自然资源学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 895-909.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220405

• 陆海统筹与海岸带空间利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

国土空间规划视角下海洋空间用途管制的关键问题思考

李彦平1,2(), 刘大海1,2(), 姜伟1,2, 池源1,2   

  1. 1.自然资源部第一海洋研究所,青岛 266061
    2.自然资源部海岸带科学与综合管理重点实验室,青岛 266061
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-02 修回日期:2021-10-29 出版日期:2022-04-28 发布日期:2022-06-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘大海(1983- ),男,安徽安庆人,博士,正高级工程师,博士生导师,研究方向为海洋空间规划与政策。E-mail: liudahai@fo.org.cn
  • 作者简介:李彦平(1989- ),男,山东烟台人,硕士,工程师,研究方向为海洋空间规划与用途管制。E-mail: liyanping@fio.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    自然资源部项目(GH0221001);自然资源部项目(GH0321001);国家自然科学基金项目(42071116)

Insights on key issues of marine space use control from the perspective of territorial space planning

LI Yan-ping1,2(), LIU Da-hai1,2(), JIANG Wei1,2, CHI Yuan1,2   

  1. 1. First Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Qingdao 266061, Shandong, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Coastal Science and Integrated Management, MNR, Qingdao 266061, Shandong, China
  • Received:2021-08-02 Revised:2021-10-29 Online:2022-04-28 Published:2022-06-28

摘要:

通过对用途管制的概念比较和内涵延伸分析,明确了海洋空间用途管制的核心内容为规划分区与管制规则。规划分区应具有“区域、边界、用途、使用条件”四个基本属性,并以科学认知海洋的客观属性及演变规律为基础,故基于“双评价”客观认知海洋空间的功能或用途是规划分区的关键。海洋空间用途管制面临的四个基本问题是“如何保护”“如何利用”“如何在保护中利用”“如何在利用中保护”。进而,以“双评价”为基础,构建开发保护二维坐标系,明确海洋空间用途管制的政策取向与内容导向。其中,海洋生态空间管制宜采用“分级+分类”的管制方式,海洋开发利用空间宜采用“分区管理+用海准入”的管制方式。

关键词: 海洋空间用途管制, 国土空间规划, 规划分区, 管制规则

Abstract:

With the deepening of the structural reform of ecological civilization system, the control on the use of territorial space has been widely recognized as a solution to overcome the constraints of resource and environmental factors. Territorial spatial planning and use control features strong correlation, integrity and being carried out in stages, in terms of their content composition, function and implementation process, which makes the formulation of territorial spatial planning an important part in the implementation of use control. Currently, the research on marine spatial planning under the background of territorial spatial planning generally focuses on the integration of the concept and form of land and sea planning, but inadequate consideration of the particularity, complexity and independence of the sea has led to the deficiency of policy basis and technical guidance for the formulation of the sea-related planning in coastal areas. Therefore, it is of practical necessity and urgency to strengthen the study of marine spatial use control under the planning perspective. Through concept comparison and connotation extension analysis of use control, the core content of territorial spatial use control, namely zoning and control rules, is clarified and elaborated: (1) In terms of zoning, a three-level marine spatial zoning system is proposed, considering the compatibility of marine spatial functions/uses, sea-use diversities, the large-scale nature of development and utilization, and the negative regional externalities, etc. Based on the understanding of the purpose and the mechanism of territorial spatial zoning, it is believed that we should established a marine spatial zoning system on the basis of scientific understanding of the objective attributes and evolutionary laws of the ocean, and then put forward the technical logic of three-level marine spatial zoning based on "double evaluation". (2) In terms of control rules, firstly, coordination of the relationship between development and protection is identified as the current core mission of marine spatial use control, and then four basic questions faced are raised, namely, "how to protect", "how to use", "how to use in protection" and "how to protect in use". "Double evaluation" has the characteristics of constraining and developmental coupling in value orientation, which coincidently conforms to the 2-dimensional nature of marine development and protection. Therefore, we create a two-dimensional coordinate system, taking the importance of ecological protection as the vertical axis and the development and utilization demand as the horizontal axis, as a tool to elaborate on the policy and content orientation of the use control in different marine function/use areas. The above research is expected to support the deepening of the theory and technical methods of marine spatial planning and use control.

Key words: marine space use control, land and space planning, zone planning, control rules