自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 69-86.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210105

• 城镇聚落历史演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

历史时期黄河流域城市空间格局演变与影响因素

王长松(), 段蕴歆, 张然   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院历史地理研究所,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-08 修回日期:2020-07-13 出版日期:2021-01-28 发布日期:2021-03-28
  • 作者简介:王长松(1980- ),男,河北高阳人,博士,研究员,博士生导师,研究方向为城市与区域历史地理。E-mail:wchs@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(14CZS036)

Spatial pattern evolution of cities and influencing factors in the historical Yellow River Basin

WANG Chang-song(), DUAN Yun-xin, ZHANG Ran   

  1. Institute of Historical Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2020-06-08 Revised:2020-07-13 Online:2021-01-28 Published:2021-03-28

摘要:

研究历史时期黄河流域城市的空间格局演变,能够更好地理解人居环境的特点和发展脉络,对当今黄河流域生态保护、城镇发展有重要的现实价值。采用哈佛大学CHGIS数据库中城市时间序列数据,以及历史人口数据、流域和高程数据,通过实证分析,梳理黄河流域城市时空格局演变过程与影响因素。研究发现:(1)城市数量变化可划分为五个阶段。(2)一级延续稳定区,以今安阳为中心的河南北部城市高密集区和以今西安为中心的关中城市高密集区;以今济南、太原、洛阳为中心的次高密集区。二级延续稳定区分为五条重要的城市带,即渭河城市带、汾河城市带、鲁中山地北麓城市带、太行山东麓城市带及运河城市带。(3)城市重心迁移的平均距离为32 km,人口重心迁移的平均距离为95.78 km,城市和人口的分布有着较密切的联系。(4)气温、降水、高程、与河流的距离、黄河下游河道的变迁等自然因素,以及战争、都城转移和人工运河等人文因素共同影响了历史时期黄河流域城市的时空格局。

关键词: 历史时期, 城市时空分布, 城市延续稳定区, 影响因素, 黄河流域

Abstract:

The spatial pattern evolution of the cities in the historical Yellow River Basin will help us understand the characteristics and development context of human settlements, which plays a key role in ecological protection and urban development in the Yellow River Basin today. This article uses the time series data of cities (BC763-AD1911) in the CHGIS database of Harvard University, the elevation data of STRM, the regional data of nine major basins in China, and the historical population data. It studies the spatio-temporal pattern evolution of cities in the Yellow River Basin, as well as the influencing factors. The results show that: (1) The changes in the number of cities can be divided into five stages. (2) The first level continous stable region includes the high-density urban area in northern Henan with present Anyang as the center, high-density urban area in Guanzhong with present Xi'an as the center, and the secondary high-density area with Jinan, Taiyuan and Luoyang as the center. The second level continuous stable region includes five important city belts, namely, Weihe River city belt, Fenhe River city belt, northern foot city belt of central Shandong mountainous region, eastern foot city belt of Taihang Mountains and Grand Canal city belt. (3) The average distance of city gravity migration is 32 km, and the average distance of population gravity migration is 95.78 km. The distribution of cities and population is closely related. (4) Natural factors such as temperature and precipitation, elevation, distance from the rivers, downstream avulsions of the Yellow River, as well as human factors such as wars, capital transfer and canals, had jointly influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of cities in the Yellow River Basin.

Key words: historical period, cities spatio-temporal distribution, continous stable region of administrative cities, influencing factor, Yellow River Basin