自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (5): 1017-1029.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200501

• 资源与战略 •    下一篇

人类可持续发展指数的改进及国际比较

毕明丽1, 谢高地2, 姚翠友1   

  1. 1.首都经济贸易大学管理工程学院,北京 100070;
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-16 出版日期:2020-05-28 发布日期:2020-05-28
  • 通讯作者: 姚翠友(1972- ),女,河北秦皇岛人,博士,教授,主要从事生态与经济协同发展研究。E-mail: 13681167301@163.com
  • 作者简介:毕明丽(1984- ),女,山西阳泉人,博士研究生,主要从事区域可持续发展研究。E-mail: 15210498048@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503706); 北京社会科学基金项目(17GLA084); 北京自然科学基金项目(9192005)

Improvement of human sustainable development index and international comparison

BI Ming-li1, XIE Gao-di2, YAO Cui-you1   

  1. 1. College of Management Engineering, Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing 100070, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-02-16 Online:2020-05-28 Published:2020-05-28

摘要:

对人类发展指数进行绿色及公平修正是可持续发展的必然要求。基于28个国家1990—2014年的面板数据,采用生态足迹改进人类可持续发展指数,并对其分解探讨变迁原因,在此基础上进行公平校正构建综合可持续发展指数。结果表明:生物质盈余发达国家排名靠前,影响其可持续发展的主要因素是高碳排放,生物质赤字国家通过转移别国资产维持发展,不平衡导致美国的综合可持续性下降;发展中国家的收入与教育快速提升,但生态消耗及不公平度持续上升,抑制作用逐渐扩大,阿联酋排名末位,发展方式最不可持续;最不发达国家的发展主要来自健康、教育及低生态消耗的贡献。分项维度间高度相关,可持续发展需在社会、经济、生态、公平间进行更好的权衡。

关键词: 生态足迹, 对数平均迪氏分解法, 公平, 人类可持续发展指数

Abstract:

It is an inevitable requirement to modify human development index (HDI) with greenness and fairness indicators. Using ecological footprint, this paper tried to construct the human-ecological sustainable development index (HEDI) based on panel data of 28 countries from 1990 to 2014, and analyzed the contribution of sub-indicators to HEDI with the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition approach. Fairness was adjusted to construct a comprehensive human-ecological sustainable development index (cHEDI) that could fully reflect the degree of economy, society, ecology and equal development comprehensively. We analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of HEDI and cHEDI with the index in 28 countries around the world. The results show that developed countries with high biomass surplus are highly sustainable, ranking higher than other countries. One of the main factors affecting sustainable development is high carbon emissions in these countries. Besides the high carbon emissions, the shortage of biomass resources is another unsustainable reason in the developed countries with biomass deficit, which maintain development by transferring assets from other countries. Unfairness leads to a decline in comprehensive sustainability in the United States. From 1990 to 2014, income and education in developing countries increased rapidly, but ecological consumption and Gini coefficient continued to rise, and the inhibitory effect gradually expanded to increase the unsustainability of development. The sustainability index of the United States and developing countries is greatly affected by the Gini coefficient. The United Arab Emirates ranked last in the world, with the least sustainable development mode. Although its income ranked first in the world, biomass and energy consumption was very high, and the Gini coefficient far exceeded that of other countries. The development of the least developed countries mainly came from contribution of health, education and low ecological consumption. Barren natural assets limited their further development. Different countries have different shortcomings in human sustainable development. The sub-divisions were highly correlated, hence to achieve the high level of human sustainable development requires better balance between society, economy, greenness, and fairness.

Key words: human sustainable development index, ecological footprint, LMDI, fairness