industries was the main reason of the emissions reduction, but the absolute reductions resulting from it was little. Fourthly, comparing the predicted results in different scenarios, the potentials of industrial structure adjustment and air pollutants emission reduction in Shandong Province under the new normal increased in the order of easing environmental regulation, appropriate environmental regulation and strict environmental regulation. It is important to note that industrial structure adjustment of Shandong Province is more advantageous to the sustainable development of social economy under appropriate environmental regulation. The research will provide certain reference and guidance for the formulation of the industrial policy and environmental policy in Shandong Province.
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    County-level Carbon Compensation of Henan Province Based on Carbon Budget Estimation
    ZHAO Rong-qin, LIU Ying, MA Lin, LI Yu-xiang, HOU Li-peng, ZHANG Zhan-ping, DING Ming-lei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (10): 1675-1687.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151291
    Abstract365)   HTML1)    PDF (5325KB)(569)      
    Regional carbon budget and ecological compensation are core fields under the background of climate change. Evaluating carbon budget and constructing the horizontal carbon compensation pattern based on county-level have great practical significance to promote the regional coordinated low-carbon development. This paper established the research framework and estimation model for regional carbon compensation, and the carbon compensation value of Henan Province was preliminarily analyzed at the county-level based on the carbon budget estimation. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) There was obvious spatial variation of carbon budget and the carbon intensity in Henan Province. Generally, in 2009, the carbon absorption intensity in the main grain producing area in southeast plain of Henan Province is much higher than other regions, while the carbon emission intensity of gradually decreased from municipal district to surrounding counties. 2) There was remarkable spatial difference on carbon compensation rate. In general, the more advanced the economy, the greater industrial energy consumption and the higher per capital GDP, the lower carbon compensation rate, and vice versa. 3) According to the spatial difference of carbon compensation rate, Henan Province could be divided into three types of region: the payment regions, the compensation regions and the relative equilibrious regions. Most of the payment regions are the areas with high level of economic development in Henan Province, while the compensation regions are mainly located in the relatively backward northwestern mountain areas and the eastern main food production plain areas of Henan Province. Besides the above two types, the other counties of Henan Province were the relative equilibrious area. 4) In order to achieve the equitable development of Henan Province, it is needed to establish the government guided carbon compensation system, promote the carbon compensation by taking the carbon as the link among difference counties, build county-level carbon emission quota system and the low-carbon restricted development plan of main functional areas based on the carbon budget estimation, and implement the low-carbon-oriented regional differentiation assessment mechanism. The above countermeasures will have great significance for the regional equitable and coordinated low-carbon development under the background of global climate change.
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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Interactions between Efficiency, Resources and Mechanism of Urban Tourism: A Comparative Study of 49 Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities
    XU Xiao-bo, ZHAO Lei, WU Bi-hu, LIU Bin-yi, ZHONG Li-na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1322-1338.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150844
    Abstract319)   HTML0)    PDF (3181KB)(324)      
    Urban tourism has become a research focus at home and abroad. Meanwhile, domestic research in this area should situate itself in China’s urbanization contexts. As pointed out by many researchers, more analysis should be conducted on key issues such as efficiency, resources, mechanism and effects of urban tourism. This paper aims to advance the knowledge of correlations between tourism efficiency, urban resources (attributes) and development mechanism of Chinese tourist cities. To this end, 49 excellent tourist cities in China are selected to make a multi-case and comparative study. Data is collected from more than 11 000 pieces of online narrative texts published on a well-known Chinese tourism business website www.ctrip.com, all of which are remarks of unknown tourists after their visiting the studying cities. Research methodologies of content analysis, importance-performance analysis, cluster analysis, ANOVA, block-modeling and TOPSIS are employed. It is found that tourism efficiency is not in line with yet affected by urban resources qualification, but determined by tourism development mechanism. Besides, both tourists’ perception and satisfaction levels fluctuate evidently with urban resources, which therefore can serve as the discrimination credits for group-identification of tourist cities. Among these resources, each of 13 is suggested to be critical indicators according to tourists’ perception and satisfaction. A further analysis shows that the 49 sample cities fit into four groups, which are nominated, respectively, function-prominent group, combinative group, resource-prominent group and tourism-specified group. Differences among these four groups are detailed in terms of tourism development mechanism. The catalyst role of traditional tourism resources to the development mechanism of urban tourism can be identified through a summary review; also the characterizing attributes or resources of the city per se hold a large stake in promoting tourists’ satisfaction. It is concluded that tourists’ perception levels tend to be extroversive from high-perceived resources, while satisfaction levels introversive to the most-prominent attributes. These findings might be inductive for policy-making of Chinese tourist cities.
