自然资源学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1282-1296.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.002

• 资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

地质公园旅游经济增长与生态环境压力脱钩评价—以嵩山世界地质公园为例

易平, 方世明, 马春艳   

  1. 中国地质大学公共管理学院, 武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-13 修回日期:2013-10-22 出版日期:2014-08-20 发布日期:2014-08-20
  • 作者简介:易平(1987-),男,湖北荆州人,硕士,主要从事地质公园规划与评价研究。E-mail:yiping508@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目“地质公园规划关键问题与实施评价理论方法研究”(41201574);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金摇篮计划项目(CUG130417)

Decoupling Evaluation between Tourism Economic Growth and Eco-environmental Pressure of Songshan Global Geopark

YI Ping, FANG Shi-ming, MA Chun-yan   

  1. School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Received:2013-08-13 Revised:2013-10-22 Online:2014-08-20 Published:2014-08-20

摘要:

定量评价地质公园旅游经济增长与生态环境压力的脱钩状态和程度对完善新一轮地质公园规划修编、指导地质公园建设管理具有重要的实践价值和理论意义。论文在借鉴已有脱钩理论研究成果的基础上,将脱钩理论引入地质公园这一微观领域,构建了适合地质公园旅游经济增长与生态环境压力脱钩分析的评价指标体系、评价模型和评判标准,以嵩山世界地质公园为例,测算了2004—2012 年旅游经济增长与生态环境压力的脱钩关系和程度,分析了二者的脱钩发展阶段和时间演化趋势,研究结果表明:①从地质公园旅游经济增长的生态环境压力强度及其变化特征看,2004—2012 年嵩山世界地质公园旅游经济增长的生态环境压力指数波动较大,总体呈现先上升后下降的演化趋势,其中,2004—2009 年呈现上升状态,2009—2012 年呈现下降趋势;②从地质公园旅游经济增长与生态环境压力的脱钩状态及其变化趋势看,2004—2012 年8 个时期嵩山世界地质公园旅游经济增长与生态环境压力的脱钩关系主要经历了从相对脱钩Ⅱ→相对脱钩Ⅳ→相对脱钩Ⅳ→耦合Ⅱ→耦合Ⅰ→绝对脱钩→相对脱钩Ⅰ→绝对脱钩的演变轨迹,地质公园旅游发展的可持续性状态表现出“较强→弱→强”的周期性变化;③从脱钩弹性曲线图看,脱钩状态总体呈现出“上升→下降→上升→下降”向右倾斜的“M”型变化,根据曲线波动情况大致可以划分3 个演化阶段:2004—2007 年的相对脱钩阶段,2007—2009 年的耦合阶段,2009—2012 年的绝对脱钩和相对脱钩交替阶段;④研究结果与嵩山世界地质公园的实际情况相吻合,表明所构建的脱钩评价方法为地质公园旅游的可持续发展提供了一种全新的分析与反馈机制。

关键词: 地质公园, 旅游经济, 脱钩评价, 嵩山, 生态环境压力指数

Abstract:

Quantitative evaluation on decoupling status and degree between tourism economic growth and eco-environmental pressure is of great theoretical significance and practical value to improve the new planning revision and guide the construction and management of geopark. Based on existing research results of the decoupling theory, the paper attempted to introduce decoupling theory into microscopic field of geopark, and evaluation indicator system, evaluation model, evaluation criteria of decoupling analysis between tourism economic growth and eco-environmental pressure of geopark have been established. A case study of Songshan Global Geopark, made a quantitative analysis about the decoupling relationship and degree between tourism economic growth and eco- environmental pressure in Songshan Global Geopark from 2004 to 2012, and development stage and the evolution trends of decoupling are analyzed. The results showed that: 1) From the point of view of the strength and its variation characteristics of eco-environmental pressure in the process of tourism economic growth, the eco-environmental pressure index of tourism economic growth generally fluctuated and evolutionary trend appeared increased first and then decreased during the state, the index enhanced during 2004- 2009, then reduced during 2009-2012. 2) From the point of view of the decoupling status and its evolution tendency between tourism economic growth and eco-environmental pressure, the decoupling degrees show the evolutional path of relative decoupling Ⅱ→relative decoupling Ⅳ→relative decouplingⅣ→couplingⅡ→couplingⅠ→absolute decoupling→relative decouplingⅠ→ absolute decoupling, the sustainability of geopark tourism development change periodically of strong→weak→strong. 3) From the point of the graph of the elasticity curve, the decoupling curve shows a rising→down→up→down trend and its change is close to the rightward“M-shaped”type in general. According to the decoupling elastic curve, the research period can be roughly divided into three evolutionary stages: 2004- 2007 (relative decoupling stage), 2007-2009 (coupling stage), and 2009-2012 (absolute and relative decoupling alternative stage). 4) The results are consistent with the actual situation in Songshan Global Geopark and have strong practical significance, indicating that the established evaluation method for decoupling evaluation between tourism economic growth and eco- environmental pressure provides a new analysis and feedback mechanisms for geopark tourism sustainable development.

Key words: geopark, tourism economy, decoupling evaluation, eco-environmental pressure index, Songshan

中图分类号: 

  • F590.1