自然资源学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (2): 234-239.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2002.02.017

• 研究报道 • 上一篇    下一篇

安徽省地下水水资源特征与水环境问题

王国强, 李瑛霞, 吴道祥, 葛晓光, 刘洋, 叶朝汉   

  1. 合肥工业大学,安徽合肥230009
  • 收稿日期:2001-07-27 修回日期:2001-11-17 出版日期:2002-04-25 发布日期:2002-04-25
  • 作者简介:王国强(1951~),男,安徽泾县人,教授,硕士,现从事水文地质与工程地质方面的教学和科研工作。
  • 基金资助:

    安徽省自然科学基金项目(00047102)资助

Characteristics of groundwater resources and water environmental problems in Anhui Province

WANG Guo-qiang, LI Ying-xia, WU Dao-xiang, GE Xiao-guang, LIU Yang, YE Chao-han   

  1. Department of Resource and Environment Sciences,Hefei University of Technology,Hefei230009,China
  • Received:2001-07-27 Revised:2001-11-17 Online:2002-04-25 Published:2002-04-25

摘要: 由于人类工程、经济活动对天然水体的改造作用以及地下水资源不合理的开发而产生环境地质问题。淮北地区阜阳、界首、淮北等城市由于超采深层地下水而形成区域性地下水位下降、产生地面沉降。两淮矿区、沿江铜陵等矿区由于采矿疏干排水和开采岩溶水造成地下水枯竭、水资源污染、因地下水位下降而引发岩溶、土洞塌陷。淮北的界首—利辛—固镇一线以北地区由于区域高氟水分布而引发地带性氟病和龋齿等疾病,大别山区和皖南地区因地形切割强烈,地下水径流排泄条件好,水交替快,水碘含量低,导致地方性甲状腺肿流行。淮河、巢湖水污染严重。江淮分水岭地区和淮北地区区域性缺水。水资源短缺、水污染严重以及各种水环境问题严重,破坏了人类赖以生存的生态环境。

关键词: 地下水资源, 水环境问题, 污染, 可持续发展, 安徽省

Abstract: This paper sketches the natural condition and spatio-temporal distribution of water re-sources of Anhui Province,especially,the distribution characteristics and current situation of groundwater exploitation and utilization.With regard to water resources,surface water predomi-nates in area to the south of Huaihe River(Huainan)but is equal to groundwater in volume in the area to the north of Huaihe River(Huaibei).Water resources in Anhui province are inadequate and are unevenly distributed in time,so such natural disasters as flood and drought happen fre-quently along with various kinds of geologic disasters due to concentration in precipitation.Meanwhile water resources are also unevenly distributed in space.There are abundant water re-sources in mountain area where population is less,however,water resources are short in Huaibei area where population is large with sufficient cultivated land.These distribution characteristics and the water pollution aggravate the contradiction of water use.This article discusses the role of human engineering projects and economic activities to the transformation of natural water bodies and the environment geological problems caused by the irrational exploitation of groundwater re-sources.In some cities such as Fuyang,Jieshou,Huaibei,etc.,excessive mining of groundwater causes regional descent of groundwater level and land subsidence.In some mining areas such as Lianghuia and Tongling,sewer drainage for mining and karstic water exploitation caused ground-water depletion,water resources pollution and karst cave and karstic earthen cave collapse.In the area to the north of the Jieshou-Lixin-Guzhen line,the endemic dental fluorosis and dental caries are common due to regional high fluorine contained water distribution.In mountain area and Southern Anhui ,endemic goiter is popular because the intensively cut topography provides good conditions for groundwater discharge,leading to lower iodine content in groundwater.Regional wa-ter shortage is witnessed in the Changjiang River-Huaihe River Dividing Area and the Huaibei Area.Water resources deficit,serious water pollution and other water related environmental prob-lems seriously damage the ecological environment.These problems seriously restrict the sustain-able development of economy,society and environment of Anhui Province.Wa ter is the most ac-tive element of environment,and its most important characteristic in water cycle is repeated us-age and satisfies the need of ecological balance.The macro global hydrologic cycle unites,the en-vironments of all countries throughout the world to a whole,and regional micro hydrologic cycle connects the intrabasins or regional environments.Therefore,in order to realize sustainable devel-opment of water resources,it is necessary to build a man-land harmonious environment for human living by taking synthetic utilization and management of water resources and water environmental protection as a whole.

Key words: groundwater resources, water environmental problems, pollution, sustainable devel-opment, Anhui Province