自然资源学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 568-581.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220302

• 新时期自然资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

新时代生态文明背景下中国草原分区与功能辨析

董世魁1(), 唐芳林2, 平晓燕1, 杨秀春1, 杨智2, 林长存1, 卢欣石1, 王铁梅1, 纪宝明1, 徐斌1, 苏德荣1   

  1. 1.北京林业大学草业与草原学院,北京 100083
    2.国家林业和草原局草原管理司,北京 100714
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-01 修回日期:2021-12-22 出版日期:2022-03-28 发布日期:2022-05-28
  • 作者简介:董世魁(1973- ),男,甘肃和政人,博士,教授,主要从事草地生态保护与恢复研究。E-mail: dongshikui@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合考察研究(2019QZKK0307);国家自然科学基金项目(U20A2007-01);国家林业和草原局重点课题(20212DKT007)

Zoning and functions of China's grassland in the New Era of ecological civilization

DONG Shi-kui1(), TANG Fang-lin2, PING Xiao-yan1, YANG Xiu-chun1, YANG Zhi2, LIN Chang-cun1, LU Xin-shi1, WANG Tie-mei1, JI Bao-ming1, XU Bin1, SU De-rong1   

  1. 1. School of Grassland Sciences, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    2. Grassland Management Department, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing 100714, China
  • Received:2021-03-01 Revised:2021-12-22 Online:2022-03-28 Published:2022-05-28

摘要:

草原是重要的自然资源和生态系统,具有十分重要的生态功能(如水源涵养、水分调节、水土保持、初级生产、气候调节和生物多样保护)和社会经济价值(如牧业生产、牧民生计维持、牧区文化传承等)。科学保护、合理利用和有效恢复是草原资源和生态系统可持续管理的根本基础。2018年国家机构改革后草原主体功能从生产转向生态,草原在生态文明建设中的地位凸显。在新时代生态文明建设快速推进过程中,对标国家“山水林田湖草”生命共同体系统治理的总体战略,聚焦绿色发展和美丽中国建设的基本理念,提出基于地理分异和功能特征的草原分区方案,是推进草原资源高质量管理亟待解决的核心问题之一。利用文献调研、专家问卷调查和会议咨询等方法,构建以“生态保护优先、兼顾绿色发展”为主导思想的中国草原分区体系,提出生态地理单元分异原则、主体功能优先原则、产业布局协调性原则、历史传统相结合原则、行政边界完整性原则,提出了区、亚区和小区三级分区体系的主要指标、命名方式、功能判定及产业布局的厘定方法,将全国草原分为5个区(内蒙古高原草原区、西北山地盆地草原区、青藏高原草原区、东北华北平原山地丘陵草原区、南方山地丘陵草原区)、47个亚区、2899个小区,并给出了不同分区的主导生态功能及产业发展方向。分区结果具有综合性、协调性和时代性,可以为新时代草原生态文明建设和山水林田湖草系统治理提供科学支撑。

关键词: 生态文明, 草原分区, 生态功能, 产业布局

Abstract:

Grasslands in China are key natural resources and ecosystems, which provide very important ecological functions such as primary production, water reservoir and regulation, erosion and dust control, biodiversity conservation, as well as socio-economic values such as sustainable animal husbandry, pastoral livelihood, ethnic culture and tradition. Scientific protection, rational utilization and effective restoration are the fundamental basis for the sustainable grassland resources and ecosystem management. With the reformation of National Forestry and Grassland Administration derived from the re-arrangement of Chinese central government institution and organization in 2018, the position of grasslands in ecological civilization construction in China has been promoted. In the process of ecological civilization construction in the New Era, the regionalized management of grassland resources and ecosystems for high-quality development based on geographical variation and functional characteristics is an emerging issue to be solved. Grassland regionalization in the New Era should be oriented to national strategy of "Systematic Governing Life Community of Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Farmlands, Lakes, and Grasslands", and focused on new concepts of "Green Development" and "Construction of Beautiful China". In this study, methods including literature reviews, professional questionaries and experts consultation were applied to develop China's grassland regionalization system with the guiding ideology "Prioritized Ecological Protection, Coupled Green Development". Five rules include harmony with eco-geographic differentiation, prioritization of key functions, coordination with industry patterns, integration with historical tradition, and integrity of administrative units. The grasslands in China were divided into 5 first-level zones (macro-regions, including Inner Mongolia Plateau Grassland Zone, Northwestern China's Mountain-Basin Grassland Zone, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Grassland Zone, Northeastern and Northern China's Plain-Mountain-Hill Grassland Zone, Southern China's Mountain-Hill Grassland Zone), 47 second-level zones (sub-regions) and 2899 third-level zones (micro-regions). The regionalization was comprehensive, coordinative, and closely linked with the times. The ecological functions and potential industries for development in different zones were proposed so as to provide a sound basis for the grassland ecological civilization construction and holistic governing the mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, and grasslands in China.

Key words: ecological civilization, grassland zoning, ecological function, industry patterns