JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES ›› 2016, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 543-555.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150296

• Resource Ecology •     Next Articles

The Temporal and Spatial Variations of Ecological Services in the Tibet Plateau

HUANG Lin1, CAO Wei1, WU Dan2, GONG Guo-li3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042, China;
    3. Shanxi Academy of Environmental Planning, Taiyuan 030024, China
  • Received:2015-03-25 Revised:2015-09-19 Online:2016-04-28 Published:2016-04-28
  • Supported by:
    The Western Project Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KZCX2-XB3-08-01

Abstract: The Tibet Plateau is one of the vital zones to the national ecological security pattern, and the maintenance and enhancement of its ecological barrier function is the core objective of ecological protection in this area. This paper analyzed the variations of macrostructure and services of ecosystems in Tibet Plateau from 1990 to 2010, and integratedly assessed its ecological barrier function. The results showed that: 1) In recent 20 years, the ecosystem pattern in Tibet Plateau is stable, and the change of ecosystems is relatively slow. The grassland area increased in the northern and western Tibet Plateau, glaciers and permanent snow covered area retreated, and lake and swamp wetland area expanded. 2) The average annual water conservation quantity of forest, grassland and wetland ecosystems in Tibet Plateau was 89.52 billion m3, water conservation amount per unit area being 744.48 m3/hm2. The carbon sequestration capacity of forest, grassland and wetland ecosystem reached 1.95 Pg C, presenting the pattern of gradually decreasing from southeast to northwest. 3) The annual average soil water erosion modulus is 3 876 t/km2, and annual soil erosion quantity is 1.02 billion tons in the Tibet Plateau. The retention rate of ecological soil conservation service was 66%. The annual average soil wind erosion modulus is 1 581.2 t/km2 and soil wind erosion quantity was 1.899 billion tons in the Tibet Plateau. The average sand fixation service quantity was 2.83 billion tons, and the retention rate of the average annual wind prevention and sand fixation service was 66.5%. 4) The water conservation capacity has improved in the past 20 years. The carbon sequestration amount reduced by 0.87% in the former 10 years and increased by 3.71% in the latter 10 years. In water erosion zones of the Tibet Plateau, the soil erosion amount and the soil conservation amount decreased, while the retention of soil conservation services continued to rise. The overall trends of wind erosion amount, ecosystem wind prevention and sand fixation service went downward due to weakened wind strength and increased vegetation coverage, while the retention rate of ecosystem wind prevention and sand fixation service continued to increase.

Key words: cabon sequestration, soil conservation, Tibet Plateau, water conservation, wind prevention and sand fixation

CLC Number: 

  • X171