自然资源学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (7): 1067-1077.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.07.001

• 理论探讨 •    下一篇

生态合作的概念、内涵和合作机制框架构建

张永勋1,2, 闵庆文1, 白艳莹1, 刘某承1, 孙雪萍1,2, 何璐璐3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 北京农学院经济管理学院, 北京 102206
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-28 修回日期:2015-02-03 出版日期:2015-07-20 发布日期:2015-07-14
  • 作者简介:张永勋(1983-),男,河南光山人,博士研究生,主要从事自然资源与生态经济方面的研究。E-mail:zhangyongxun666@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    北京市发改委委托项目“首都生态圈生态合作机制及研究案例”。

The Conception and Connotation of Ecological Conservation Cooperation and Framework Construction of Cooperation Mechanism

ZHANG Yong-xun1,2, MIN Qing-wen1, BAI Yan-ying1, LIU Mou-cheng1, SUN Xue-ping1,2, HE Lu-lu3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3 Economics and Management School, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China
  • Received:2014-10-28 Revised:2015-02-03 Online:2015-07-20 Published:2015-07-14

摘要:

不合理的经济发展方式使生态环境问题由个别地区小范围问题已发展成为普遍的跨行政区域问题,迫使各级政府部门必须联合行动应对,生态合作必将走向普遍化和常态化。目前,关于生态合作的概念和内涵既无相关研究给出明确界定,也无系统的生态合作研究框架可供参考,使区域生态合作面临重重困难,为此论文综述国内外生态合作的相关研究,梳理生态合作起源和发展演化历程,提出并阐释了生态合作的概念和内涵。以此概念为基础,构建出了包括生态合作组成、生态合作研究步骤、生态合作方式和生态合作监管与评价四部分的生态合作研究基本框架。其中,生态合作组成包含生态合作基础和目的、生态合作主体、生态合作方式和生态合作监管与评价体系;生态合作机制的构建包含10 个步骤,分别为诊断区域生态问题,确定生态合作的主体,确定生态合作对象,梳理合作主体间关系,拟定合作方案,意见征询,方案实施,实施监督,评价,对生态合作协议、实施方案和监督方案的改进;生态合作方式包括劳务合作、工程技术合作、产业发展合作、经济补偿合作、区域生态环境管理合作和教育人才合作等六大类;生态合作的监管与评价包括方案实施的监督与评价、合作方案的合理性评价、协调和监管能力评价、实施后的生态环境质量阶段性评价和终期评价。

关键词: 生态合作, 合作方式, 合作机制

Abstract:

Ecological environment problems are spreading from some small areas to wide areas across administrative regions due to unreasonable economic development. In this condition, the governments of the connected ecologically regions have to cooperate mutually to alleviate the ecological environment problems. Therefore, the ecological conservation cooperation (ECC) between administrative regions will gradually become usual. However, in the process of making ECC schemes, many significant questions need to be resolved, such as what ECC is, how many parts ECC consists of and how to make a reasonable ECC scheme between cooperators. These questions are all very critical for successful cooperation in resolving ecological environment problems. So far, the term“ecological conservation cooperation (ECC)”still was not defined clearly and accurately, and there is also not a systematical example about researching ECC. Constructing a framework of researching ECC is greatly significant to applied ecology, and will help resolving practically environmental problems. In this paper, based on the review of domestic and abroad researches on ecological cooperation, we gave ECC an accurate definition that is“the joint actions taken by stakeholders according to common agreements, in order to improve and protect ecological environment in a certain spatial scope where there are same ecological environment problems”, explained its connotation, and constructed a framework of ECC, including its compositions, research procedures, main types of cooperation, supervision and evaluations on the implication of ECC. In detail, The composition of ECC consists of the basis and purposes of cooperation, the cooperators, the supervision and evaluation systems; the procedure to construct the cooperation needs ten steps which include diagnosing regionally ecological problem, determining cooperators, finding out the objects of cooperation, clearing relationship between cooperators, mapping out cooperation scheme, consulting opinions about the scheme, implementing the scheme, supervising cooperators to carry out the scheme, evaluating, improving the schemes; there are six types of cooperation, which are labor service cooperation, engineering technology cooperation, industrial development cooperation, economic compensation cooperation, cooperation on ecological environment management, education and talent cooperation. Supervision and evaluation of ecological cooperation also involves four aspects which are supervision and evaluation on scheme implication, evaluation on the rationality of the cooperation scheme, evaluation of the supervision, re-evaluation periodically and eventual evaluation on the ecological environment qualities after implementing the ECC scheme.

Key words: ecological conservation cooperation, cooperation mechanism, ways of cooperation

中图分类号: 

  • F062.2