JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES ›› 2012, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (4): 705-712.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.016

• Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS • Previous Articles    

Driving Factors and Spatial Diffusion for the Development of National Park Model for Natural Heritage Sites

ZHANG Hai-xia1,2, ZHANG Xü-liang3   

  1. 1. School of Tourism and City Administration, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, China;
    2. School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;
    3. Zhejiang Pro-development Planning & Research Institute, Hangzhou 310012, China
  • Received:2011-10-10 Revised:2012-01-09 Online:2012-04-20 Published:2012-04-20

Abstract: The protection and utilization of nature heritages present a worldview and ethnical inclination of human-being. The national parks with heritage conservation and public recreation as main objectives have been considered as a matured model for reconciliation of heritage protection and tourism development. To find out meaningfully theoretical supports for the governance of natural heritages in China, the paper explored the driving factors for the development of national park model (NPM) and tried to find the rules of its global spatial diffusion. After collecting the huge data from the World Database on Protected Areas(WDPA) and other data pools relevant with global economy, environment, tourism and public service, multi-regression analyses were run to explore the driving factors and gravity center analysis was used to interpret the route of global diffusion for NPM. In addition, the multicollinearity problems had not occurred on the test of multi-regression equation. The results of analysis indicated: firstly, the value inclination for public service is the main driving factor for development of NPM; secondly, economic growth may instead squeeze the space for national parks; thirdly, there exist great differences for developed and developing countries because the levels of environmental concern and tourism development are the main factors influencing the growth of NPM for developed countries, while in developing ones, environment concern has no relevance with that of NPM, and the level of tourism development shows negative correlation with it. Moreover, the result of gravity center analysis showed that the NPM has been spreading over the world, and the shift of gravity center for the growth of national parks was influenced by macro background, eco-environmental protection, and other factors. Therefore, to develop NPM in China is really in coincidence with the objective rules. However, the fiscal restraints on public administration of China are not conducive to cultivate NPM and there are knotty contradiction among environmental protection, tourism development and NPM. To advance governance effectiveness of natural heritage sites in China, it's necessary for Chinese government to create the value of public service, to push on the environmental protection, and to improve the quality of tourism development.

Key words: management of heritage resources, national park model, nature heritage sites, heritage tourism

CLC Number: 

  • F591.99