自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (6): 1261-1272.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200601

• 资源与战略 •    下一篇

国土空间用途管制的改革逻辑及其规划响应路径

张晓玲1, 吕晓2   

  1. 1. 中国国土勘测规划院,北京 100035;
    2. 东北大学文法学院,沈阳 110169
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-23 修回日期:2020-04-06 出版日期:2020-06-28 发布日期:2020-06-28
  • 作者简介:张晓玲(1963-), 女, 安徽泾县人, 博士, 研究员, 研究方向为土地政策、国土空间规划。E-mail:zxlzxl@vip.sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671176)

Reform logic of territorial space use regulation and the response path of land spatial planning

ZHANG Xiao-ling1, LYU Xiao2   

  1. 1. Chinese Land Surveying and Planning Institute, Beijing 100035, China;
    2. School of Humanities and Law, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China
  • Received:2020-02-23 Revised:2020-04-06 Online:2020-06-28 Published:2020-06-28

摘要: 在完善生态文明制度体系、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的宏观背景下,系统梳理土地用途管制制度起源、实施特点、成效与不足,重点解析土地用途管制向国土空间用途管制转型的改革逻辑及其对国土空间规划的具体要求,为完善国土空间规划体系提供借鉴。研究结果表明:(1)土地用途管制制度突出强调对耕地的保护,以新增建设用地为主要管控对象,建立了土地用途分类—规划—计划—审批—监管的完整管控链条,在保护耕地、保障粮食安全、倒逼节约集约用地和提高依法依规用地意识等方面取得了较好成效,但仍存在覆盖范围不全、管制刚性过强、生态用地管制乏力等不足。(2)国土空间用途管制以生态文明建设为逻辑起点,通过单一地类保护向空间统筹转型、地类管制向空间管控转型、指标传导为主向指标与分区相结合转型、底线约束向约束与引导并重转型,构建面向全过程、多样化的管制规则体系,完善空间传导机制,进而实现所有国土空间全要素统一管制。(3)面对国土空间用途管制的时代需求,国土空间规划改革应在系统性、整体性的规划管控指标体系、覆盖全域、上下衔接的规划分区体系、底线约束与激励引导相结合的规划实施弹性机制以及“全链条”管理机制等方面做出积极响应,进而实现不同层级国土空间规划和用途管制的统筹协调管控。

关键词: 土地用途管制, 改革逻辑, 转型, 国土空间用途管制, 国土空间规划

Abstract: Under the macro background of improving the system of ecological civilization, to promote the modernization of national governance system and governance capacity, the paper systematically combs the origin, implementation characteristics, effectiveness and shortcomings of land use regulation system, focuses on analyses of the reform logic of the transformation from land use regulation to territorial space use regulation and its specific requirements for territorial spatial planning, so as to provide reference for improving the territorial spatial planning system. The results show that: (1) The land use regulation system emphasizes the protection of cultivated land, and establishes a complete control chain of land use classification - land use planning - land use plan - approval and supervision with the newly added construction land as the main control object. The land use regulation system has achieved good results in protecting cultivated land, ensuring food security, forcing the conservation and intensive use of land and improving the awareness of using land in accordance with laws and regulations. But there are still some deficiencies, such as incomplete coverage, too rigid regulation, and weak regulation of ecological land. (2) The construction of ecological civilization is the logical starting point of territorial space use regulation. And territorial space use regulation is transforming from single land type protection to space overall planning, from land use type regulation to space management and control, from index transmission to the combination of index and zoning, from bottom line restriction to both constraint and guidance, to build a whole process and diversified regulatory rule system and improve the spatial transmission mechanism of territorial space use regulation, and then realize the unified control of all elements of territorial space. (3) In the face of the needs of the era of territorial space use regulation, the reform of territorial spatial planning should make positive responses in the aspects of systematic and integrated control index system, zoning system covering the whole region and linking up the upper and lower planning, flexible mechanism of planning implementation combining bottom line constraint and incentive guidance, and "whole chain" management mechanism, and then realize the coordinated management and control of different levels of territorial spatial planning and territorial space use regulation.

Key words: land use regulation, territorial space use regulation, reform logic, transformation, territorial spatial planning