自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (7): 1556-1569.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200704

• “旅游资源与国家战略”专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游资源及其评价过程与机制:技术性评价到社会建构视角

保继刚1,2, 陈苑仪2,3, 马凌4   

  1. 1. 中山大学旅游学院,广州 510275;
    2. 中山大学旅游发展与规划研究中心,广州 510275;
    3. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275;
    4. 广州大学地理科学学院,广州大学华南人文地理与城市发展研究中心,广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-07 修回日期:2020-03-13 出版日期:2020-07-28 发布日期:2020-07-28
  • 作者简介:保继刚(1964-),男,云南个旧人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为旅游地理与旅游规划。E-mail: eesbjg@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971183)

The process and mechanism of tourism resources evaluation: From technical evaluation to the social construction perspective

BAO Ji-gang1,2, CHEN Yuan-yi2,3, MA Ling4   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. Center for Tourism Planning and Research, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    3. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    4. School of Geographical Science, Research Center for Human Geography and Urban Development, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2020-01-07 Revised:2020-03-13 Online:2020-07-28 Published:2020-07-28

摘要: 合理评价旅游资源,发掘具有价值的潜在旅游资源,是促进旅游产业发展的重要基础。采用文献分析法,结合理论与实践,系统梳理回顾我国旅游资源评价的发展历程,分析旅游资源评价变迁所经历的三个不同阶段及其基本特征,并尝试探索转变的关键驱动力和影响机制。研究发现:我国的旅游资源评价经历了“要素评价—综合评价—社会评价”的过程,与旅游资源相对应的旅游吸引物等概念也被广泛接受和使用,在此过程中,政策、资本、社会经济、客源市场结构和信息传播媒介等是不同阶段转变的主要影响因素。未来的旅游资源评价将更注重实用性和可持续性及游客的需求和体验,并关注其经济、政治、文化、社会和生态综合价值;而新技术如5G的应用,会提高旅游资源(吸引物)的可视化和提高评价效率。

关键词: 旅游吸引物, 社会建构, 体验, 技术评价, 旅游资源

Abstract: Tourism resources are the most essential factor in tourism development. Therefore, making rational evaluation and developing valuable potential tourism resources are important foundations. In the late 1950s, geographers and forestry scholars began to be involved in regional tourism resources evaluation. Physical properties and attributes of tourism resources were considered as fundamental factors and taxonomy when evaluated. In order to make the result more scientific, quantitative methods were applied gradually. In the 1970s, addressing the need of tourism planning and destination development, scholars in China and abroad adopted qualitative methods to evaluate tourism resources. Since the 1980s, with the fast growth of tourism market, the scholars have paid more attention to the demand of tourists. Tourism scholars have introduced the perspective of tourist experience as well as a holistic perspective, including nature, humans, aesthetics and other standards, to evaluate the attractiveness of tourism resources. In the 21st century, with the turn of social theory in tourism research, the evaluation of tourism resources began to lay more stress on the importance and the role of discourse and socialization process in tourism development. Tourism scholars and practitioners have used the term of tourism attraction rather than tourism resources to place emphasis on their social and symbolic attributes. Social value and cultural meanings were transmitted to tourism attraction. On the other hand, tourists could receive the meanings through the visit and consumption in the attractions. This paper reviews the process of tourism resources research at home and abroad chronologically, to reveal how the methods, perspectives and theories of tourism resources evaluation evolved from the 1970s to nowadays. It puts forward that the evaluation of tourism resources in the future will show more concern about their practicability and sustainability, tourists' needs and experiences. Moreover, the economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological values are as fundamental as the former aspects. Finally, the new technology, such as the application of 5G, will help raise efficiency of tourism evaluation as well as its visualization.

Key words: tourism resource, technical evaluation, social construction, experience, tourism attraction