JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (11): 2674-2686.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201109

• Energy Flows and Networks • Previous Articles     Next Articles

China's cross-border energy relations between direct trade and embodied transfers: Based on "the Belt and Road" energy cooperation

HAN Meng-yao1,2,3(), XIONG Jiao1,2,3,4, LIU Wei-dong1,2,3()   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. School of International Trade and Economics, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2020-01-10 Revised:2020-04-30 Online:2020-11-28 Published:2021-01-28
  • Contact: Wei-dong LIU;


Along with the proposal of "the Belt and Road" Initiative, energy connectivity has become an essential component of China's overseas cooperation. In "the Belt and Road" energy cooperation, it is of great significance to depict and compare the cross-border relations from the dual perspectives of direct energy trade and embodied energy transfers. The main conclusions include: (1) From the direct perspective, countries such as Saudi Arabia and Russia are essential energy importers of China; (2) From the embodied perspective, China provides a large amount of energy-intensive products to countries such as India, Singapore and Thailand within "the Belt and Road" region; (3) China's direct energy trade with "the Belt and Road" region is in deficit, while the embodied energy transfer is in surplus; (4) Through synthetic consideration of direct energy trade and embodied energy transfers, China can further extend the radiating effects of different energy relations, and provide a solid foundation for energy connectivity and cooperation partnership between China and "the Belt and Road" countries.

Key words: "the Belt and Road" Initiative, energy trade, embodied energy, cross-border cooperation, supply demand balance