自然资源学报 ›› 1991, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (2): 186-193.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1991.02.010

• 论文 • 上一篇    

南苏格兰森林生态系统水分循环的模拟

李飞   

  1. 中国科学院国家计划委员会自然资源综合考察委员会
  • 出版日期:1991-06-25 发布日期:1991-06-25

A SIMULATION OF THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE OF THE FOREST ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN SCOTLAND

Li Fei   

  1. Commissios for Integrated Surfey of Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Online:1991-06-25 Published:1991-06-25

摘要: 本文描述了一个根据起源于南苏格兰爱丁堡郊区沼泽地的人工林建立的数学模型。该模型把群落的整个水分过程抽象地看作有5个分室——乔木、草本、沟、沟坡与沟底组成的生态系统;借助于数学公式和计算机技术,对包括截流、表面流、土壤贮藏水与地下水等现象在内的水文过程以定量的形式进行了模拟;模型中输入降雨和蒸发量,输出径流量。文中以1986年系统的水文过程作为一个例子,并利用模拟值与真值对模拟效果进行了检验:以天为单位的模拟效率为93.5%,以2h为单位的模拟效率为85.1%。该模型揭示了森林水分循环的机理,仅利用降雨和蒸发量就能估计径流量。它将有助于了解起源于沼泽地人工林的水文效应。

关键词: 模拟, 人工林生态系统, 水分循环

Abstract: In this paper, a mathematical model of the hydrological cycle of the forest set up on the basis of a man-made forest which originated from a bog land in the suburbs of Edinburgh in southern Scotland is described. The whole process is abstractly recognized as a forest ecosystem with 5 compartments, namely, trees, grasses, ditches, ditch slopes and ditch bottoms. With the aid of some methematical formulas and computer techniques, the hydrological process of the system, which includes flow interception, surface flow, stared in soil, groundwater and the other hydrological phenomena, can be systematically simulated in a quantitative form. The amounts of rainfall and evaporation are put into the model and the runoff water is drained away from it- It is given here for an example to simulate the hydrological process of the system in 1986 and check the simulation efficiency. Through comparing the computed and observed flows of the forest ecosystem, it is found that the simulation efficiency is 93.5% on the daily basis and 85.1% on the two-hour basis.The model reveals the mechanism of the hydrological cycle of the forest. We can estimate the runoff by using the amounts of input pricipitation and evaporation only. It will be helpful to understanding the hydrological effect of the man-made forest which originates from a bog land.

Key words: simulation, man-made forest ecosystem, hydrological cycle