自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 1136-1148.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210504

• "中国'三生空间'统筹优化的方法与实践"专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于“三生”视角的中国林地分类提取

于竹筱1,2(), 张红旗1, 许尔琪1()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-06 修回日期:2020-08-11 出版日期:2021-05-28 发布日期:2021-07-28
  • 通讯作者: 许尔琪(1986- ),男,广东汕头人,博士,副研究员,研究方向为土地系统空间格局及生态环境效应。E-mail: xueq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:于竹筱(1993- ),女,山东威海人,博士研究生,研究方向为土地利用变化。E-mail: yzxiao111@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA19040305);2018年广东高校省级重点平台和重大科研项目(2018KTSCX216)

Classification and extraction of forest land in China based on the perspective of "Production-Living-Ecology"

YU Zhu-xiao1,2(), ZHANG Hong-qi1, XU Er-qi1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-05-06 Revised:2020-08-11 Online:2021-05-28 Published:2021-07-28

摘要:

林地具有多重功能,在生态优先区和生产生活区承担不同功能。传统林地分类难以兼顾区域主导功能和开发保护定位,且对不同功能区内林地的时空特征尚缺乏定量刻画。建立基于“生产—生活—生态”视角的林地分类,利用土地利用图、功能区划、植被物候特征和统计数据,使用专题图叠加、遥感识别和决策树分类技术,提取林地各类型。结果表明:2018年中国林地遥感面积为228.18万km 2,1990—2018年生态优先区域林地减少2.49万km 2,2000年后降速变缓;防风固沙、水源涵养和土壤保持区等核心生态功能区内局部林地增加,主要位于内蒙古部分草原和沙区、河北西北部和黄土高原;东北地区、西南喀斯特区和新疆北部的林地转换为耕地和草地,生物多样性保护区内林地降幅最小;用材林地在2010年后减少变缓,园地扩大主要来自东南地区的耕地和用材林,城市林地在广东、浙江、江苏和北京迅速增加。研究表明,发挥核心生态功能的林地在生态修复工程范围和自然保护区内局部恢复,但剧烈的人为扰动仍导致其面积整体降幅较大。建议分区域差异化恢复生态林地、提升主导生态价值。

关键词: “三生”用地;, 林地分类, 时空分异, 中国

Abstract:

Forest land has multiple functions. In ecological, production or living priority areas, forest land plays different roles. The traditional forest land classification is difficult to take into account the regional dominant function and development orientation. There is still a lack of quantitative description of the spatial and temporal characteristics of forest land in different functional areas. This paper establishes a forest land classification system based on the perspective of "Production-Living-Ecology". Using land use map, functional zoning, vegetation phenological characteristics and statistical data, through thematic map superposition, remote sensing recognition and decision tree classification technology, various types of forest land are extracted. The results show that from 1990 to 2018, forest land in ecological priority area decreased by 24900 km 2, but decreased slowly after 2000, and that the remote sensing area of forest land in China in 2018 was 2.2818 million km 2. Local forest lands in core ecological functional areas such as wind prevention and sand fixation, water conservation and soil conservation areas were expanded, mainly in some grasslands and sandy areas in Inner Mongolia, Northwest Hebei and the Loess Plateau. In the Northeast Region, Southwest Region and Northern Xinjiang, forest land was converted into cultivated land or grassland. The decrease of forest land in biodiversity reserve was the smallest. The timber land decreased slowly after 2010. The garden land expanded rapidly in the southeast, mainly from timber land and cultivated land. The urban forest land is increasing rapidly in Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Beijing. The study shows that forest land with core ecological function is partially restored in the scope of the ecological restoration project and nature reserve, but the severe man-made disturbance still leads to a large decrease in its overall area. It is suggested that the ecological forest land should be restored and the dominant ecological value should be promoted according to regional differences.

Key words: "Production-Living-Ecology" land, forest land classification, spatio-temporal differentiation, China