自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (2): 399-412.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200212

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

祁连山七一冰川物质平衡的时空变化特征

王盛1, 姚檀栋2, 蒲健辰3   

  1. 1. 山西师范大学地理科学学院,临汾 041000;
    2. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所环境变化与地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101;
    3. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-13 修回日期:2019-03-02 出版日期:2020-02-28 发布日期:2020-02-28
  • 作者简介:王盛(1986- ),男,山东淄博人,讲师,主要从事冰川物质平衡的观测与模拟研究。E-mail: wangsheng@sxnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41801034); 中国科学院“一带一路”国际合作专项(131C11KYSB20160061); 中国科学院青藏高原环境变化与地表过程重点实验室开放课题基金项目(TEL201801)

Spatial and temporal variations in mass balance of Qiyi Glacier in Qilian Mountains

WANG Sheng1, YAO Tan-dong2, PU Jian-chen3   

  1. 1. Geography Science Institute, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041000, Shanxi, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-environment and Resources, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2018-11-13 Revised:2019-03-02 Online:2020-02-28 Published:2020-02-28

摘要: 基于2011-2016年七一冰川的野外观测资料,结合气象站数据及1975-2015年的遥感影像,分析了冰川末端变化、物质平衡时空变化特征及其对气候变化的敏感性,结果表明:1975年以来,七一冰川末端持续退缩235 m,平均退缩速率为5.9 m/a,冰川面积减少0.13 km2(4.5%)。2011-2016年,七一冰川的平均物质平衡为-476 mm w.e.,平均ELA为4941 m a.s.l.,物质平衡梯度为2.9 mm/m。从季节变化看,受风吹雪和冰面升华影响,11月至次年3月冰川呈负平衡;4月和9月物质平衡受降水控制,随海拔变化呈现降水效应;强消融期(6-8月)物质平衡随海拔升高线性增加;消融期末由9月初延后至9月底。敏感性分析结果表明,物质平衡对气温变化的敏感性为-178.7 mm w.e. °C-1 a-1,对降水变化的敏感性为+2.93 mm w.e. mm-1 a-1。即61 mm的降水增加才能弥补暖季气温升高1 °C引起的冰川净物质损失。

关键词: ELA, 气候敏感性, 七一冰川, 物质平衡, 冰川变化

Abstract: Based on in-situ observations in Qiyi Glacier during 2011-2016, and combined with the data from meteorological stations and remote sensing images (1975-2015), this paper analyzed the glacier terminal change, spatial and temporal variations of glacier mass balance and its sensitivity to climate change. The results showed that: the terminal of Qiyi Glacier continued to retreat 235 m from 1975 to 2015, with a rate of 5.9 m/a, and the glacier area reduced by 0.13 km2 (4.5%). During 2011-2016, the average annual mass balance of Qiyi Glacier was -476 mm w.e., the average ELA was 4941 m a.s.l., and the mass balance gradient was 2.9 mm/m. Affected by snowdrift and ice sublimation, the glacier mass balance tended to be more negative from November to March of the next year. Mass balance in April and September is dominated by precipitation, and the change with altitude showed the precipitation effect. Mass balance increased with altitude linearly from June to August, and the end of glacier melting season was delayed from early September to the end of September. The sensitivity analysis of glacier to climate change showed that, mass balance sensitivity to air temperature change was -178.7 mm w.e. ℃-1 a-1, while that to precipitation change was +2.93 mm w.e. mm-1 a-1. A 61 mm increase in precipitation was required to compensate for the net mass loss induced by an air temperature increase of 1 ℃.

Key words: ELA, climate sensitivity, Qiyi Glacier, mass balance, glacier change