自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 908-924.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200413

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于微空间单元的岩溶峡谷区土地利用结构演变

李珊珊1, 李阳兵1, 王萌萌1, 罗光杰2   

  1. 1. 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵阳 550001;
    2. 贵州师范学院贵州省流域地理国情监测重点实验室,贵阳 550018
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-13 出版日期:2020-04-28 发布日期:2020-04-28
  • 通讯作者: 李阳兵(1968- ),男,重庆潼南人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为土地利用与生态过程研究。E-mail: li-yapin@sohu.com
  • 作者简介:李珊珊(1994- ),女,贵州湄潭人,硕士,研究方向为水土保持与国土整治。E-mail: 1617498465@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0502300); 国家自然科学基金项目(41661020)

The evolution of land use structure in karst valley area based on micro-space unit

LI Shan-shan1, LI Yang-bing1, WANG Meng-meng1, LUO Guang-jie2   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Environmental Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China;
    2. Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic State Monitoring of Watershed, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018, China
  • Received:2019-01-13 Online:2020-04-28 Published:2020-04-28

摘要: 采用2004年、2010年和2015年分辨率均为2.5 m的SPOT等遥感影像和社会经济数据,创建200 m×200 m网格的微空间单元,计算单元网格内地类面积占比、土地利用程度综合指数,并结合双变量局部空间自相关和热点分析法,深入研究岩溶峡谷区土地利用结构演变特征。结果表明:(1)2004年林地、耕地、聚落和裸岩裸土网格内平均占比分别为6.46%、11.76%、0.87%、28.86%,2010年分别为10.36%、8.77%、1.27%、27.13%,2015年分别为9.13%、10.30%、26.18%、1.29%;(2)各种土地利用类型在空间分布上具有明显的空间差异特征;(3)耕地热点区呈减少趋势,且后期主要集中在研究区西南部,林地热点区总体增加,裸岩裸土极热点区逐渐向研究区东北部收缩。而近几年土地利用程度热点区逐渐向研究区西北部延伸,花椒林则主要分布于北部干热河谷地带。简而言之,花江峡谷区林地面积增加,且逐渐向集中连片演变,而裸岩地逐渐向峡谷区北部以及东北部收缩,研究区农户生计多样化发展及交通条件的改善,使得土地压力减小,生态环境逐渐转好。本文以典型岩溶地貌单元为代表,揭示中国西南岩溶山地的土地利用演变规律及内部差异性,对研究更大尺度土地利用演变特征与规律具有重要意义。

关键词: 土地利用, 空间自相关, 格网, 热点分析, 花江峡谷区

Abstract: This paper examines the evolution characteristics of the land use structure in karst valley areas on the basis of remote sensing images SPOT with a resolution of 2.5 m and their corresponding socio-economic data in the years of 2004, 2010 and 2015. This study is also conducted by creating a microspatial unit of 200 m×200 m grid to calculate the composite index of the area proportion and land use degree in the inner part of the cell grid, in combination of bivariate local space autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. It is concluded that: (1) The average proportions of forest land, cultivated land, settlements and bare rock in grids in 2004 were 6.46%, 11.76%, 0.87%, and 28.86%, respectively; in 2010, they were 10.36%, 8.77%, 1.27%, and 27.13%, respectively; in 2015, they were 9.13%, 10.30%, 26.18%, and 1.29%, respectively. (2) Various land use types have obvious spatial differences in terms of spatial distribution. (3) Cultivated land hot spot showed a decreasing trend, and later focused on the southwestern part of the study area, the total hot spot area of the forest increased, and the hot spot of bare rock gradually shrank to the northeast of the study area. In recent years, the hot spot area of land use gradually extended to the northwest of the study area, and the Zanthoxylum Bungeanum forest was mainly distributed in the northern dry-hot valley. In short, the area of forest land in the Huajiang valley area increased, and it gradually evolved into concentrated contiguous areas, while the bare rocky land gradually shrank to the north and northeast of the valley area. The diversified development of farmers' livelihoods and the improvement of traffic conditions in the study area reduced land pressure and gradually improved the ecological environment. This paper, taking typical karst geomorphic units as case study areas, reveals the law of land use evolution and its internal differences in karst mountainous areas of Southwest China, which is of great significance to the research on the characteristics and law of land use evolution on a larger scale.

Key words: Huajiang valley area, land use, spatial autocorrelation, hot spot analysis, grid