自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (8): 2163-2178.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210819

• 其他研究论文 • 上一篇    

过去300年台湾省耕地面积时空变化重建

杨绪红(), 薛樵风, 周寅康   

  1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-20 修回日期:2020-04-06 出版日期:2021-08-28 发布日期:2021-10-28
  • 作者简介:杨绪红(1988- ),男,湖南湘潭人,博士,助理研究员,主要从事土地利用与国土规划、空间建模研究。E-mail: yangxhnju@nju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41801065)

Reconstruction of farmland dataset of Taiwan province in recent 300 years

YANG Xu-hong(), XUE Qiao-feng, ZHOU Yin-kang   

  1. School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2019-11-20 Revised:2020-04-06 Online:2021-08-28 Published:2021-10-28

摘要:

作为拓垦过程和人地交互作用显著的代表性区域,对台湾省历史耕地时空变化重建的研究,有利于深化对海峡两岸历史土地变化过程特征、差异和规律的认识。基于历史文献和统计年鉴,以历史人口数据为代用资料,分析了耕地和人口记录特征后,综合采用引用替代、线性内插、隐匿系数修正法、人均耕地系数法和余粮规模检验等方法,估算和订正了近300年来中国台湾省历史耕地的时空变化。结果表明:(1)台湾省耕地总量,由荷据时期的0.91×104 hm2增长到当前的79.30×104 hm2,增加了近86.60倍,阶段特征大体呈先增加后持续减少的态势,清前中期呈平稳低速增长,日据时期呈快速波动增长,国民党治台后中前期呈波动缓慢增长,中后期呈逐步降低态势。(2)百年尺度下,台湾省水田和旱田变化规律存在明显差异;水田规模呈先增加再波动后逐步减少的态势,旱田呈先增加再减少而后逐步增加的态势;1931年以前,旱田比例均高于水田,峰值期高了3%~5%;之后,水田比例超过旱地,居于优势地位,1936—1965年水田比例平均高于旱田22.23%。(3)台湾省的土地垦殖过程具有空间拓展性和区域不平衡性,土地开垦经历了由点到面、由南到北、由西往东的发展过程;台南地区是最先被开垦的区域,其后依次是台中和台北,台东地区是最后才被垦殖的区域;台南地区的垦殖强度一直高于其他地区,最高时达36.71%。(4)HYDE数据集与本文结果均呈逐步上升态势,但两者耕地规模和变化过程差异显著,国际数据集并不能反映近300年来台湾省耕地变化的客观史实。

关键词: 土地利用与覆被变化, 耕地重建, 土地垦殖, 台湾省

Abstract:

Taiwan is a representative region of the land reclamation and the intensive human-environment interaction. The study on the reconstruction of the spatial and temporal change of historical farmland in this province can deepen the understanding of the characteristics, differences and rules of the historical land change process on both Taiwan and the mainland. Based on historical literature and statistical yearbooks, this study uses population data to analyze the characteristics of farmland and population records. Then it comprehensively adopts methods such as citation substitution, linear interpolation, occult coefficient correction method and per capita farmland coefficient method to estimate and correct the spatial and temporal changes of historical farmland in Taiwan province in the past 300 years after verifying the surplus food quantity. The results are shown as follows: (1) The total amount of farmland in Taiwan increased from 0.91×104 hm2 in the Dutch occupation period to the current 79.30×104 hm2, up nearly 86.60 times. The stage characteristics generally increased first and then continued to decrease. In the middle and early periods of the Qing Dynasty, it showed steady and low-speed growth. During the Japanese occupation period, it showed rapid fluctuations. Then it experienced a slow fluctuation in the middle and early periods of the Republic of China, and gradually declined in the middle and late periods of the Republic of China. (2) On a 100-year scale, there are significant differences in the rules of change between paddy fields and dry fields in Taiwan; the amount of paddy fields increased first and then gradually decreased after volatility. However, the dry farmland increased first and then decreased and then gradually increased. Before 1931, the proportion of dry farmland was higher than that of paddy fields, and its peak period witnessed 3% to 5% higher; then the proportion of paddy fields exceeded that of dry farmland and was in an advantageous position. The average proportion of paddy fields from 1936 to 1965 was 22.23% higher than that of dry fields. (3) The land reclamation process in Taiwan has represented the imbalance between spatial expansion and regional expansion. Land reclamation experienced the development process from one region to the whole area of Taiwan Island, that is, from the south to the north, and from the west to the east. Tainan was the first region to be reclaimed, followed by Taichung and Taipei districts, and the Taitung region was the last one to be reclaimed. The reclamation intensity in Tainan was higher than that in the rest, with a maximum of 36.71%. (4) The HYDE dataset and the results of this study are gradually increasing, but the difference between the farmland area and the change process is significant. The international dataset does not reflect the objective historical facts of the change of farmland in Taiwan in the past 300 years.

Key words: land use and cover change, farmland reconstruction, land reclamation, Taiwan province