自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (11): 2892-2912.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211113

• 其他研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

行动者网络视角的生态退化区耕地休耕管护模式——以贵州省松桃县为例

石飞1,2,3,4(), 杨庆媛1,2,3,4(), 王成1,2,3,4, 江娟丽1,2,3,4, 胡蓉1,2,3,4   

  1. 1.西南大学地理科学学院,重庆 400715
    2.西南山地生态循环农业国家级培育基地,重庆 400715
    3.重庆金佛山喀斯特生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站,重庆 400715
    4.西南大学绿色低碳发展研究所,重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-06 修回日期:2020-08-27 出版日期:2021-11-28 发布日期:2022-01-28
  • 通讯作者: 杨庆媛(1966- ),女,云南腾冲人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为国土资源与区域发展、土地经济与政策等。E-mail: yizyang@swu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:石飞(1986- ),男,贵州铜仁人,博士研究生,研究方向为国土资源与区域发展。E-mail: shifei5454@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(15ZDC032);2018年重庆市社会科学规划项目(2018ybgl056);2018年重庆市社会科学规划项目(2018PY60)

Research on the management and protection modes of the cultivated land in fallow in the ecologically-degraded areas from the actor-network perspective: A case study in Songtao county, Guizhou province, China

SHI Fei1,2,3,4(), YANG Qing-yuan1,2,3,4(), WANG Cheng1,2,3,4, JIANG Juan-li1,2,3,4, HU Rong1,2,3,4   

  1. 1. School of Geographic Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    2. State Cultivation Base of Eco-agriculture for Southwest Mountainous Land, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    3. Chongqing Jinfo Mountain Field Scientific Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystem, Chongqing 400715, China
    4. Institute of Green Low-carbon Development, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2020-03-06 Revised:2020-08-27 Online:2021-11-28 Published:2022-01-28

摘要:

近年来,中国将石漠化等生态退化区作为休耕的主要试点类型区之一,该区域人地矛盾突出,休耕试点中多以村委会为休耕管护主体。立足于探索在生态退化区以新型经营主体为休耕管护主体的不同休耕管护模式中遇到的主要问题及其适用的运行条件,运用行动者网络理论,以国家第一批休耕试点的松桃县为案例区,选择5个片区(7个村)为样本,围绕不同休耕试点阶段遇到的主要问题,解析不同休耕管护模式下行动者网络的稳定性以及不同休耕管护模式的特点及其适用性。结果表明:(1)松桃县休耕试点形成了四种休耕管护模式,即模式Ⅰ(种植大户管护)、模式Ⅱ(农民专业合作社管护)、模式Ⅲ(公司/企业管护)和模式Ⅳ(村集体经济合作社管护);不同休耕管护模式下的行动者网络转译过程经历了两个阶段,并且遇到了9个方面的休耕问题,导致试行阶段的行动者网络不太稳定和调整阶段的行动者网络出现了分化,其中“休耕补助大幅减少和现行统一的休耕补助标准”是造成行动者网络分化的主要原因;应当制定有梯度、有弹性的休耕补助标准,加强休耕资金管理,创新投融资方式,加大机械化投入。 (2)休耕行动者网络中,人类行动者的理性行为是休耕试点顺利推进的关键因素,应当因地制宜地选择休耕管护模式及其策略。模式Ⅰ适合农业基础条件较好的坝区,但需要酌情提高现有补助标准;模式Ⅱ适合任何区域,但需要合理分配休耕补助和酌情提高现有补助标准,在做好风险防范措施的前提下,可以种植花生等利润相对较高的作物;模式Ⅲ适合石漠化程度较严重的区域,但需要资金雄厚和与休耕有产业上下游关联的公司/企业参与管护;模式Ⅳ适合土地流转费较低、村干部管理能力较强的偏远落后山区,但休耕区域必须符合休耕要求。(3)无论何种休耕管护模式,在生态严重退化区选取休耕区域,关键在于找准提升地力与农民增收的结合点,同时,严格筛选休耕片区和管控休耕时长,保障复耕后可持续利用休耕地以及做好休耕户转移劳动力就业工作。此外,应当完善乡镇政府、乡镇农业服务中心、村支两委和风险防范体系等休耕相关行动者,进一步提高休耕行动者网络的稳定性。

关键词: 耕地休耕, 生态退化区, 行动者网络理论, 管护模式, 贵州省松桃县

Abstract:

In recent years, the ecologically-degraded areas, such as rocky desertification, have often been taken as one of the main pilot types of the fallow cultivated-land in China, where the conflicts between man and land are prominent and the village committees are responsible for the management and protection in fallow pilot. To explore the main problems arising in the different fallow management and protection modes with the new types of the business entities as the fallow management entity in ecologically degradation area and its applicable operating conditions, on the basis of the actor- network theory, taking Songtao county of the country's first batch of fallow pilot as a case study, with 5 districts (7 villages) selected as samples, this research focuses on the main problems arising in different fallow pilot stages, and analyzes the stability of the actor-network with the different fallow management and protection modes and the characteristics and its applicability of the different fallowing management modes. The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Songtao county witnessed four types of fallow management and protection modes in different stages, that is, Mode I (management and protection by planting peasants), Mode II (management and protection by the cooperatives for some peasants), Mode III (management and protection by some companies or enterprises) and Mode IV (management and protection by the cooperatives of village collectivity). The translation process of the fallow actor-network went through two stages under different fallow management and protection modes, and nine problems arose during fallow period, thus leading to the instability of the actor-network during the trial stage and its divergences during the adjustment stage. It is found that "the substantial reduction in fallow subsidies and the current unified fallow subsidy standards" were the two main factors for the actor- network divergences. It is suggested that a set of flexible, step-by-step fallow subsidy standards should be established, the fund management during fallow period be reinforced, some investment and financing approaches be innovated, and the investment in machinery be promoted. (2) In the fallow actor-network, the rational behavior of human actors was the key to the smooth progress of the fallow pilot, the fallow management and protection modes as well as strategies should be adjusted to local conditions. Mode I is suitable for the dam areas with good agricultural basic conditions, but the existing subsidy standards needs to be raised as appropriate; Mode II suits any area, but needs to allocate fallow subsidies reasonably and raise the existing subsidy standards as appropriate. Some profitable crops such as peanuts can be grown under the premise of taking risk prevention measures; Mode III is more suitable for areas with severe rocky desertification, but the participation requires those companies or enterprises with strong financial foundation and related agricultural industries; Mode IV is more suitable for relatively remote and backward mountainous areas governed by the village officials with strong management capabilities, yet lack of fees for land circulation, on the condition that the basic requirements must be met in these fallow areas. (3) No matter which kind of fallow management and protection mode is adopted, the key to selecting appropriate fallow areas in the severely ecologically-degraded areas is to maintain a balance between improving land fertility and promoting farmers' income, meanwhile to strictly select fallow districts and control the fallow duration, to ensure the sustainable use of fallow cultivated land when it comes to cultivation period again and to make efforts to get the fallow farmers employed. In addition, it is advisable to make improvement in other related fallow actors, such as township governments, agricultural service centers, some committees in villages, and risk prevention systems, in order to further improve the stability of the fallow actor-network.

Key words: cultivated land fallow, ecological degradation areas, actor-network theory, management and protection mode, Songtao county in Guizhou province