自然资源学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (2): 134-139.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.02.006

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔里木盆地南缘人类活动干扰下地下水的变化及其生态环境效应

马金珠, 李吉均   

  1. 兰州大学资源环境学院, 甘肃兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2000-06-08 修回日期:2000-08-22 出版日期:2001-04-25 发布日期:2001-04-25
  • 作者简介:马金珠(1968-),男,甘肃静宁人,副教授,博士,主要从事干旱区水资源与环境研究及教学工作。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(49731010)

Impact of human activities on groundwater and the effect on eco-environment in southern Tarim Basin

MA Jin zhu, LI Ji jun   

  1. College of Resources and Environment, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2000-06-08 Revised:2000-08-22 Online:2001-04-25 Published:2001-04-25

摘要: 人类活动是塔里木盆地南缘近几十年导致地下水及生态环境变化的主要因素,通过天然河道人工渠系化、平原水库建设以及枢纽工程上移,加速了地表水资源的时空再分配,从而引起了地下水空间补给变化。山前倾斜平原的补给量不断减少,而人工绿洲区地下水补给量则随地表引水量的提高不断增加。同时以天然河道渗漏补给为主转向以渠系、田间入渗为主。山前平原区地下水补给46年减少26.2%,泉水削减37.6%,溢出带下移0.5~1.2km,进入平原荒漠区的水量减少33%;并导致土地沙漠化及盐渍化面积不断扩大,小气候环境日趋恶劣。

关键词: 人类活动, 地下水, 生态环境, 塔里木盆地南缘

Abstract: Groundwater has been changing extensively affected by human activities combined with desiccating climate conditions.In modern times,population growth,accompanied by development of industrial and agricultural production and the petroleum exploitation,brought about rapid expansion of artificial oasis with abruptly increasing of water demand.As a consequence,the artificial hydraulic irrigation project took the place of natural river system,the reservoirs took the place of natural lakes which in turn enhanced the space time redistribution of surface water based on natural evolution,and so did groundwater.The groundwater recharge reduced by 26.2% in 46 years from 1950 to 1995 in southern piedmont of the Tarim Basin based on mean yearly population increase rate of 27.7‰ associated with water use rate increasing from 24.6% to 58.4%.At the same time seepage of artificial water system plays a leading role to groundwater recharge,which is up to 57.6% whilst that of the river bed reduce to 33.7%.As a result,groundwater table generally dropped by 3~5 m except some irrigated areas and surroundings of plain reservoirs.Spring water discharge also reduced by about 28.7% and discharge zone continuously moved away to the north with values of 0.5~1.2 kilometers in the past 40a.Meanwhile,groundwater contamination began to rise up quickly,especially in some towns and irrigated areas a lot of organic nutrients such as NH4 N,DOC and SRP were brought to aquifers where groundwater was recharged by surface water.Besides,groundwater evolution has led to serious plant degradation and land desertification.

Key words: human activity, groundwater, eco environment, southern Tarim Basin

中图分类号: 

  • P641.8