JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (10): 2484-2498.

• Regular Articles •

### Energy utilization of pig breeding waste at the acquaintance society and atomized society in rural areas: Game analysis, simulation analysis and reality testing

HE Ke1,2, ZHANG Jun-biao1,2

1. 1. College of Economics & Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China;
2. Hubei Rural Development Research Center, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
• Received:2019-04-28 Revised:2019-09-01 Online:2020-10-28 Published:2020-12-28

Abstract: On the background of the acquaintance society and atomized society in rural areas, this paper employed game theory and simulation to analyze the contradiction between individual rationality and collective rationality among pig farmers in the process of energy utilization of pig breeding waste. By considering the "local consensus" to change the constraints of the traditional evolutionary game, this paper presented a theoretical and logical framework for understanding the cooperative participation of large-scale pig farmers' behaviors. On this basis, with the survey data of large-scale pig farmers in Hubei province, this paper employed econometric research methods to empirically verify the differences of pig farmers' participation in biogas production from pig manure at the acquaintance society and atomized society and to analyze the role of local consensus in pig farmers' activities of biogas production. Results from the theoretical analysis, game and simulation analysis as well as empirical analysis all show that there are differences in pig farmers' behaviors in energy utilization of pig breeding waste at both acquaintance society and atomized society in rural areas. At the acquaintance society, the social reputation reward, status reward, social reputation punishment and status punishment brought by "local consensus" are not only alternatives of "social currency" compensation but also informal restraints to avoid opportunistic behaviors. And they are not only economic material incentives, laws and regulations, but also the internal mechanisms to maintain collective action in rural areas, which play an important role in the governance and protection of rural ecological environment. At the atomized society, due to the decline of human relations and etiquette mechanisms, the "local consensus" has almost disappeared. After a long period of comparison, learning and imitation, rational and self-interested pig farmers tend to become strict opportunists. Consequently, the reciprocal collective action of energy utilization of pig breeding waste is difficult. Therefore, this paper suggests that, with strengthening the formal system construction of laws, regulations, policies and guidelines, we should promote the construction of "local consensus" and improve the rural ecological environment governance system which integrates autonomy, law and morality.