自然资源学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (4): 617-628.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.04.008

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

民族传统文化对农作物遗传多样性的影响——以贵州黎平县香禾糯资源为例

王艳杰1, 王艳丽2, 焦爱霞3, 才吉卓玛1, 杨京彪1, 阮仁超3, 薛达元1   

  1. 1. 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京100081;
    2. 内蒙古自治区生物技术研究院, 呼和浩特010070;
    3. 贵州省农作物品种资源研究所, 贵阳550006
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-21 修回日期:2014-12-29 出版日期:2015-04-20 发布日期:2015-04-16
  • 作者简介:王艳杰(1987- ),女(蒙古族),内蒙古通辽人,博士研究生,主要从事遗传资源及相关传统知识的研究.E-mail:yanjie2005@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    高等学校学科创新引智计划(B08044);环境保护部生物多样性专项(2014);贵州农业生物资源调查(2012FY110200).

Influence of National Traditional Culture on Crop Genetic Diversity —Take an Example of Kam Sweet Rice in Liping County of Guizhou Province

WANG Yan-jie1, WANG Yan-li2, JIAO Ai-xia3, CAIJI Zhuo-ma1, YANG Jing-biao1, RUAN Ren-chao3, XUE Da-yuan1   

  1. 1. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China;
    2. Inner Mongolia Institute of Biology Technics, Huhhot 010070, China;
    3. Guizhou Institute of Crops Germplasm Resources, Guiyang 550006, China
  • Received:2014-08-21 Revised:2014-12-29 Online:2015-04-20 Published:2015-04-16

摘要:

贵州黎平县内丰富的香禾糯资源是侗族人民赖以生活的物质基础,孕育了侗族特有的生产生活方式和文化习俗,而侗族的传统文化习俗也促进了香禾糯的持续种植和保护.通过研究黎平县香禾糯的历史发展情况,结合2013 年对黎平县香禾糯品种资源的实地调查,发现黎平县至今仍保留了45 个不同品质特征和用途的香禾糯品种,说明香禾糯丰富的遗传多样性.从侗族的饮食文化、节日庆典、宗教信仰、传统农作方式等方面,探讨传统文化习俗与香禾糯品种资源保护的关系,发现香禾糯是侗族油茶、扁米、腌制品等日常食品的必备原料,也是婚丧嫁娶、传统节日、礼尚往来、祭祀仪式的必需品,同时,侗族和谐共生的“稻-鱼-鸭”生产模式更提高了香禾糯的社会经济效益,文章揭示了侗族的传统知识和文化习俗是保持香禾糯高度遗传多样性的根本原因.最后,针对香禾糯资源消失的现状,提出相应的保护措施与建议,供相关部门参考.

关键词: 香禾糯, 侗族, 黎平县, 遗传多样性, 传统文化

Abstract:

Dong People in Guizhou Province have been cultivating hundreds of varieties of glutinous rice for 2000 years, known locally as Kam Sweet Rice. Plentiful Kam Sweet Rice resources are the essential living material for Dong people in Liping County of Guizhou Province. Kam Sweet Rice is the necessary food and cultural symbol in the daily life and culture customs of Dong people. In turn, Dong's traditional customs have also promoted the sustainable cultivation and protection of Kam Sweet Rice resources. The cultivation area of Kam Sweet Rice in different historical periods has been sorted, and forty-five Kam Sweet Rice varieties were collected in Liping County during on- the- spot investigation in 2013. The results show that Kam Sweet Rice in Liping County has a large amount of varieties as well as abundant genetic diversities. Moreover, the article discusses and analyzes the relationship between the traditional cultural customs, such as food culture, festival celebrations, religious beliefs and traditional farming practices of Dong people, and the preservation of Kam Sweet Rice. It is found that Kam Sweet Rice is not only the necessary ingredients of oil tea, flat rice and pickled products in Dong People's daily life, but also the indispensable materials in their traditional festivals, courtesy calls, sacrificial ceremonies, weddings and funerals. Meanwhile, the social and economic benefits of Kam Sweet Rice were promoted through the Dong's harmonious production mode of“Rice- Fish-Duck”. This article indicates that traditional knowledge and culture customs are the essential reasons of the high genetic diversity of Kam Sweet Rice, and there is a co- evolution relationship between the landrace resources and the traditional culture. Due to the gradual reduction of Kam Sweet Rice resources in recent years, appropriate strategies and suggestions for conservation are put forward as the reference for the relevant departments.

Key words: Kam Sweet Rice, traditional culture, genetic diversity, Liping County, Dong minority

中图分类号: 

  • S511.2+3