• 资源生态 •

### 草原生态补偿：减畜和补偿的对等关系

1. 中国农业大学 人文与发展学院,北京 100193
• 收稿日期:2014-09-23 修回日期:2015-04-07 出版日期:2015-11-14 发布日期:2015-11-14
• 作者简介:胡振通（1985- ）,男,浙江宁波人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为区域经济、草原生态补偿。E-mail: huzhentong1985@163.com *通信作者简介：靳乐山（1965- ）,男,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为资源环境经济与政策。E-mail: Jinls@cau.edu.cn
• 基金资助:

国家社会科学基金项目“草原生态保护补助奖励机制对不同规模牧户的影响研究”（13BJY031）; 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目“京津冀水安全与生态补偿战略研究”（2015TC035）

### Grassland Eco-compensation: Equivalent Relationship between Livestock Reduction and Compensation

HU Zhen-tong, KONG De-shuai, WEI Tong-yang, JIN Le-shan

1. College of Humanities and Development Studies, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
• Received:2014-09-23 Revised:2015-04-07 Online:2015-11-14 Published:2015-11-14

Abstract:

Through the policy instruments of subsidy and reward, the goal of China grassland eco-compensation is to achieve livestock reduction and grassland-livestock balance, eventually to slow down the grassland degradation under the condition of without reducing herders’ income. This paper firstly gives a theoretical framework to analyze the equivalent relationship between livestock reduction and compensation in the grassland eco-compensation scheme, and then conducts empirical study based on the field research in Chaganbulige Town, Siziwang Banner, Inner Monglia. The results show that the actual rate of overgrazing is undervalued by statistic result due to the spatial heterogeneity of overgrazing and the difference between herders. The compensation is not enough for the total area, and the reward for grassland-livestock balance to maintain enough compensation should be 28.5 yuan/hm2. There exists serious non-equivalent relationship between livestock reduction and compensation, herders who do not need to reduce livestock take 47.9% of the funds and 0% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced, herders who need and be willing to reduce livestock take 5.5% of the funds and 1.2% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced, herders who need and be only willing to reduced part of livestock takes 46.6% of the funds and 98.8% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced. The expected proportion of livestock reduction to be achieved is only 8.3%. Due to the significant difference in the degree of overgrazing, the expected proportion of livestock reduction to be achieved is sensitive to neither the reward for grassland-livestock balance nor the loss per sheep unit. In order to achieve the purpose of the grassland ecological protection, to ensure the task of livestock reduction, we should take the degree of overgrazing as one of the elements of reward for grassland-livestock balance. Small and medium-sized holders are the main part of grassland overgrazing, so the true meaning of “taking overgrazing degree as one of the elements of reward for grassland-livestock balance” is “small and medium-sized holders should take more proportion of reward”. Except for the reward for grassland-livestock balance, reducing the number of small and medium-sized holders, expanding the scale of the pasture and promote the moderate scale management is the most important way to realize grassland sustainable development.

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