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    An Empirical Research on the Coupling Coordinative Relationship between Regional Tourism and Informationization
    WANG Guan-xiao, LIANG Liu-ke, LI Feng, JIANG Si-yuan, DUAN Xiao-wei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1339-1350.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151154
    Abstract330)   HTML2)    PDF (1632KB)(454)      
    This paper aims at constructing the evaluation index system of coupling coordination between regional tourism and informationization. By using efficacy function, comprehensive evaluation function, and the index of coupling coordination degree, the coupling coordinative level of 31 provinces in China (not including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan due to no data) was quantitatively evaluated. Then, the coupling coordination relationship between tourism and informationization of each province was classified into different grades and types with the distribution matrix of coupling coordination. The results showed that: there were great gaps in the levels of tourism and informationization among provinces, and the provinces with higher level of informationization were mostly economically developed provinces, including Guangdong, Beijing, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Shandong. The differences among provinces in the social application, infrastructure and development environment of informationization, tourism personnel training and tourism economic effect were significant. However, due to the coupling coordination mechanism of tourism and informationization, the difference between tourism and informationization was kept in a certain range, which resulted in that the coupling degrees of most provinces were in high level, 29 provinces with coupling degree above 0.6. The coupling coordination degree is more dependent on the comprehensive strength in terms of economy, technology and talent, so the differences of the coupling coordination degree among provinces were great, that the coupling coordination degree of Guangdong Province was the highest, being 5.57 times as high as the coupling coordination degree of Tibet which was the lowest among all provinces. The level of coupling coordination of tourism and informationization presented distinct spatial differentiation. The provinces around Bohai sea, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta were in the moderate or higher grades of coupling coordination, while the central and western provinces other than Sichuan and Hubei were all in the moderate or lower grades of coupling coordination. Except Beijing, Guangdong and Jiangsu, all provinces had the mode of tourism-leading or synchronous development of tourism and informationization. Based on above results, in the future we should take measures to promote continuous and coordinated development of tourism and informationization, such as promote informationization, accelerate the application of information technology in the tourism, promote the integration of tourism industry and information industry, strengthen the cross regional cooperation, etc.
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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    Carbon Sequestration Efficiency of Four Forest Regions in China: Measurement, Driving Factors and Convergence
    XUE Long-fei, LUO Xiao-feng, WU Xian-rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1351-1363.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150985
    Abstract651)   HTML1)    PDF (1121KB)(544)      
    This paper brings forestry carbon sequestration into the forestry economic accounting system, building a DEA-Malmquist index containing positive externality output. Based on the systematic measurement of forestry carbon sequestration, it estimates forestry production efficiency and the driving factors of the four forest regions of China from 1988 to 2013, and then using σ convergence and absolute β divergence analysis method, it checks the convergence of forestry production efficiency. The results show that: due to the differences of forest intensive degree and industrial development, the carbon sequestration and carbon sequestration value also have big difference among the four forest regions, the total output values of carbon sinks from high to low are: in the first place, the carbon sequestration value in the Southwest Forest Region is 187.069 billion yuan; in the second place, the carbon sequestration value in the Northeast Forest Region is 133.541 billion yuan; came in the third place is the South Forest Region, the carbon sequestration value being 84.273 billion yuan; on the bottom of the list is the North Forest Region, the carbon sequestration value being 40.735 billion yuan. The Malmquist index without considering the carbon output of forestry production is low, 0.958. When taking the carbon sink of forestry output into consideration, the efficiency is then improved at an average annual growth rate of 0.6% from 1988 to 2013, and the main reason is the improvement of technical efficiency. In the South Forest Region and Northeast Forest Region, the production efficiencies are in the upgrading trend, while in the Southwest Forest Region and North Forest Region, the production efficiencies show downward trend. The efficiencies in the Southwest Forest Region and South Forest Region have a tendency of inversed “U”-shape with the change of time. The average efficiency of the South Forest Region is the highest, which is 1.036, followed by the efficiency of the Northeast Forest Region, which is 1.020. The Malmquist index does not show σ convergence in the four forest regions of China, and there is a phenomenon of absolute β divergence, which means that the differences of the absolute values and the growth rates of the forestry production efficiencies in the four forest regions do not reduce with time.
