自然资源学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (3): 363-376.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160361

• 资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市建设用地的动态变化态势与调控

方创琳1, 2, 李广东1*, *, 张蔷1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-07 修回日期:2016-06-07 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 作者简介:方创琳(1966-),男,甘肃庆阳人,长江学者特聘教授,博士生导师,近年来主要从事城市发展与规划研究。E-mail:fangcl@igsnrr.ac.cn *通信作者简介:李广东(1986-),副研究员,博士,主要从事城市发展与土地利用变化研究。E-mail:ligd@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国土资源部公益性行业科研专项经费课题(201411014-2)

The Variation Characteristics and Control Measures of theUrban Construction Land in China

FANG Chuang-lin1, 2, LI Guang-dong1, ZHANG Qiang1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2016-04-07 Revised:2016-06-07 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20
  • Supported by:
    Foundation item: Non-profit Industry Financial Program of Ministry of Land and Resources of China, No. 201411014-2.

摘要: 城市建设用地总量及其用地结构动态变化的合理性是衡量一个国家和地区城镇化进程是否健康、城镇化发展质量是否高效的晴雨表。1981—2014年间的35 a来,中国城市建设用地在数量、人均面积和用地扩张弹性系数上均发生了巨大变化,城市建设用地增加了6.44倍,年均净增1 311 km2;人均城市建设用地增加了2.78倍,年均净增2.37 m2;城市建设用地扩张速度明显高于人口增长速度,且呈现出大快大慢的波浪状起伏变化态势。城市建设用地结构总体处在稳定变化的合理区间,东部地区各类城市建设用地总量占全国50%以上,近年呈微降趋势;大中小城市建设用地比例基本保持在50%∶20%∶30%的区间。近35 a来中国城市建设用地扩张存在的主要问题表现为城市建设用地无序蔓延问题严重,人均建设用地居高不下;城市建设用地结构不尽协调,降低了城市用地集约利用效率;城镇化和经济增长过于依赖建设用地,短期难以扭转;新城新区建设过多过大,加剧了城市建设用地的过度扩张。未来中国城市建设用地调控中,要综合防范城市用地无序扩张蔓延,提高土地集约利用水平;优化城市建设用地结构和功能,实现城市精明集约增长;因地因城因类地制订出差别化的建设用地调控措施;进一步科学引导我国新城新区的适度理性建设。

关键词: 城市建设用地, 动态变化态势, 中国, 综合调控

Abstract: The dynamic changes in the total amount and the structure of urban construction land are barometers to measure the health and efficiency of regional urbanization. From 1981 to 2014, vast changes have occurred in quantity, average per capita area and sprawling elastic coefficient of urban construction land in China. The area of urban construction land increased 6.44 times, which means annual increase of 1 311 km2 in the past 35 years. Per capita urban construction land increased 2.78 times, with annual increase of 2.37 m2. The speed of urban construction land expansion was significantly higher than that of population growth, and presented a large undulating change trend. The structure of urban construction land changed stably as a whole. The total amount of various types of urban construction land in the eastern region accounted for over 50% of the whole nation, which decreased slightly in recent years. The proportion of urban construction land of large, medium and small cities in China remained 50%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The main issues of urban construction land expansion in China during the last 35 years are mainly: 1) the urban construction land spread disorderly that lead to high per capita construction land; 2) the structure of urban construction land is not harmonious, which reduce the efficiency of urban land intensive use; 3) the urbanization and economic growth depended overly on construction land, and this trend is difficult to reverse in short term; 4) too many new city zones have been built in recent years and the area is too large, which exacerbated the expansion of urban construction land. Hence, the urban construction land control in China in the future should be preventing the urban sprawl disorderly, raising the level of land intensive use, optimizing the structure and function of urban construction land and making the cities growth intensively, working out the differential control measures according to local conditions, and guiding the new city zones to rational and moderate development.

Key words: China, control measures, urban construction land, variation characteristics

中图分类号: 

  • F293