自然资源学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (1): 86-96.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2007.01.011

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江平原淡水湿地生态系统景观格局特征研究——以洪河湿地自然保护区为例

周德民1,2,4, 宫辉力1,2, 胡金明3, 赵魁义1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所湿地生态与环境重点实验室, 长春 130012;
    2. 首都师范大学资源环境与地理信息系统北京市重点实验室, 北京 100037;
    3. 云南大学亚洲国际河流中心, 昆明 650091;
    4. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2006-04-03 修回日期:2006-11-23 出版日期:2007-02-25 发布日期:2007-02-25
  • 作者简介:周德民(1967-),男,江西德兴人,创新副研究员,在职博士,主要从事湿地环境和遥感地理信息系统 等方面的研究。E-mail:zhoudemin@neigae.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40301001);中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所留学归国人员基金项目(C08y17)

Probe into the Landscape Pattern of Freshwater Wetland Communities—A Case Study in the Honghe National Nature Reserve in Sanjiang Plain,China

ZHOU De-min1,2,4, GONG Hui-li1,2, HU Jin-ming3, ZHAO Kui-yi1   

  1. 1. Key Lab of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun130012, ChinaP ;
    2. Key Lab of Resource, Environment and GIS in Beijing, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037, ChinaP;
    3. Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China;
    4. Graduate University of ChineseAcademy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2006-04-03 Revised:2006-11-23 Online:2007-02-25 Published:2007-02-25

摘要: 对我国所剩为数不多的淡水湿地植物生态系统原生景观结构特征进行定量分析对于湿地保护与恢复具有重要意义。论文以多年期遥感影像提取洪河国家级湿地自然保护区植物分类信息,在GIS支持下,进行了群落、植被型和景观带3个尺度的景观格局分析。结果表明,草甸灌丛景观是研究区的基质性景观,草甸和沼泽湿地共同占据了研究区植被型的核心地位,小叶章-苔草群落则是植物优势群落。植物生态系统空间格局特征表现为:草甸灌丛分布在广阔的河间干湿交替地带,沼泽湿地主要成条带延伸于河道与洼地带,岛状林则出现在地势较高的岗地段,呈断块分布。研究区典型沼泽湿地面积7年间缩小约10%,周边人类活动造成水资源缺失是退化主要驱动因素,应尽早实行以流域为管理单元的自然资源管理体制。

关键词: 湿地, 景观, 格局, 水文生态

Abstract: It is very significant to study both landscape pattern and its structure of plant communities in vast wild freshwater wetlands in China which are few in number.Such a research promotes both protection and restoration of wetlands which are threatened by intensive human activities.By interpreting Multi-temporal TM images,we generate wetland classification information in the HNNR(Honghe National Nature Reserve)in Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China.Furthermore,both landscape pattern and its structure are analyzed at three levels of plant community,vegetation type and landscape with support of GIS technology.Our investigation demonstrates that meadow and shrub have been the basic landscape in the study area,while mire and meadow alike take the core position at vegetation type level as well as Ass.Calamagrostis angustifolia-sundry herbs as dominant plant communities.Our research indicates the spatial pattern of wetland landscape in HNNR as follows:meadow and shrubs are distributed in the wide place of the low gradient riverbank,mire exists in the riverway or low-lying depressions as narrow riparian landscape corridor,while island forests are distributed in the higher areas separately.Our research result also shows that 10% of typical mires area have lost during the last 7 years in the study area,indicating an obvious trend of degradation of mire wetlands,which attributed mainly to the irrigation activities of human beings on farms around HNNR.So the present management unit needs to be reformed into watershed objective constitution for efficient protection of natural resources as an urgent measurement in case of further degeneration.

Key words: wetland, landscape, pattern, eco-hydrology

中图分类号: 

  • P343