自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (9): 2264-2280.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210907

• 国土空间安全规划体系构建 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家安全视角下的我国西部国土空间规划:体系完善与基本导向

杨永春1,2(), 张薇1,3, 曹宛鹏1, 穆焱杰1   

  1. 1.兰州大学资源环境学院,兰州 730000
    2.兰州大学西部环境教育部重点实验室,兰州 730000
    3.内蒙古师范大学旅游学院,呼和浩特 010022
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-03 修回日期:2020-12-06 出版日期:2021-09-28 发布日期:2021-11-28
  • 作者简介:杨永春(1969- ),男,陕西白水人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市与区域发展、转型与规划。E-mail: yangych@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK1005);教育部人文社会科学研究项目(18YJCZH246);国家自然科学基金项目(41971198)

Territory spatial planning of Western China from the perspective of national security: Perfect system and basic orientation

YANG Yong-chun1,2(), ZHANG Wei1,3, CAO Wan-peng1, MU Yan-jie1   

  1. 1. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of West China's Environmental System, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    3. College of Tourism, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022, China
  • Received:2020-07-03 Revised:2020-12-06 Online:2021-09-28 Published:2021-11-28

摘要:

当前,我国国土空间规划自上而下试图从宏观层面尽可能解决或缓解自改革开放以来所面临的生态环境问题、资源约束、人地关系冲突、多头管理、规划权威性等关键问题。我国国土规划的体系、架构和技术条例等迄今已形成相对科学合理的“共性”规范,但在战略层面讨论面向未来国家安全背景下的地域“个性”问题仍较缺乏。面对国家需求和西部特殊情境,应考虑建立基于国家安全考量的跨省区、跨流域的西部国土空间规划。在战略层面,为保障国家安全,此规划应着重考虑:(1)理论上,基于国家安全视角应建立跨省区、跨流域的西部国土空间规划体系;(2)实践中,建议制定西部空间尺度的以生态区、自然保护区为核心的“西部国土空间规划—生态安全”专项规划,以边境线、支撑线为规划脉络的“西部国土空间规划—生存安全”专项规划(或在规划中明确“国防安全细则”),依托主要交通线以城镇体系为组织脉络的“西部国土空间规划—生活安全”专项规划(或在规划中明确“西部和谐社会建设细则”),遵循主体功能区且以区域性中心城市、城市群等为中心的“西部国土空间规划—生产安全”专项规划(或“西部经济高质量发展规划”),重构生态空间、生存空间、生活空间、生产空间;(3)特别建议强化边疆城镇/村寨建设,设立新时代“大三线建设”——西部“环青藏高原重点建设带”,以应对后疫情时期有限全球化和“双循环”现实的可能的国家安全需求。整体上,西部情境特殊,其国土空间规划与东中部应有差异,切忌一刀切。

关键词: 国家安全, 国土空间规划, 跨省区理念, 四大空间, 差异化需求, 中国西部地区

Abstract:

At present, China's territory spatial planning attempts from top to bottom to resolve or relieve the key issues from macro level as far as possible which has arisen since the reform and opening-up such as the ecological environment, resources restriction, the conflict of man-land relationship, multiple management and the authority of spatial plans. Although China's territory spatial planning system, organization framework and technical regulation have so far formed relatively reasonable "universality" norms, at the strategic level, the discussion of regional "individuality" issues in the context of national security is still lacking. Facing the needs of the country and the special situation of Western China, we should establish a cross- province and cross-basin territory spatial planning of this region based on national security strategies. To ensure national security, territory spatial planning of Western China at the strategic level should focus on the following: (1) In theory, based on the perspective of national security, we proposed to construct the cross-province and cross-basin territory spatial planning of Western China. (2) In practice, we recommend formulating the "territory spatial planning of Western China-ecological security" of specialized national territory spatial planning which takes ecological zone, nature reserve as the core in spatial scale. What's more, based on the border and support line, we should carry out "territory spatial planning of Western China-survival security" of specialized national territory spatial planning, or determine the detailed rules and regulations of national defense security in spatial planning. In addition, taking the urban system as the organizational context, we should set up "territory spatial planning of Western China-life security" of specialized national territory spatial planning which is relying on main transportation lines, or determine the detailed rules and regulations of the harmonious society construction in Western China. Besides, following the divisions of the Main Functional Areas, we should formulate "territory spatial planning of Western China-production security" of specialized national territory spatial planning which is focusing on the regional central city and urban agglomeration, or determine the high-quality economic development in the western region. We should also restructure the ecological space, survivable space, living space and production space. (3) In particular, we recommended strengthening the construction of border towns or villages, and establishing the "sanxian" (three lines) construction in the New Era, "the key construction belt around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau" in the western region, which can meet the national security needs of limited globalization and achieve "dual circulation pattern" in the post-epidemic period. On the whole, the territory spatial planning of Western China should be different from that of the eastern and central regions. We should not impose uniformity on the implementation of the policies.

Key words: national security, territory spatial planning, inter-provincial concept, ecological-survivable-living-production space, differentiated demand, Western China