自然资源学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 829-849.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220401

• 专家访谈 •    下一篇

海洋生态文明建设背景下的海洋资源经济与海洋战略

李加林1(), 沈满洪2, 马仁锋1, 杨红生3, 陈一宁4, 孙才志5, 刘明6, 韩喜球4, 胡志丁7, 马学广8   

  1. 1.浙江省新型重点专业智库宁波大学东海战略研究院/地理科学与旅游文化学院,宁波 315211
    2.浙江农林大学生态文明研究院/浙江省乡村振兴研究院,杭州 311300
    3.中国科学院海洋研究所,青岛 266071
    4.自然资源部第二海洋研究所,杭州 310012
    5.辽宁师范大学海洋可持续发展研究院,大连 116029
    6.自然资源部海洋战略研究所,北京 100860
    7.华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
    8.南开大学周恩来政府管理学院,天津 300350
  • 收稿日期:2022-01-04 修回日期:2022-01-26 出版日期:2022-04-28 发布日期:2022-06-28
  • 作者简介:李加林(1973- ),男,浙江台州人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事海岸带资源开发与规划管理研究。E-mail: nbnj2001@163.com第一联系人:

    其他作者按访谈内容排序,为共同第二作者。

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41976209);国家自然科学基金项目(71874091)

Marine resource economy and strategy under the background of marine ecological civilization construction

LI Jia-lin1(), SHEN Man-hong2, MA Ren-feng1, YANG Hong-sheng3, CHEN Yi-ning4, SUN Cai-zhi5, LIU Ming6, HAN Xi-qiu4, HU Zhi-ding7, MA Xue-guang8   

  1. 1. Donghai Academy/School of Geographic Science and Tourism Culture, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, China
    2. Institute of Ecological Civilization / Institute of Zhejiang Rural Revitalization, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou 311300, China
    3. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China
    4. Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou 310012, China
    5. Institute of Marine Sustainable Development, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning, China
    6. China Institute of Marine Affairs, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100860, China
    7. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    8. Zhou Enlai School of Government, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China
  • Received:2022-01-04 Revised:2022-01-26 Online:2022-04-28 Published:2022-06-28

摘要:

发展海洋经济,建设海洋强国,需要从国家战略角度关心海洋、认识海洋、经略海洋。为了系统认知海洋生态文明建设背景下我国海洋资源经济与海洋战略,邀请了九位来自海洋相关领域的知名专家,就海洋生态文明建设、海洋国土空间规划、海洋生态牧场建设、海岸带生态修复、海洋战略性新兴产业、海洋科技发展、深海矿产资源开发、海洋地缘政治和中国参与全球海洋治理等前沿研究领域进行了交流访谈。结果认为:(1)海洋生态文明建设是海洋强国建设的重要组成部分,海洋生态文明建设要明确美丽海洋建设目标、掌握海洋生态系统方法、坚持陆海统筹重大谋略、构筑海洋生态文明制度体系。(2)国家海洋空间规划要整合现有涉海规划,合理开发、利用与保护海洋资源,创新规划技术与规划治理理念,强化海洋空间管制指标、海洋空间发展能力和海洋空间治理地方特色机制等方面的创新。(3)海洋牧场建设要聚焦产业链条,推进“全域型”海洋牧场建设;强化原创驱动,构建“全域型”海洋牧场技术体系;倡导融合发展,培育“全域型”海洋牧场新业态。(4)“以自然恢复为主”的海岸带生态修复强调运用陆海交错区域空间布局优化和资源管理优化的技术,充分考虑海岸带生态系统自然恢复的过程和机理,提高生态修复的效率。(5)海洋战略性新兴产业的发展要把握数字经济大势,着力发展智能制造,加快升级产业结构,坚持绿色低碳发展,主动衔接区域战略。(6)海洋科技未来发展的重点任务是聚焦深海、极地战略新领域,提升关键海域实时精细观测和预报能力,聚焦海洋资源、能源集约利用,加强海工装备关键核心技术研发。(7)深海矿产资源开发需加强国际合作,开展多学科调查、长周期监测,加强深海开发技术研发,评估深海采矿环境影响,减少深海开发过程对海洋环境的扰动,实现深海采矿和深海环境保护的协调发展。(8)我国需要实施一种空间差异化且有针对性的海洋地缘战略,服务于台湾统一和领土争端、服务于海洋权益维护和海洋资源利用,服务于海洋运输安全和海洋生态环境安全,并最终服务于海洋命运共同体构建。(9)实施中国海洋空间规划技术输出“走出去”战略、积极推进中国海外园区“节点网络体系”构建战略、实施面向“一带一路”倡议需求的人才培养和实训战略,为全球海洋治理提供必要的空间支点和技术支撑。

