自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (7): 1844-1860.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210715

• “全球水资源危机与水政治”专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

全球跨界水合作的时空结构:领域变迁与尺度分异

翟晨阳1,2,3(), 杜德斌1,2,3(), 侯纯光1,2,3, 桂钦昌1,2, 段德忠1,2   

  1. 1.华东师范大学全球创新与发展研究院,上海 200062
    2.华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200062
    3.华东师范大学国家教育宏观政策研究院,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-08 修回日期:2020-03-03 出版日期:2021-07-28 发布日期:2021-09-28
  • 通讯作者: 杜德斌(1963-),男,湖北宜昌人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事世界地理与地缘政治研究。E-mail: dbdu@re.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:翟晨阳(1992-),女,陕西宝鸡人,博士研究生,主要从事世界经济地理与地缘政治研究。E-mail: cyzhai@stu.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA20100311)

The spatio-temporal structure of international transboundary water cooperation: Based on the changes of issue area and scale differentiation

ZHAI Chen-yang1,2,3(), DU De-bin1,2,3(), HOU Chun-guang1,2,3, GUI Qin-chang1,2, DUAN De-zhong1,2   

  1. 1. Institute for Global Innovation and Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    3. National Institutes of Educational Policy Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2020-01-08 Revised:2020-03-03 Online:2021-07-28 Published:2021-09-28

摘要:

在当前全球性淡水危机加剧、水冲突频发的背景下,跨界水合作成为化解水危机,实现国家间和平可持续发展的关键。利用跨界水条约数据,基于网络视角,从全球尺度、区域尺度与国家尺度对跨界水合作的时空结构进行研究。结论如下:(1)1820—2017年全球跨界水合作持续增多,覆盖范围明显扩大,合作领域从边界与水量向联合管理与水质保护转变,合作目的由以规管性为主导向规管性、程序性和原生性并进转变。多边合作与跨界地下水合作是当前全球跨界水合作的发展趋势。(2)同一时期五大洲跨界水合作发展进程与侧重领域存在较大差异;尽管全球跨界水合作网络涵盖的流域与国家日益增多,但其流域覆盖率仍较低。(3)1820—2017年全球跨界水合作网络大致经历了“网络形成—网络扩张—网络分化”三个阶段;欧洲国家间的跨界水合作联系相对较强,亚洲国家在跨界水合作网络中也愈发活跃,区域性与全球性并存是当前跨界水合作网络的重要特征。伴随着亚洲国家日益增长的跨界水合作需求,中国应充分发挥负责任的发展中大国的作用,加强与周边国家的跨界水合作,不断提升自身在全球跨界水资源合作领域的地位。

关键词: 跨界水合作, 国际淡水条约, 领域变迁, 尺度分异, 网络分析

Abstract:

Since the international water crisis intensified, transboundary water cooperation has become the key to resolving the water crisis and achieving peaceful and sustainable development among countries. This study built international transboundary water cooperation networks based on transboundary water agreements, and used social network analysis and other methods to examine the spatial and temporal structure of transboundary water cooperation from the global, intercontinental and national scales. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The number of international transboundary water cooperation projects increased from 1820 to 2017, and the scope of cooperation expanded significantly. The cooperation issue area changed from border issues and water quantity to joint management and water quality. The purpose of the agreements changed from regulatory to generative, procedural and regulatory. Multilateral cooperation and transboundary groundwater cooperation are the current development trends in international transboundary water cooperation. (2) During the same period, there were differences in the development process and focus areas of transboundary water cooperation among the five continents. Europe and North America were dominated by water quality, Africa and South America were dominated by joint management, and Asia had similar cooperation proportions in three areas: water quality, water quantity and joint management. Although the global transboundary water cooperation network covers more and more basins and countries, its coverage rate is still low. (3) The international transboundary water cooperation networks from 1820 to 2017 experienced three stages, namely, network formation, network expansion, and network differentiation. North American countries have a high degree of transboundary water cooperation, but due to geographical constraints, their cooperation targets are relatively single. After World War II, African countries have gradually dominated in the network. Since 1992, Asian countries have been increasingly active in the transboundary water cooperation network. The demand for transboundary water cooperation in Asian countries is growing. China, as a large responsible developing country, should strengthen transboundary water cooperation with neighboring countries, and actively promote transboundary water cooperation in Asia.

Key words: transboundary water cooperation, international freshwater agreements, changes of issue area, scale differentiation, network analysis