自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 55-68.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210104

• 城镇聚落历史演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河北徙与北宋城市适应方式探析

吴朋飞1(), 仝家欢1, 刘德新1,2(), 苗长虹1,2   

  1. 1.河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心暨黄河文明省部共建协同创新中心,开封 475001
    2.河南大学环境与规划学院,开封 475004
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-06 修回日期:2020-08-16 出版日期:2021-01-28 发布日期:2021-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘德新 E-mail:wupengfei@henu.edu.cn;dxliu@vip.henu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:吴朋飞(1979- ),男,江苏如皋人,博士,副教授,主要从事历史地理和环境史研究。E-mail:wupengfei@henu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(15BZS024);中国博士后科学基金项目(2019M652520);中原博士后创新人才支持计划项目(ZYQR201810167)

Inquiry and analysis on Yellow River's migration to north and cities' adaptation in the Northern Song Dynasty

WU Peng-fei1(), TONG Jia-huan1, LIU De-xin1,2(), MIAO Chang-hong1,2   

  1. 1. Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development & Collaborative Innovation Center on Yellow River Civilization Jointly Built by Henan Province and Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
    2. School of Environment and Planing, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
  • Received:2020-05-06 Revised:2020-08-16 Online:2021-01-28 Published:2021-03-28
  • Contact: LIU De-xin E-mail:wupengfei@henu.edu.cn;dxliu@vip.henu.edu.cn

摘要:

黄河变迁史上的第三次大改道导致黄河突发北徙,彻底改变了泛滥区城市的自然和人文环境,是开展复杂人地耦合系统研究的理想区域。利用水平横剖面法、数理统计与GIS手段相结合的方法,探索黄泛城市的数目、时空变化特征和适应性类型。结果表明:(1)黄河7个行河期的决溢泛滥,产生29座受灾城市;(2)受灾城市总体分布广泛,但又相对集中分布在黄河决口所形成的洪积扇顶部附近,地势低洼的冀中平原以及黄、御等河流交汇处;(3)黄泛城市主要呈现出避河患迁城、因河患省并、原址加固防御、直接湮废四种适应性类型,以避河患迁城型居多,占45%;(4)朝廷政策和城市规模是影响城市在黄河突发灾害下的空间分异和适应性举措的重要人文因素。黄泛区受灾城市具有重要的地方性保存和可持续发展演进模式。建议将其纳入“黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展”国家战略,作为讲好黄河故事的重要区域。

关键词: 北宋时期, 黄河, 黄泛城市, 城市适应方式

Abstract:

In the changing history of the Yellow River, the third major diversion has led to a sudden northward migration, which radically changed the urban natural and human environment in the flood area and is an ideal research area of the human-earth coupling system. We used a combination of horizontal cross-sectional methods, mathematical statistics and GIS tools to explore the number, spatio-temporal variability characteristics and urban adaptations of the cities flooded by the Yellow River. The results show that: (1) The overflowing of the Yellow River during the seven river-flowing periods gave rise to 29 affected cities. (2) The affected cities were widely distributed in general, but relatively concentrated in the top of the alluvial fan formed by the bursting of the Yellow River, the low-lying Jizhong Plain and the confluence of the Yellow River and Yuhe River. (3) The cities flooded by the Yellow River mainly showed four types of urban adaptability: direct destruction, dismantling, relocation and reinforcement, in which the type of the relocation of floods is dominant, accounting for 45%. (4) The imperial court decision and city scale were important human factors affecting the spatial differentiation and urban adaptability in the sudden disaster environment of the Yellow River. The affected cities in the flooded areas are important models of local conservation significance and sustainable development evolution, which is recommended that they should be included in the national strategy of "Ecological Protection and High-quality Development of the Yellow River Basin" and as an important area for telling the story of the Yellow River.

Key words: Northern Song Dynasty, Yellow River, cities flooded by the Yellow River, urban adaptability