自然资源学报 ›› 1990, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (1): 11-19.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.1990.01.002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国淡水湖泊资源开发探讨——以东平湖为例

林文盘, 何凡能   

  1. 中国科学院国家计划委员会地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1990-03-25 发布日期:1990-03-25

AN APPROACH ON THE EXPLOITATION OF THE SWEET- WATER LAKE RESOURCE IN CHINA --TAKING THE DONG PING LAKE AS AN EXAMPLE

Lin Wenpan, He Fanneng   

  1. Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Online:1990-03-25 Published:1990-03-25

摘要: 本文阐述了我国淡水湖泊具有调节河川径流、发电、灌溉、航运等功能。并以东平湖为例,系统论述了它们的资源特征(自然环境、理化特征、鱼类生境、旅游环境),及其利用开发现状,并分级分析了它们各自的生态环境、生态系统特点。指出了我国淡水湖泊存在的主要问题:入湖水源不足,工业废污水的污染,水工建筑物阻隔河湖通道,滞洪淤积等,导致了水域生态环境恶化,溯河入湖物种绝灭,湖体湮废等。最后提出了设计湖体水生资源得以开发的流域水资源调节控制规划;加强流域水土保持;有计划地进行湖底清淤;疏竣河湖接口通道,添建鱼道;编制利于水生动、植物生境的水利工程运营方案,设计高效静水资源开发方案等整治对策。

关键词: 淡水湖泊资源, 湖体生境, 静水资源, 流域规划

Abstract: This paper elaborates the functions of sweet water lakes in China. These include regulating the river flow, generating electricity, irrigation, and shipping. Taking the Dong Ping Lake as an example, the paper also discusses systematically the charateristics of the sweet-water labe resource (natural environment, physical and chemical properties, fish habitat, tourism environment) and their exbloitation situation. The Dong Ping Leke is divided into three levels. The habitat and ecosystemastic charateristics of each level are analysed seperately.The main problems of the sweet water lakes in China are: the shortage of water resources flowing into the lakes, the pollution by industrial effluent, the impediment to passages between rivers and lakes caused by hydraulic structures, the siltation due to flood detention, and so on. All these result in the deterioration of water habitat, the extinction of migratory species, the shrinkage of lake's body, etc.At last, the paper sets forward some countermeasures for tapping and administrating the Dong Ping Lake. These include designing a drainage plan for tapping the aquatidrresoures in the lake, enhancing soil and water conservation in the drainage basin, cleaning the silt on the bottom of the lake in a planned way, dredging the passage between the lake and the river, setting up more fishways, working out a project of water transport and irrigation worts which will benefit the habitats of aquatic animals and aquatic plants, designing an effecient scheme for exploiting the stagnant water resource, and so on.

Key words: basin planning, sweet-water lake resource, lake habitat, stagnant water resource