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Analyze on the Spatial-temporal Pattern and Influence Factors of China’s per Capita Household Carbon Emissions
    LIU Li-na, QU Jian-sheng, HUANG Yu-sheng, WANG Li, ZENG Jing-jing, BIAN Yue
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1364-1377.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150905
    Abstract433)   HTML2)    PDF (4139KB)(446)      

    This paper calculates per capita household carbon emissions (HCEs) based on IPCC’s reference approach and Input-output analysis (IOA) of different categories of carbon emissions in China from 1997 to 2012. Its driving factors are also analyzed with the Spatial Error Model (SEM) and the Spatial Lag Model (SLM). The main purpose of this work is to emphasize the characteristics of household carbon emissions based on temporal scale and spatial scale. The results show that: 1) Based on different carbon sources, HCEs can be divided into direct and indirect emissions; based on different human needs, HCEs can be classified as basic and development emissions; based on different consumers’ behaviors, HCEs can be divided into transportation, housing, food, goods and service emissions. 2) At the time scale, both direct and indirect per capita HCEs, basic and development per capita HCEs, and each item of per capita HCEs based on behaviors exhibit the increasing tendency. 3) From the spatial perspective, there is a common pattern in spatial distributions of per capita HCEs. The cluster effect of per capita HCEs is stable. 4) From the space point of view, the per capita HCEs in China shows a decreasing tendency from east to west in 2012. 5) Based on the spatial analysis model, the proportion of basic HCEs per capita in the whole is the main driving factor. Meanwhile, per capita income and per capita GDP are also affecting per capita HCEs. On the basis of analyzing the spatial-temporal patterns and driving factors of per capita household carbon emissions, we provide scientific evidences and put forward effective suggestions for carbon emissions reduction measures and policies.

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    Cited: CSCD(11)
    Research on CO 2 Emission Factors of Cement Production by the Measurement of Carbonate
    WEI Jun-xiao, GENG Yuan-bo, ZHAO Jian-an, WANG Song, MU Yue
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1378-1387.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150951
    Abstract329)   HTML1)    PDF (1844KB)(399)      
    In order to optimize the calculation of cement CO 2 emission factors, we analyzed and calculated the clinker and cement CO 2 emission factors based on raw material carbonate method and the classification of emissions. The emissions are divided into the process-related emissions and the combustion-related emissions of NSP kilns, and the inorganic carbon emissions and the organic carbon emissions of shaft kilns. Based on the sampled test data, the process-related emission factors of NSP kilns are 520.00 kg CO 2/t cl, the combustion-related emission factors are about 288.06 kg CO 2/t cl, and the clinker CO 2 emission factors are 808.06 kg CO 2/t cl. For the shaft kiln, the inorganic carbon emission factors are 504.18 kg CO 2/tcl, organic carbon emission factors are 343.67 kg CO 2/t cl, and clinker carbon emission factors are 847.85 kg CO 2/t cl. Due to the popularity of NSP kilns and cogeneration technology, and the decline of clinker-to-cement ratio, China’s cement CO 2 emission factor has decreased year by year. From 2001 to 2012, China’s cement CO 2 emission factors decreased from 767.13 kg CO 2/t ce to 550.80 kg CO 2/t ce, respectively. Process-related emissions, combustion-related emissions and electricity-related emissions account for 58.57%, 29.79% and 11.64% approximately in the cement CO 2 emission.
