自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (12): 3156-3169.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211211

• 其他研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国传统村落与贫困村的空间相关性及其影响因素

陈慧灵1(), 徐建斌2, 杨文越3, 曹小曙4()   

  1. 1. 湖南工商大学公共管理与人文地理学院,长沙 410205
    2. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    3. 华南农业大学林学与风景园林学院,广州 510642
    4. 陕西师范大学西北国土资源研究中心,西安 710119
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-23 修回日期:2020-12-02 出版日期:2021-12-28 发布日期:2022-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 曹小曙(1970- ),男,甘肃灵台人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事地理学与规划研究。E-mail: caoxsh@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:陈慧灵(1992- ),女,湖南邵阳人,博士,讲师,主要从事交通地理与旅游地理研究。E-mail: chenhuiling0325@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41831284);国家社会科学基金重大项目(18ZDA161);湖南省教育厅优秀青年项目(18B331)

Study on the spatial correlation between traditional villages and poverty-stricken villages and its influencing factors in China

CHEN Hui-ling1(), XU Jian-bin2, YANG Wen-yue3, CAO Xiao-shu4()   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration and Human Geography, Hunan University of Technology and Business, Changsha 410205, China
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    3. College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
    4. Institute of Transport Geography and Spatial Planning, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
  • Received:2020-04-23 Revised:2020-12-02 Online:2021-12-28 Published:2022-02-28

摘要:

以住房和城乡建设部公布的五批传统村落及“十二五”期间“整村推进”贫困村为对象,分析中国传统村落和贫困村的空间相关性,并探讨其与区域自然环境和社会经济因素之间的关系。研究发现:(1)传统村落与贫困村的空间相关性方面,传统村落密度高—贫困村密度高的聚类区域主要分布在湖北、湖南、贵州以及广西的交界、山西北部,集中在连片特困山区。低—低类型区域主要集中在东北沿边、西北以及部分沿海地区,低—高类型区域集中在省际边界地区,高—低类型区域则主要分布在经济发展水平较高的浙江和福建。(2)将传统村落密度低—贫困村密度低类作为参照,低—高类区域与交通可达性水平、地区经济发展显著负相关,与人口、气温、高程、坡度这几个变量显著正相关;说明传统村落密度低的区域,人口更多、交通可达性水平差、地区经济发展更差、自然条件更为恶劣(气温变化、坡度和高程增加,降水量少)地区,陷入贫困的风险也更高。(3)相对低—低类型区域,城镇化率与高—低类型区域显著正相关,说明当同时位于低密度贫困村区域时,传统村落密度更好的地区其城镇化率也更高,城镇化进程没有严重冲击传统村落的保护;高—高类区域与交通可达性水平、人口呈显著负相关。(4)不同坡度、气温、降水量对传统村落与贫困村分布空间相关性的影响情况均有所不同,因此有必要因地制宜制定传统村落扶贫开发策略。研究成果可为我国基于传统村落保护和开发的乡村振兴提供一定的对象指引支撑。

关键词: 传统村落, 贫困村, 空间相关性, 影响因素, 中国

Abstract:

Based on the five lists of traditional villages published by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (China) and the poverty-stricken villages in poverty alleviation for a whole village during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015), this paper analyzes the distribution pattern and spatial correlation of Chinese traditional villages and poverty-stricken villages, and discusses the relationship between the spatial correlation and regional natural environment and socio-economic factors. The results show that: (1) In terms of the spatial distribution relationship between traditional villages and poor villages, the regions with high-density traditional villages and high-density poor villages are mainly distributed in provincial-level regions of Hubei, Hunan, Guizhou, the border of Guangxi, the north of Shanxi, which are mostly contiguous poverty-stricken mountainous areas. Regions with low-density traditional villages and low-density poor villages (low-low type) are generally located in coastal and border areas, while low-high type areas are generally located in provincial border areas; the villages of high-low type are mainly distributed in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces with high economic development level. (2) Taking the low-low type regions as the reference, the low-high type areas are significantly negatively correlated with transport accessibility and regional economic development, and positively correlated with population, temperature, elevation and slope, which indicates that the risk of poverty is higher in areas with larger population and worse natural conditions (higher temperature, gradient and elevation). (3) Compared with low-low type areas, high-low type areas have a significant positive correlation with urbanization rate, which indicates that areas with higher density of traditional villages tend to have higher urbanization rate, and the urbanization process has no serious impact on the protection of traditional villages. There is a significant negative correlation between transport accessibility, population and high-high type areas. (4) The influence of different slope, temperature and precipitation areas on the spatial correlation of traditional villages and poor villages is different. It is necessary to make strategies for poverty alleviation and development of traditional villages according to local conditions. This paper aims to provide some guidance and support for China's poverty alleviation and rural revitalization based on the protection and development of traditional villages.

Key words: traditional village, poor village, spatial correlation, influencing factor, China