自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (12): 2821-2830.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201201

• 专家笔谈 •    下一篇

科学立法制止餐饮浪费的若干问题——“食物节约立法”专家笔谈

成升魁1(), 黄锡生2, 胡德胜2(), 施志源3, 落志筠4   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.重庆大学法学院,重庆 400044
    3.福建师范大学法学院,福州 350117
    4.内蒙古财经大学法学院,呼和浩特 010070
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-26 修回日期:2020-11-06 出版日期:2020-12-28 发布日期:2021-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 胡德胜 E-mail:chengsk@igsnrr.ac.cn;deshenghu@126.com
  • 作者简介:成升魁(1957- ),男,陕西合阳人,博士,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事资源生态、区域农业发展等领域的研究工作。E-mail: chengsk@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71233007)

Several issues on scientific legislation for prohibiting food waste: Some personal reflections

CHENG Sheng-kui1(), HUANG Xi-sheng2, HU De-sheng2(), SHI Zhi-yuan3, LUO Zhi-yun4   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Law School, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
    3. Law School, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China
    4. Law School, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Hohhot 010070, China
  • Received:2020-10-26 Revised:2020-11-06 Online:2020-12-28 Published:2021-02-28
  • Contact: De-sheng HU E-mail:chengsk@igsnrr.ac.cn;deshenghu@126.com

摘要:

食物浪费问题受到全球广泛关注。国外已有不少国家通过法律加以全面调整。食物浪费现象产生的原因有科学技术、行为人主观因素、传统所有权制度固有缺陷等方面。我国食物浪费主要以大众餐饮食物浪费为主,在全社会必须形成节约光荣、浪费可耻的法律氛围。发生餐饮食物浪费的领域主要包括婚宴、“事件性宴聚”、商务宴请、朋友聚餐。我国虽有法律涉及食物浪费问题,但现行规定较为原则、分散,缺乏系统性、可操作性。对食物浪费行为进行法律规制是保障粮食安全、履行国际义务、节约资源、保护生态环境、升级整合法律规范的需要。应该制定一部专门性法律,将资源社会性理念和绿色发展理念融入立法,通过直接禁止、税收调整、消费引导等方式综合规制公共主体、公民个人这两类主要行为主体在食物生产、加工和消费各环节的食物浪费行为。立法调整的重点应该是食物和浪费食物的行为。

关键词: 食物浪费, 食物节约, 立法, 规范, 引导, 制裁

Abstract:

The phenomenon of food waste has aroused great concern from the international community, and some foreign countries have regulated it by law in a comprehensive way. In China, food waste mainly occurs in the public catering industry. In the whole society, we must form a legal atmosphere of being glorious to save and shameful to waste. The occasions of food waste mainly include wedding party, "event banquet", business dinner and dinner with friends. The causes of food waste include constraints of science and technology, subjective factors of actors and inherent defects of traditional ownership system. Although there are laws concerning food waste in China, the current provisions are relatively principled and scattered, lacking systematicness and maneuverability. To regulate food waste behavior by law is the need of ensuring food security, fulfilling international obligations, saving resources, protecting ecological environment, upgrading and integrating legal norms. The food waste behavior of public legal subjects and individuals in food production, processing and consumption should be comprehensively regulated by a special law, which should be formulated by the NPC Standing Committee under the guidance of the notion of social attribute of resources and the idea of green development, through direct prohibition, tax adjustment, consumption guidance and other ways. The legal regulation should focus on food and food waste behavior.

Key words: food waste, food saving, legislation, regulating, guiding, sanction