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Assessment on Low-carbon Effects of Hydropower Development in Tibet, China
    ZHAO Wei, SHEN Wei-shou, LI Hai-dong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1388-1398.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150928
    Abstract333)   HTML2)    PDF (1334KB)(306)      
    Hydropower development and outward transmission in Tibet play a vital role in optimization of energy resource configuration and reduction of CO 2 emission in China. The low-carbon effects of hydropower development in Tibet were assessed, and fossil fuel consumption reduction and CO 2 reduction achieved by hydropower development in Tibet were analyzed based on net coal consumption rate, CO 2 emission coefficient and its dynamic change of fossil-fired power generation in different power grids. The results show that: 1) The fossil fuel consumption reduction and the CO 2 reduction achieved by hydropower development in Tibet have significant variations. During the period from 2006 to 2012, the fossil fuel consumption reduction and the CO 2 reduction achieved by hydropower development in Tibet were the most in 2011. 2) The fossil fuel consumption reductions achieved by hydropower development in Tibet were different significantly with different net coal consumption rates of fossil-fired power generation. The fossil fuel consumption reduction achieved by hydropower development according to net coal consumption rate of fossil-fired power generation in Central China power grid (CCPG) was the most, the fossil fuel consumption reduction according to net coal consumption rate of fossil-fired power generation in Northwest China power grid (NCPG) and Tibet power grid (TPG) took the second and the third place respectively, and the fossil fuel consumption reduction according to net coal consumption rate of fossil-fired power generation in national power grid (NPG) was the least. 3) According to different CO 2 emission levels of fossil-fired power generation, the CO 2 reductions achieved by hydropower development in Tibet were also different. Among them, the CO 2 reduction achieved by hydropower development according to CO 2 emission level of fossil-fired power generation in TPG was the most, the CO 2 reduction of hydropower development according to CO 2 emission level of fossil-fired power generation in NCPG and CCPG took the second and the third place respectively. 4) The fossil fuel consumption reduction potential and the CO 2 reduction potential achieved by hydropower development in Tibet were outstanding. According to net coal consumption rates of fossil-fired power generation in NCPG, CCPG, TPG and NPG, the fossil fuel consumption reductions achieved by hydropower development in Tibet in 2030 would be more than 75% of total fossil fuel consumption (1.379×10 8 tec) of fossil-fired power generation in NCPG in 2012. Among the CO 2 reduction potentials according to different CO 2 emission levels, the CO 2 reduction achieved by hydropower development in Tibet according to CO 2 emission level of fossil-fired power generation in CCPG would be the least, but more than the carbon dioxide emissions of fossil fuel consumption in Argentina, Pakistan, Vietnam and other countries in 2013.
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    Changes of Organic Carbon and Readily Oxidizable Carbon in Deep Soil at Different Developmental Stages of Artificial Pinus tabulaeformis Plantation and the Impact Factors
    QIU Tian-tian, LIU Guo-bin, WANG Guo-liang, SUN Li-peng, YAO Xu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1399-1409.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150917
    Abstract328)   HTML1)    PDF (2226KB)(315)      
    It is not clear how plantation affect the soil organic carbon (SOC) in deep soil for terrestrial ecosystem. Based on space for time method, we studied the effect of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations at three developmental stages (young forest, middle age forest and mature forest) on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) in 0-200 cm soil profile. The results showed that SOC content and storage significantly increased in soils with different developmental stages of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation compared with abandoned cropland in 0-200 cm profile. In the 0-100 cm soil layer, average SOC content of mature forest, middle age forest and young forest were 2.03, 1.85 and 1.59 times more than that in abandoned cropland, respectively. SOC storage in shallow and deep soil layers contributed 61.0%-69.8% and 30.2%-39.0% to total SOC storage in the whole profile (0-200 cm) at all of the investigated developmental stages. SOC storage in shallow soil layer varied significantly among different developmental stages, however, no obvious difference of SOC storage in deep soil layer was observed at all developmental stages. Compared to that in abandoned cropland, the ROC storage in soils of young forest, middle age forest and mature forest increased 54.8%, 82.0% and 91.6% in shallow soil layer and 32.4%, 40.9% and 58.1% in deep soil layer, respectively. ROC storage in deep soil layer contributed 31.2%-33.3% to total ROC storage in the whole profile (0-200 cm) at all developmental stages. SOC and ROC content in shallow soil layer were influenced by a number of factors, furthermore, ROC content in deep soil showed significant correlations with the plant height, root biomass, litter thickness and litter biomass. In conclusion, construction of artificial forest may significantly improve the soil carbon pool in both shallow and deep soil profiles.
