自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (12): 3232-3246.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211216

• 其他研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原生态风险及区域分异

刘飞1(), 刘峰贵1,2(), 周强1,2, 陈琼1,2, 汪生珍1, 郭蓉1, 马伟东1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学地理科学学院,西宁 810008
    2. 高原科学与可持续发展研究院,西宁 810008
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-03 修回日期:2020-11-18 出版日期:2021-12-28 发布日期:2022-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘峰贵(1966- ),男,青海门源人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为青藏高原区域地理与环境变化。E-mail: lfg_918@163.com
  • 作者简介:刘飞(1993- ),男,山西大同人,硕士,研究方向为自然地理综合研究。E-mail: 13734686612@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2019YFA0606902);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0603);中国科学院战略先导专项(XDA20040200)

Ecological risk and regional differentiation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

LIU Fei1(), LIU Feng-gui1,2(), ZHOU Qiang1,2, CHEN Qiong1,2, WANG Sheng-zhen1, GUO Rong1, MA Wei-dong1   

  1. 1. School of Geographic Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
    2. Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability, Xining 810008, China
  • Received:2020-07-03 Revised:2020-11-18 Online:2021-12-28 Published:2022-02-28

摘要:

全球变化背景下,青藏高原生态系统受到自然、人为双重影响和威胁,生态风险日益加剧。针对生态风险源、脆弱性以及风险管理能力选取30个评估指标,利用生态风险评估优化模型,综合评估了青藏高原的生态风险,并得出如下结论:青藏高原生态风险总体处于较低水平,以低和极低生态风险为主,共占研究区面积的55.84%;极高风险主要分布在北部高山和极高山地区,中等风险主要分布在高原北部以及高原的西部和西南部地区,中、高生态风险在空间分布上形成一个“C”字形结构;青藏高原生态风险整体受自然主导因子控制,人为对生态环境的影响不容忽视,协调和降低青藏高原人类活动区域人类对生态环境的影响,是今后规避生态风险的重要途径。

关键词: 青藏高原, 生态风险, 区域分异

Abstract:

Under the background of global change, the ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been affected and threatened by both nature and human activities, and the ecological risks are intensifying. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a relatively independent geographic unit with a high average altitude and complex and diverse landforms. Its fragile alpine ecosystem is extremely sensitive to global climate change. In recent years, the population of the plateau has increased and the process of urbanization has accelerated, the scale and intensity of human activities have increased significantly, and ecological risks have increased. At present, the research results of ecological risk assessment are mainly found in local areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This article, aiming at understanding the source of ecological risks, analyzes the spatial distribution of risks and their causes. The ecological risk assessment of the entire plateau is expected to provide references for the identification, management and early warning of regional ecological risks. We establish an ecological risk assessment index system for the study area, which includes 13 ecological risk source indicators, 10 ecological vulnerability indicators, and 7 ecological risk management capability indicators. Then we select the official remote sensing product data with a high spatial resolution, according to the characteristics of the data which are divided into numerical and non-numerical data. Using ArcGIS 10.2 to normalize the numerical data, according to the contribution rate to ecological risk, the non-numerical data are graded, and the ecological risk evaluation optimization model is used to comprehensively evaluate the ecological risk of the plateau. The results showed that: overall ecological risk of the study area is relatively low, with low and very low ecological risk areas accounting for 55.84%, extremely high risk areas being only 7.19%, high risk areas 11.95%, and medium ecological risk areas 25.02%, and the extremely low and low ecological risk areas account for more than half of the plateau area; medium ecological risk areas are mainly distributed in areas with high intensity of human activities. The impact of human activities on the eco-environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau cannot be ignored; the extremely high-risk areas and medium-risk areas form a "C"-shaped pattern; the low-risk areas in the hinterland of the plateau have higher altitudes, severe cold climates, and fragile eco-environments, but the strengthening of ecological management measures has greatly reduced the ecological risk in the study area. The overall ecological risk of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is mainly controlled by natural factors, and the impact of human activities on the eco-environment cannot be ignored. The establishment of national nature reserves or national parks to protect the ecological environment can greatly reduce its ecological risks. It is necessary to pay special attention to areas with high intensity of human activities on the plateau, where their ecological risks have reached a medium intensity. Creating a new pattern of harmonious coexistence between humans and nature, and avoiding excessive human intervention in the eco-environment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an important way to reduce ecological risks in the future.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, ecological risk, regional differentiation