自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 435-448.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210213

• 其他研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

景观规划导向的绿色基础设施研究进展——基于“格局—过程—服务—可持续性”研究范式

李凯1(), 侯鹰2(), Hans Skov-Petersen1, Peter S. Andersen1   

  1. 1.哥本哈根大学地理科学与自然资源管理系,哥本哈根 1165
    2.中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室,北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-27 修回日期:2020-02-03 出版日期:2021-02-28 发布日期:2021-04-28
  • 通讯作者: 侯鹰 E-mail:likai4699@foxmail.com;yinghou@rcees.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:李凯(1992- ),男,山东日照人,博士研究生,研究方向为风景园林规划与设计、生态系统服务。E-mail: likai4699@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41601556)

Research progress of green infrastructure oriented by landscape planning: From the perspective of "pattern-process-services-sustainability"research paradigm

LI Kai1(), HOU Ying2(), HANS Skov-Petersen1, PETER S. Andersen1   

  1. 1. Geosciences and Natural Resources Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK 1165, Denmark
    2. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2019-06-27 Revised:2020-02-03 Online:2021-02-28 Published:2021-04-28
  • Contact: HOU Ying E-mail:likai4699@foxmail.com;yinghou@rcees.ac.cn

摘要:

中国目前处于新型城镇化与生态文明建设的重要时期,引入绿色基础设施(Green Infrastructure,GI)规划框架对协调城市发展与生态保护具有重要意义。基于景观生态学中“格局—过程—服务—可持续性”研究范式,对近年来中国内外GI规划进行针对性综述,利用该范式对相关研究的理论来源与进展进行梳理。研究表明:GI格局研究中,景观格局指数是应用最为广泛的方法。针对于景观连接度,形态学空间格局分析等结构连接度评价方法具有计算简单、适用性广的优势,但缺乏明确的生态学含义;图论等功能连接度则针对特定的生态过程,是GI格局与生态过程的重要联系,将是下一步研究重点。GI生态过程研究借鉴生态网络的理论与方法,其规划步骤可分为核心区选取、阻力面构建、潜在廊道识别三部分。GI生态系统服务研究中,生物物理量模型与经济计量模型广泛应用于调节、供给与支持服务评价中,而文化服务评价则将问卷调查作为基础数据获取的重要途径。另外,生态系统服务需求研究涉及到生态系统服务的实际需求与使用偏好,相关定量评价方法以及成果的实际应用有待进一步探索。GI景观可持续性研究中,在明晰GI提供的生态系统服务总量的基础上,服务间权衡与协同效应已成为GI规划中的重要考量,而情景规划可以有效模拟GI生态系统服务的动态变化。最后,GI规划应将提升景观可持续性作为规划目标,据此研究提出了重视格局与过程相互影响机制的基础研究、加深GI生态系统服务需求端研究、明晰生态系统服务间协同与权衡效应、将GI与实际规划结合四项研究展望。

关键词: 风景园林, 景观生态学, 格局—过程—服务—可持续性, 绿色基础设施

Abstract:

China is in the important period of New-type Urbanization and ecological civilization construction, and introducing green infrastructure planning framework is of great significance in urban development and ecological protection. Based on "pattern-process-services-sustainability" landscape ecology paradigm, this study reviewed Chinese and international research on green infrastructure (GI) in the landscape scale in recent years. Results show that, in terms of the research on GI pattern, landscape pattern metric method is still the most common one. For landscape connectivity, the structural connectivity method such as Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis has advantages of calculating simplification and high applicability, but it lacks clear ecological meanings. However, the functional connectivity method including graph theory serves specific ecological process, which will be research core in the future. Research on GI process focuses on biological migration based on the theory and method of ecological network, and its planning process can be divided into 3 parts: selection of core areas, construction of resistance surface and identification of potential corridors. In terms of research on GI ecosystem services, biophysical model and economic value model are widely used in the evaluation of regulating, provisioning and supporting services, and cultural services evaluation takes human feeling derived from questionnaire surveys as the basic data. Additionally, research on demand for ecosystem services involves real consumption and preference of ecosystem services, and its quantitative evaluation and planning application should be further explored. In terms of research on GI landscape sustainability, based on identification of the total amount of ecosystem services provided by GI, trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services have been taken into consideration in GI planning, and scenario planning can simulate dynamics of GI ecosystem services. Finally, landscape sustainability should be set as the ultimate objective of GI planning, and then 4 research prospects were put forward, including: paying attention to basic research on interaction of pattern and process, deepening research on demand of GI ecosystem services, identifying trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services and connecting GI with practical planning.

Key words: landscape architecture, landscape ecology, pattern-process-services-sustainability, green infrastructure planning