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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Regional Environmental Carrying Capacity for Livestock and Poultry Breeding Based on Planting-breeding Balance in Hangzhou City
    QIU Le-feng, LONG Wen-li, FANG Hao, HU Wei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1410-1419.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151101
    Abstract407)   HTML0)    PDF (2594KB)(352)      
    Taking available nitrogen and phosphorus in soil, and annual statistical data of planting and breeding as data sources, and using modified nutrient-balance method, the environmental carrying capacity and pollution risk of livestock and poultry breeding in Hangzhou City was explored. Firstly, it is found that the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus consumption of main crops in Hangzhou were 39 886.4 and 21 874.1 t in 2014. Vegetable, rice, fruit and beans consumed 11 879.7, 8 588.2, 5 255.0 and 4 641.6 t of nitrogen, respectively. Meanwhile, vegetable, rice and fruit also consumed 10 394.8, 4 480.8 and 2 189.6 t of phosphorus, respectively. Secondly, the strongest counties of soil nitrogen and phosphorus supply were Lin’an (86.6 kg/hm 2 for nitrogen) and the downtown area (60.6 kg/hm 2 for phosphorus), while the weakest one was Tonglu County (77.0 kg/hm 2 for nitrogen and 59.2 kg/hm 2 for phosphorus). Thirdly, during 2014, the environmental carrying capacities of districts in Hangzhou ranged from 1.48 to 35.59 heads/hm 2, and 1.01 to 39.79 heads/hm 2 when calculated on the basis of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. According to the environmental carrying capacity of livestock and poultry breeding, all the counties of Hangzhou City could be divided into three levels. Fuyang was on the highest level with carrying capacity of 35.59 (based on nitrogen) and 39.79 head/hm 2 (based on phosphorus). Yuhang, Xiaoshan, and Jiande were on the second level with carrying capacities ranging from 20 to 30 head/hm 2. Tonglu, Lin’an, Chun’an and the downtown area were on the lowest level with carrying capacities all below 10 head/hm 2. Fourthly, the pollution risk indices in livestock manure ranged from 0.19 to 8.05 (based on nitrogen) and 0.14 to 11.68 (based on phosphorus). These results indicated that the pollution risk of livestock manure in Hangzhou was generally low. However, the pollution risk in each district was significantly different. Environmental carrying capacities of the downtown area and counties of Lin’an, Chun’an and Tonglu were severely overburdened, while Fuyang, Yuhang, Xiaoshan and Jiande had not exceeded their environmental carrying capacity. Overall, the areas with high pollution risk of livestock manure needed to reduce the scale of breeding urgently and transfer the redundant manure to surrounding counties that still have potential carrying capacity. Besides, regions having rich woodland resource also can take the wood land as disposal site to load livestock manure. As a result, more detailed data is in urgent needed to achieve more scientific and accurate results so as to provide scientific basis for layout planning and pollution regulation of livestock and poultry breeding industry in Hangzhou.
