自然资源学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (12): 2030-2038.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.12.004

• 资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河源地区藏族游牧对气候变化的适应性

摆万奇, 张镱锂, 刘林山, 张琴琴, 杜长江   

  1. 中国科学院 地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-22 修回日期:2012-05-15 出版日期:2012-12-20 发布日期:2012-12-20
  • 作者简介:摆万奇(1963-),男,河南南阳人,副研究员,博士,主要从事土地利用/土地覆被变化研究。E-mail:baiwq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2010CB951704);国家自然科学基金项目(41171080)。

Adaptation of Tibetan Nomadism to Climate Change in the Source Region of the Yellow River

BAI Wan-qi, ZHANG Yi-li, LIU Lin-shan, ZHANG Qin-qin, DU Chang-jiang   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2012-03-22 Revised:2012-05-15 Online:2012-12-20 Published:2012-12-20

摘要:

以黄河源地区达日县为案例,在牧户调查的基础上,结合气象资料、 遥感和地面调查,分析了气候变暖背景下的草地退化过程和藏族游牧民的响应与适应行为。结果显示,研究地区1956-2009年期间年平均温度每10 a增加0.29℃,比青藏高原和全国增温作用更加明显;在气候变暖和放牧活动的共同影响下,1970年代-2000年期间,29.39%的草地出现退化;为应对草地退化后果,牧民通过提前转场放牧、 建造围栏、 调整畜群数量与结构等生产措施加以缓解,同时生活方式和思想观念也发生了相应变化。这表明,藏族游牧本质上具有适应气候变化的内在机制和属性,可以在一定范围内主动或被动地调整生产生活方式,经过适应性改造的藏族游牧业能够成为黄河源地区重要的气候变化适应模式。

关键词: 气候变化, 适应性, 藏族游牧, 黄河源地区

Abstract:

Based on family questionnaire, meteorological and statistical data,remote sensing and field survey, a case study of Darlag County in the source region of the Yellow River has been conducted to understand the process of alpine grassland degradation and the behaviors of Tibetan nomads’response and adaptation to climate warming. The results show that there was an increase of 0.29℃/10 a on average in annual temperature during 1956-2009 in Darlag County, which indicated more obvious warming effect than that in the Tibetan Plateau and the whole country. With the impacts of climate warming and grazing, 29.39% grassland degraded between the 1970s and 2000. For dealing with the consequences of grassland degradation, local nomads have taken various adaptive measures in livestock production, such as earlier moving from summer pasture to winter pasture, making fence for pasture, adjusting the amount and structure of livestock, increasing the amount and ratio of livestock for sale, supplementing fodder in winter, planting grasses, etc., and simultaneously changes in lifestyle and ideology have also happened correspondingly. This demonstrates that the Tibetan nomadism essentially possesses the nature and mechanism of adaptation to climate change, and is capable of adjusting production and living to a certain extent actively or passively. Therefore, with adaptive modification Tibetan nomadism will prove to be an important adaptation mode of climate change in the source region of the Yellow River.

Key words: climate change, adaptation, Tibetan nomadism, the source region of the Yellow River

中图分类号: 

  • P467