关键词: 海洋生态文明, 海洋资源, 海洋经济, 海洋科技, 海洋战略

Abstract:

To develop the marine economy and build a strong marine country, we need to care about, understand and manage the ocean from the perspective of national strategy. In order to systematically understand China's marine resource economy and strategy under the background of marine ecological civilization construction, nine well-known experts from marine-related fields were invited to discuss marine ecological civilization construction, marine land space planning, marine ecological pasture construction, and coastal ecological restoration. They conducted exchanges and interviews in frontier research fields such as marine strategic emerging industries, marine science and technology development, deep-sea mineral resources development, marine geopolitics, and China's participation in global ocean governance. According to their interviews: (1) The construction of marine ecological civilization is an important part of the construction of a powerful marine country. In the construction of marine ecological civilization, we should clarify the goal of building a beautiful ocean, master the methods of marine ecosystems, adhere to the major strategy of coordinating land and sea, and build an institutional system for marine ecological civilization. (2) National marine space planning should integrate existing sea-related plans, rationally develop, utilize and protect marine resources, innovate planning technologies and planning governance concepts, and strengthen marine space control indicators, marine space development capabilities, and local characteristic mechanisms for marine space governance, etc. (3) The construction of marine ranches should focus on the industrial chain and promote the construction of "all-for-one" marine ranches; strengthen the original drive, build an "all-for-all" marine ranch technology system; advocate integrated development and cultivate new "all-for-one" marine ranches. (4) Coastal ecological restoration based on "natural restoration" emphasizes the use of technologies to optimize the spatial layout and resource management of land-ocean staggered areas, fully consider the process and mechanism of natural restoration of coastal ecosystems, and improve the efficiency of ecological restoration. (5) The development of marine strategic emerging industries should grasp the general trend of the digital economy, focus on the development of intelligent manufacturing, accelerate the upgrading of the industrial structure, adhere to green and low-carbon development, and actively connect with regional strategies. (6) The key tasks for the future development of marine science and technology are to focus on the new strategic fields of deep sea and polar regions, improve the real-time fine observation and forecasting capabilities of key sea areas, focus on the intensive use of marine resources and energy, and strengthen the research and development of key core technologies of marine engineering equipment. (7) In the development of deep-sea mineral resources, it is necessary to strengthen international cooperation, carry out multidisciplinary investigation, long-term monitoring, enhance the research and development level of deep-sea development technology, evaluate the environmental impact of deep-sea mining, reduce the disturbance of the deep-sea development process to the marine environment, and realize deep-sea mining and deep-sea environmental protection coordinated development. (8) China should implement a spatially differentiated and targeted marine geostrategy to serve the unification of the motherland, the maintenance of marine rights and interests and the utilization of marine resources, and the safety of marine transportation and ecological environment, so as to ultimately serve the construction of a community with a shared future for the ocean. (9) We should implement the "going out" strategy of China's marine spatial planning technology, actively promote the strategy of building a "node network system" in China's overseas parks, and implement the talent training and training strategy for the needs of the Belt and Road Initiative, in order to provide necessary space fulcrum and technical support for global marine governance.

Key words: marine ecological civilization, marine resources, marine economy, marine science and technology, marine strategy