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    Cited: CSCD(11)
    Estimating Population Parameters and Abundance of Coreius heterodon in Jiangjin Section of the Upper Yangtze River
    LIU Hong-yan, XIONG Fei, DUAN Xin-bin, LIU Shao-ping, CHEN Da-qing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (8): 1420-1428.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151067
    Abstract443)   HTML0)    PDF (2937KB)(290)      
    Coreius heterodon, a representative semi-migratory species, is one of the important economic fish species in the main channel of the Yangtze River. However, its resources has been in serious degradation. To understand its population dynamics after the Three Gorges Reservoir and before the Xiangjiaba and Xiluodu reservoirs were impounded, we used FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools based on length-frequency data to estimate the growth and mortality parameters, and population abundance of C. heterodon based on surveys in Jiangjin section conducted in 2007-2009. The fishes ranged from 125 to 530 mm in length and 24 to 2 250 g in weight, with an average length of 228.7 ± 56.6 mm and an average weight of 206.4 ± 251.9 g. The length group of 150-270 mm dominated the catches (80.4% of the total number). The length-weight relationship of C. heterodon fit well with a power function, W = 7.63×10 -6 L 3.10 ( R 2 = 0.97, P < 0.01, n = 280). Asymptotic length ( L) and growth constant ( k) were estimated using length frequency data to be 630.0 mm and 0.23 a -1, respectively. Natural mortality was estimated to be 0.46 using the empirical formula proposed by Pauly. The total mortality was estimated using a length-converted catch curve analysis to be 1.82. The minimum catchable size was 170.7 mm, and the exploitation rate observed was 0.75, which was higher than the estimated maximum exploitation rate (0.50). Population abundance of C. heterodon in Jiangjin section was estimated by length-structured virtual population analyses to be 2 820 ind·km -1 (2.63 t·km -1) in 2007, 3 035 ind· km -1 (4.71 t· km -1) in 2008, and 8 130 ind·km -1 (16.56 t· km -1) in 2009, respectively, with an study average of 4 661 ind· km -1 (7.96 t· km -1). In view of the rapidly declined resources of C. heterodon in the Yangtze River, especially in the lower reaches, we suggest to stop exploiting the resources immediately. We also suggest Jiangjin section should be considered as the prior region for population conservation and habitat restoration of C. heterodon.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Effect of Forest Gap on Carbon Release of Toona Ciliata Leaf Litter
    LI Xun, ZHANG Jian, YANG Wan-qin, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Ming-jin, LIU Hua, LIU Yang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (7): 1114-1126.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150791
    Abstract374)   HTML1)    PDF (2850KB)(484)      
    In order to readjust the structure of pine forest and explore the regularity of litter carbon release in forest gaps of Pinus massoniana plantation, a field litterbag experiment was set up in thinning Pinus massoniana plantation with seven different sizes of forest gaps (G1: 100 m 2, G2: 225 m 2, G3: 400 m 2, G4: 625 m 2, G5: 900 m 2, G6: 1 225 m 2, G7: 1 600 m 2). The effect of the sized of forest gap on carbon release rate of Toona ciliata leaf litter was studied. The results indicated that: 1) Compared with the small size (100-200 m 2) and the large size (1 225-1 600 m 2) of forest gaps, the medium sized (400-625 m 2) forest gaps promoted the carbon release. 2) The carbon release rate in early period of the first 30 days is higher than in the following periods. The carbon release rate shows that after a decomposition of 90 days, there is a phenomenon of carbon concentration enrichment. 3) The carbon release is affected by the gap size, within-gap location, and decomposition time as well. Decomposition time has extremely significant effect on carbon release ( P < 0.01), and gap size also has significant effect on carbon release ( P < 0.05). However, there is no significant effect of within-gap location on carbon release. 4) The temperature and moisture have extremely significant positive correlation ( P < 0.01) with carbon release rate and mass loss rate.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    The Analysis of Border Effect of Urban Land Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Agglomeration
    WANG Cheng-long, LIU Hui, ZHANG Meng-tian
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (7): 1127-1137.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150932
    Abstract387)   HTML0)    PDF (3823KB)(405)      
    How the administrative boundary influences the urban land-use scale? Quoting the study case of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agglomeration, we build the border effect model of urban land based on the structural equation model. In the process of developing the model, we select economic factors, industry factors, population factors, the administrative elements and urban land as the latent variables, then the fitted models are constructed according to the indexes’ values of the year 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Based on the built model, the mechanism and evolution process of urban land expansion under the border effect is revealed. The results show that: Firstly, the administrative boundary has no significant direct effect on the urban land-use scale; secondly, the administrative boundary has indirect influence on the process of urban land expansion, the indirect effects including the economic factors, population elements and other factors; thirdly, according to the measuring values at five time nodes (1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010), the financial expenses and non-agricultural population play a leading role in the indirect influence of the administrative boundary on the expansion of the urban land in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agglomeration. The social fixed assets, the actual utilization of foreign invest-ment and the average wages also play an important role in different periods. The final but not the least point is that the social fixed assets is a pivotal indirect element when the socio-economic development is in the low-level, while the important role of the actual utilization of foreign investment and the average wages cannot be denied in the urban land-use border effect when the social and economic elements flow is frequent and efficient. Based on this study, the theoretical support and policy recommendations can be provided for rational expansion of urban land in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agglomeration and delineation of the urban development boundary.
