自然资源学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 1-26.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210101

• 专家笔谈 •    下一篇

黄河流域人居环境的地方性与适应性:挑战和机遇

汪芳1(), 苗长虹2, 刘峰贵3, 陈兴鹏4, 米文宝5, 海春兴6, 段德罡7, 王金平8, 张占仓9, 王成新10   

  1. 1.北京大学建筑与景观设计学院/NSFC-DFG城镇化与地方性合作小组,北京 100871
    2.河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心暨黄河文明省部共建协同创新中心,开封 475001
    3.高原科学与可持续发展研究院/青海师范大学地理科学学院,西宁 810008
    4.兰州大学县域经济发展研究院(乡村振兴战略研究院)/兰州大学资源环境学院,兰州 730000
    5.宁夏大学资源环境学院,银川 750021
    6.内蒙古师范大学地理科学学院,呼和浩特 010022
    7.西安建筑科技大学建筑学院/陕西省村镇建设研究中心,西安 710055
    8.太原理工大学建筑学院,太原 030024
    9.河南省社会科学院,郑州 450002
    10. 山东师范大学地理与环境学院/山东省高校人地协调与绿色发展协同创新中心,济南 250358
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-20 修回日期:2020-08-03 出版日期:2021-01-28 发布日期:2021-03-28
  • 作者简介:汪芳(1973- ),女,湖南衡山人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城乡建成环境的地方性和适应性。E-mail:wfphd@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中德科学中心NSFC-DFG中德合作研究小组项目(GZ1457);国家自然科学基金项目(41430637)

The locality and adaptability of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin: Challenges and opportunities

WANG Fang1(), MIAO Chang-hong2, LIU Feng-gui3, CHEN Xing-peng4, MI Wen-bao5, HAI Chun-xing6, DUAN De-gang7, WANG Jin-ping8, ZHANG Zhan-cang9, WANG Cheng-xin10   

  1. 1. College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture/NSFC-DFG Sino-German Cooperation Group on Urbanization and Locality, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development & Collaborative Innovation Center on Yellow River Civilization, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
    3. Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability/College of Geographic Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
    4. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    5. School of Resource and Environment, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China
    6. College of Geography Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022, China
    7. School of Architecture, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology/Shaanxi Village and Town Construction Research Center, Xi'an 710055, China
    8. College of Architecture, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
    9. Henan Academy of Social Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China
    10. College of Geography and Environment/Collaborative Innovation Center of Human-Nature and Green Development in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
  • Received:2020-07-20 Revised:2020-08-03 Online:2021-01-28 Published:2021-03-28

摘要:

黄河流域由于自然环境、地理区位的特殊性,其人居环境处于不断变化的复杂过程中,并且始终面临着严峻挑战。而人居环境空间与自然、社会各要素的耦合过程,源于人地关系变化进程中呈现出的动态、综合、系统性的适应机制。因而揭示系统适应性机制是解决黄河流域人居环境困境的关键。为此,本文以“地方性与适应性”为视角,邀请来自黄河流域青海、甘肃、宁夏、内蒙古、陕西、山西、河南、山东等省区的专家学者,从自然地理、社会经济、城乡发展、遗产保护等视角解读黄河流域的人居环境特征,并为适应中国新型城镇化路径寻找可持续策略。核心观点如下:总体而言,黄河流域的人居环境适应性具有多尺度空间关联性和历史地理依赖性;黄河流域承担着重要的生态功能,但不同区段的自然环境面临着土地盐碱化、水土流失、环境污染等问题,需要推动人地耦合关系的绿色化;黄河流域特别是上游沿线聚落具有鲜明的开放性、民族文化多样性和交融性特色,多民族协同共荣发展是必由之路;黄河中上游因复杂的自然环境形成了窑洞等特殊的聚落空间,在快速城镇化进程中面临着转变和消失,留住传统聚落的文化基因,亟需分级分类推进其演化进程;黄河流域城市群的内外辐射带动是流域全境高质量发展的基础,城市结构的优化提升是推动高质量发展的重要途径,实现可持续发展还需要科技创新和产业结构转型升级。

关键词: 人居环境, 地方性, 适应性, 可持续发展, 黄河流域

Abstract:

Due to the particularity of natural environment and geographical location, the human settlement environment of the Yellow River Basin is in a complex process of constant changes and is always facing severe challenges. The coupling process of human environment space with natural and social elements originates from the dynamic, comprehensive and systematic adaptation mechanism presented in the process of human-land relationship change, so revealing the system adaptation mechanism is the key to solve the human environment dilemma in the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, based on the perspective of "locality and adaptability", this paper invited experts and scholars from Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong along the Yellow River and other provinces. They interpreted the characteristics of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of natural geography, social economy, urban and rural development, and heritage protection, and sought sustainable strategies to adapt to China's new urbanization path. The main points are stated as follows: On the whole, the adaptability of human settlements in the study area has multi-scale spatial correlation and historical geographic dependence. The Yellow River Basin has an important ecological function, but the natural environment in different regions is facing such problems as land salinization, soil erosion and pollution, etc., so it is necessary to promote the greening of human-land coupling relationship. The Yellow River Basin, especially the cities along the upper reaches of the river, have distinct characteristics of openness, ethnic cultural diversity and integration. Due to the complex natural environment, caves and other special settlements have been formed in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River. In the process of rapid urbanization, they are faced with transformation and disappearance, retaining the cultural genes of traditional settlements, and it is urgent to classify and treat them differently to promote their healthy evolution. The internal and external radiation drive of urban agglomeration in the Yellow River Basin is the foundation of high-quality development throughout the river basin, and the optimization and upgrading of urban structure is an important way to promote high-quality development. To achieve sustainable development, scientific and technological innovation and industrial structure transformation and upgrading are also needed.

Key words: human settlement, locality, adaptability, sustainable development, Yellow River Basin