自然资源学报 ›› 1999, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (3): 245-252.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1999.03.009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

松茸群生物资源及其合理利用与有效保护

刘培贵1, 袁明生2, 王向华1, 孙佩琼2, 杨雪1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所, 云南昆明 650204;
    2. 中国科学院成都生物研究所, 四川成都 610045
  • 收稿日期:1998-06-18 修回日期:1998-11-18 出版日期:1999-09-25 发布日期:1999-09-25
  • 作者简介:刘培贵,男,1953年10月生,1982年大学本科毕业,1989年获得理学硕士学位。1996年11月晋升为研 究员。长期从事真菌分类学、区系地理学、菌根及资源学研究。主持完成了国家、中科院及省等各类基金项目 6项;参加国家、院重点、重大项目2项。已发表研究论文30余篇,参加撰写并已出版专著4部。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金,云南省自然科学基金

NOTES ON THE RESOURCES OF MATSUTAKE GROUP AND THEIR REASONABLE UTILIZATION AS WELL AS EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION IN CHINA

LIU Pei gui1, YUAN Ming sheng2, WANG Xiang hua1, SUN Pei qiong2, YANG Xue1   

  1. 1. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204;
    2. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610045
  • Received:1998-06-18 Revised:1998-11-18 Online:1999-09-25 Published:1999-09-25

摘要: 论述了国产松茸群的分类地位、种类组成、地理分布、生态环境及其在松、栎森林生态系统中的作用,资源现状及其日趋减少的原因分析。重点讨论了松、栎类植物群落自然演替及人类活动对松茸群的影响,其中人类活动是影响松茸群生长繁衍生存诸因素中最主要的因素,概括有二:①森林大面积的无度连续砍伐,导致生态系统环境的恶化,地下菌丝明显减少;②掠夺性的采集方法使有序的地下菌丝及其正常分化与发育受到严重干扰。建议建立特种自然保护区,将松茸类增写到《中国植物红皮书》中;采取实施人工接种于林地以增加森林生态系统中地下菌丝蕴藏量和补充菌丝不足、促进发育与分化以增加自然生物量,林木砍伐采用间伐与菌根育苗造林相接合以及科学的采集方法等是合理永续利用和有效保护的根本途径。

关键词: 松茸群, 有效保护与合理利用

Abstract: Up to now 5 species and 1 variety of matsutake group which occupy more than 1/3 of the total number of the 15 species available on the globe have been reported in China.They are Tricholoma matsutake,T.matsutake var.formosa,T.bakama tsutake,T.fulvocastaneum,T.robustum and T.quericola.These species,except T.robustum, are all the East Asian endemic elements.The triangular area consisting of southeast Qinghai Xizang(Tibet)Plateau,west of Sichuan and northwest of Yunnan abounds with rich species and has high occurrence frequency,hence can be considered as an abundance as well as distribution center.T.matsutake and its varie ty can be always found in the pine (Pinus yunnanensis,P.densiflora,P.densata etc.)forest.The great majority of the other three species usually occurs in the oak (Quercus aquifolioides,Q.pannosa,Q.variabilis,Q.serrata,Q.rehderiana etc.)forest besides T.robustum which can be usually found in the above mentioned two kinds of forests or pine oak mixed forest.They are important ectomycorrhizal fungi of pine and oak.The paper mainly discusses the community natural succession of pine and oak and impacts of human activities upon matsutake group.It is demonstrated that although the former experiences species substitution based on natural successive law of pine and oak forests,no obvious effect occurs.However,the latter constitute a leading influential factor,summarized as follows:(a)The uncontrolled extensive tree felling resulted in a sudden deterioration of the eco environment.As a consequence,the subterranean mycelia dropped obviously,even disappeared completely in some districts.(b)A preda tory collection (namely the mycelia in ground are taken out together with fruit bodies and deserted over the ground or the remained mushrooms pits are open without soil cover after collecting.In the case subterranean mycelia are exposed in the air for long time,they would be endangered even died) is another factor which causes a decrease of the natural bio resources.These are the main reasons account for the endangerment of matsutake group and even disappearance in some regions.In order to preserve endangered matsutake group,establish special nature reserves,isolate their genes,cells and tissue culture and keep them for future research and utilization in case they disappeared,and their tissue culture as well as artificial inoculation of the mycelia into the pine and oak forests in order to increase subterranean mycelia and sustain utilization,it is suggested that the proposals should be added to the 《Red Book on the Wild Plants of China》.

Key words: matsutake group, reasonable utilization &, effective preservation

中图分类号: 

  • Q949.329