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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Analysis on the Influencing Factors of Water Use Efficiency in Henan Province Based on Spatial Econometric Models
    BAO Chao, CHEN Xiao-jie, LIANG Guang-lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (7): 1138-1148.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150934
    Abstract316)   HTML0)    PDF (639KB)(598)      
    Constrained by total amount of water resources, the improvement of water use efficiency is the necessary way to guarantee the development of urbanization, industrialization and social-economy in water scarce areas. Based on the panel data of the prefecture-level cities during the period of 2000-2013, we analyzed the influencing factors of water use efficiency in Henan Province by spatial econometric models, from the aspects of water resources endowment, water resources development level, economic development level, urbanization level, industrial structure, water utilization structure, agricultural modernization level and information level. The results show that: 1) There are notable spatial autocorrelation of water use efficiency among different prefecture-level cities in Henan Province, which can be best estimated by Spatial Dubin Model with spatial-temporal fixed effect. 2) The spatial spillover effect of water use efficiency in Henan Province is significant, i.e., if the water use efficiency in the neighboring prefecture-level cities increased 1%, then the water use efficiency of the prefecture-level city would increase 0.31%. 3) The endowment and the development level of water resources have significant negative effects on the water use efficiency of prefecture-level cities in Henan Province. However, the spatial spillover effects are not significant. 4) The economic development level, the urbanization level and the industrial structure optimization level have significant positive effects on the water use efficiency of prefecture-level cities in Henan Province. Moreover, the spatial spillover effect of each factor is very significant except for the industrialization level. 5) The change of water utilization structure, the agricultural modernization level and informatization level have few effects on the water use efficiency of prefecture-level cities in Henan Province. It indicates that a further coordination should be strengthened on the relationship between the sustainable utilization of water resources and the construction of national demonstration area of coordinated development of urbanization, industrialization, informatization & agricultural modernization in Henan Province.
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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Study on Rent Dissipation and Land Use Behavior of Suburban Rural Housing Land under the Background of Urbanization
    ZHU Feng-kai, ZHANG Feng-rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (6): 936-947.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150680
    Abstract373)   HTML0)    PDF (6852KB)(323)      
    With the rapid development of urbanization and rapid evolution of urban and rural relationship, the location and function of the rural housing land have been undergoing profound transition. The sustained brisk demand for construction land raises the potential value of rural housing land. However, due to the urban-rural dual land system, there are restrictions on the transactions and usage of collective construction. The regulation of property rights puts part of the rent value of rural housing land into the “public domain”. In that case, the land resource could not be allocated to the best use. The “non-exclusive income” left in the “public domain” tends to dissipate, not only because of the inefficient resource allocation, but also because of the rent competition among the land users. As a kind of economic waste, rent dissipation will be reduced to the greatest extent by related resource consumers.
