自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 1102-1115.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210502

• "中国'三生空间'统筹优化的方法与实践"专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

“半个地球”愿景下的保护地识别——基于全球主要优先保护模块

王博宇1,2(), 闫慧敏1,2(), 胡云锋1,2, 封志明1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-28 修回日期:2020-07-10 出版日期:2021-05-28 发布日期:2021-07-28
  • 通讯作者: 闫慧敏(1974- ),女,内蒙古锡林郭勒人,博士,副研究员,研究方向为土地利用与生态系统变化。E-mail: yanhm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:王博宇(1996- ),男,河北石家庄人,硕士,研究方向为自然资源学。E-mail: wangby.19s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项A类(XDA19040301);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项A类(XDA20010202)

Identification of protected areas under the "Half Earth" target: Based on main global conservation priorities

WANG Bo-yu1,2(), YAN Hui-min1,2(), HU Yun-feng1,2, FENG Zhi-ming1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-04-28 Revised:2020-07-10 Online:2021-05-28 Published:2021-07-28

摘要:

设立保护地是保护生物多样性的最有效举措。“半个地球”愿景提出将50%的面积纳入保护地,并有效保护85%的物种,是全球生态保护的目标。IUCN保护地分类系统是国际通用的标准,一系列优先保护模块研究则对保护地的识别进行着探索。本文旨在通过对这些模块的保护目标、识别标准等进行分析,为保护地科学识别提供合理参考。主要结论如下:(1)物种、栖息地与人类活动是各模块的主要考虑要素,识别标准包括物种丰富度、生境转变率、人类活动强度等;(2)各模块对生境转变率的考虑有“亡羊补牢”和“未雨绸缪”两种思路,对人类活动强度的考虑有直接和间接之分;(3)各模块分布面积占比在5.77%~25.32%之间,总范围占全球陆表的55.59%,超过了“半个地球”愿景的目标比例。

关键词: 生物多样性, “半个地球”愿景;, 保护地, 优先保护模块, 物种丰富度, 生境完整性, 人类活动

Abstract:

Based on the principle of ecosystem integrity, the establishment of protected areas is the most effective measure for biodiversity conservation. The "Half Earth" target addresses that the global protected area should account for 50% of the total surface area, and 85% of the global species should be effectively protected. We consider the target as a proper goal of the international biodiversity conservation, especially the proportion of species protected. Although there exists a worldwide recognized classification of protected areas developed by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), such classification cannot exactly tell us the proper locations and distributions of protected areas, and most of the existing protected areas are still the result of subjective judgment and selection. Based on various protection objects and identification criteria, many researchers have defined some conservation priorities around the world in the past few years, all of which could be regarded as valuable examples of scientific identification of protected areas, to provide some efficient references. Through comprehensive comparison and analysis of these conservation priorities, including their protection objects, identification criteria and distributions, this paper draws the following conclusions: (1) Species, habitat integrity and human activities are the main considerations when such conservation priorities were proposed, and the identification criteria include species richness (species abundance), habitat transformation and human activity intensity. Nowadays, with the international focus and research on protected areas going further, the integration of criteria has gradually become a new trend in the identification of protected areas. (2) The consideration of habitat transformation includes two different ideas: "mending for the past", which means that the habitats which have been transformed much should be protected, or "preparing for the future", which means the habitats that still remain original should be protected in case of being transformed, whereas the human activities can be direct or indirect. (3) The distributions of conservation priorities are quite different, with their proportions ranging from 5.77% to 25.32%, and the total distribution area accounts for 55.59% of the global land, exceeding the "Half Earth" target.

Key words: biodiversity, "Half Earth" target, protected areas, conservation priorities, species richness, habitat integrity, human activities