自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (5): 1043-1054.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200503

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同收获方式对粮食损失的影响——基于全国3251个农户粮食收获的实地调研

李轩复, 黄东, 屈雪, 朱俊峰   

  1. 中国农业大学经济管理学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-11 出版日期:2020-05-28 发布日期:2020-05-28
  • 通讯作者: 朱俊峰(1969- ),男,河南项城人,博士,教授,主要从事农业经济理论与政策研究。E-mail: zhujunf501@sina.com
  • 作者简介:李轩复(1986- ),男,辽宁鞍山人,博士研究生,主要从事农产品市场与政策研究。E-mail: lxf_cau@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    粮食公益性行业科研专项(201513004-2)

Effects of different harvesting ways on grain loss:Based on the field survey of 3251 rural households in China

LI Xuan-fu, HUANG Dong, QU Xue, ZHU Jun-feng   

  1. College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2019-04-11 Online:2020-05-28 Published:2020-05-28

摘要: 使用全国3251个农户的数据,通过两步法,比较不同收获方式和社会化服务(购买农机服务)对小麦、水稻、玉米三种主要粮食作物收获环节损失的影响。结果表明:相较于全人工收获方式,全程机械化收获总体上提高了收获环节损失。分品种而言,增加了水稻损失,但降低了小麦损失;半机械化收获显著降低了玉米的收获损失。深入研究发现:购买农机服务能够显著减少小麦的收获损失,稳健性检验反映结论仍然保持一致。基于此,对于小麦要进一步推动全程机械化,对于水稻和玉米,要研发适合农户规模的小型农机和专业农机,短期内进一步推进分段机械化。

关键词: 农机服务, 损失, 粮食收获, 收获方式

Abstract: Based on the data of 3251 rural households in China, this paper compares the effects of different harvesting ways and social services (purchase of agricultural machinery services) on the loss of harvesting links of wheat, rice and maize. The results showed that compared with manual harvesting, the whole mechanized harvesting generally increased grain losses of the harvesting link, and in terms of varieties, increased rice losses, but it reduced wheat losses, and the semi-mechanized harvesting significantly reduced corn losses. In-depth study found that the purchase of agricultural machinery services can significantly reduce wheat losses in harvesting link. The results of robustness test are consistent. Based on this, this paper believes that, for wheat, we should promote the whole process of mechanization, while for rice and corn, we must develop small-scale and professional agricultural machinery suitable for farmers, so as to advance the mechanization of segments in the short term.

Key words: agricultural machinery services, grain harvest, harvesting ways, loss