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    Research on Spatial Distribution, Types and Conservation Modes of Urban Ecological Land:Case Study of Guangzhou City, China
    CHEN Shi-dong, YUAN Qi-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (6): 948-960.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150701
    Abstract331)   HTML0)    PDF (6997KB)(281)      
    To relieve the ecological conservation pressure resulting from the rapid urbanization, it is necessary to define the concept of “urban ecological land”. Urban ecological land refers to the ecological space composed of agricultural land in the urban system, which is generally confined to the urban area, merging into the urban function group with large scale of space. According to the urban space reconstruction process of Chinese urbanization, we deduce two assumptions of urban ecological land: 1) the distribution of urban ecological land is in circular mode; 2) the ecological value of the urban ecological land depends on the relationship between demand and supply, which can be characterized by the location and abundance ratio of the ecological land. The empirical study was implemented by taking the administrative towns and streets of Guangzhou City as the minimum space unit, and the results showed that: 1) From the perspective of location, the urban ecological land in Guangzhou can be divided into the core circle, the transition circle and the outer circle, which proved the hypothesis of “circular distribution mode”. 2) The urban ecological land can be divided into three categories and twelve levels according to the indicators of location and abundance ratio, which provided the reference for making effective conservation policy. 3) The ecological functions of farmland is a public product, but its ecological rent is in the dissipation situation due to the dual failure of the government and the market. Finally, after summarizing the nationalized mode in the core circle and the regional coordination mode in the outer circle, the paper proposed to protect the transition circle by establishing farmland development right.
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    The Transmission Mechanism of Land Supply Planning on Housing Prices
    WANG Liang-jian, YAN Lei, LI Zhong-hua, TAN Yi-lin, LI Hui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2015, 30 (11): 1823-1833.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.004
    Abstract84)   HTML0)    PDF (623KB)(2)      

    With the rapid development of real estate market, the continued increasing housing price has become the focus of national macro-control. To stabilize the fast increasing housing prices, State Council stated a series of policies and measures which covers all aspects of land, finance and banking. In 2010, Ministry of Land and Resources issued a trial notice, state-owned construction land supply planning norms, guiding relevant departments to prepare for the land supply planning. Since then, the land supply planning has become an important tool of land supply policy to regulate and control the housing prices. The purpose of this paper is to explore the interrelation between land supply planning and housing prices, and the transmission mechanism of land supply planning on housing prices.In this paper, we use four-quadrant model which was firstly built by Denise Dipasquale and William C. Wheaton, and introduce a series of relevant variables such as the amount of land, the price of land, the housing stock, and so on. With the modified four-quadrant model, we analyze how land supply planning affects housing prices by conducting intermediate variables. Through theoretical analysis, the land supply structure and completion rate are two factors on housing prices. On the basis of theoretical analysis, we employ the proportion of affordable housing land to residential land and the actual land supply to the plan land supply to represent the land supply planning. In this paper, we use the panel data of 14 cities in Hunan Province from year 2010 to 2013. We also construct a stock-flow model in housing market to investigate the transmission mechanism of the land supply planning on housing prices. It turns out that the implementation of land supply planning affected the expectation of property developers which induced their speculative behaviors, and thus had a significant negative impact on housing prices. Seen from the regression result, the proportion of residential land use for indemnificatory housing and the implementation rate of the land supply plan both have significant negative effects on housing price while in different intensities. The effect of the land supply structure is greater than that of implementation rate of the plan. The smaller the proportion of land for indemnificatory housing or the higher implementation rate of the plan is, the faster housing price drops. This conclusion can provide important decision making reference for relevant departments to make scientific and feasible plan. The result shows that the expectation of developers has greater effect than the expectation of consumers, so it’s critical to take measures to regulate developer’s behavior. The study also shows that demand factors exert greater influence on housing prices than supply factors, especially per capita disposable income. Demand factors are the main factors that affect housing prices. And the housing stock of last year pushes the housing prices higher. This conclusion is different from Peng and Wheaton’s, which exactly reflects the contradiction of current vacant housing stock and increasing new housing supply.

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